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Word - Virginia Department of Education - Commonwealth of Virginia

    Science Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework

Introduction

    Commonwealth of Virginia

    Board of Education

    Richmond, Virginia

    ? 2003

Copyright ? 2003

    by the

    Virginia Department of Education

    P.O. Box 2120

    Richmond, Virginia 23218-2120

    http://www.pen.k12.va.us

    All rights reserved. Reproduction of materials contained herein for instructional purposes in Virginia classrooms is permitted.

Superintendent of Public Instruction

    Jo Lynne DeMary

    Assistant Superintendent for Instruction

    Patricia I. Wright

    Office of Elementary Instructional Services

    Linda M. Poorbaugh, Director

    Office of Middle Instructional Services

    James C. Firebaugh, Director

    Paula J. Klonowski, Science Specialist

    Office of Secondary Instructional Services

    Maureen B. Hijar, Director

    Eric M. Rhoades, Science Specialist

NOTICE TO THE READER

    In accordance with the requirements of the Civil Rights Act and other federal and state laws and regulations, this document has been reviewed to ensure that it does not reflect stereotypes based on sex, race, or national origin. The Virginia Department of Education does not unlawfully discriminate on the basis of sex, race, age, color, religion, handicapping conditions, or national origin in employment or in its educational programs and activities.

    The content contained in this document is supported in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Education. However, the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and no official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education should be inferred. The 2003 Science Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework can be found in PDF and Microsoft Word file formats on the Virginia Department of Education’s

    Web site at http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Instruction/sol.html.

    Science

    Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework

The Science Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework amplifies the Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools

    and defines the content knowledge, skills, and understandings that are measured by the Standards of Learning tests. The Science

    Curriculum Framework provides additional guidance to school divisions and their teachers as they develop an instructional program appropriate for their students. It assists teachers as they plan their lessons by identifying essential understandings and defining the

    essential content knowledge, skills, and processes students need to master. This supplemental framework delineates in greater specificity the minimum content that all teachers should teach and all students should learn.

    School divisions should use the Science Curriculum Framework as a resource for developing sound curricular and instructional programs. This framework should not limit the scope of instructional programs. Additional knowledge and skills that can enrich instruction and enhance students’ understanding of the content identified in the Standards of Learning should be included as part of

    quality learning experiences.

    The Board of Education recognizes that school divisions will adopt a K12 instructional sequence that best serves their students. The design of the Standards of Learning assessment program, however, requires that all Virginia school divisions prepare students to

    demonstrate achievement of the standards for elementary and middle school by the time they complete the grade levels tested. The

    high school end-of-course Standards of Learning tests, for which students may earn verified units of credit, are administered in a

    locally determined sequence.

    i

    Science Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework

Kindergarten

    Commonwealth of Virginia

    Board of Education

    Richmond, Virginia

    ? 2003

Kindergarten

    Science Strand

    Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

    This strand represents a set of systematic inquiry skills that defines what a student should be

    able to do when conducting activities and investigations. The various skill categories are

    described in the ―Investigate and Understand‖ section of the Introduction to the Science

    Standards of Learning, and the skills in science standard K.1 represent more specifically

    what a student should achieve during the course of instruction in kindergarten. Across the

    grade levels, the skills in the first standards form a nearly continuous sequence of

    investigative skills. (Please note Appendix, ―Science Skills, Scope, & Sequence.‖) It is

    important that the classroom teacher understands how the skills in standards K.1 and K.2 are

    a key part of this sequence (i.e., 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.1). It is also important to note

    that 25 percent of items on the third and fifth grade SOL assessments measure the skills

    defined in the ― Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic‖ strand.

     Kindergarten Page 1

    Strand: Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

    Standard K.1

    The student will conduct investigations in which

    a) basic properties of objects are identified by direct observation;

    b) observations are made from multiple positions to achieve different perspectives;

    c) objects are described both pictorially and verbally;

    d) a set of objects is sequenced according to size;

    e) a set of objects is separated into two groups based on a single physical attribute;

    f) nonstandard units are used to measure common objects;

    g) a question is developed from one or more observations;

    h) picture graphs are constructed using 10 or fewer units;

    i) an unseen member in a sequence of objects is predicted; and

    j) unusual or unexpected results in an activity are recognized.

Understanding the Standard

    The skills defined in K.1 are intended to develop the investigative and inquiry components of all of the other kindergarten standards (i.e., K.2K.10). Standard K.1 describes the range of inquiry skills and the level of proficiency in using those skills that students should achieve in the context of science concepts developed in kindergarten. Standard K.1 does not require a discrete unit on scientific investigation because the inquiry skills that make up the standard should be incorporated in all the other kindergarten science standards. It is also intended that by participating in activities and experiences that develop these skills, students will achieve

    a preliminary understanding of scientific inquiry and the nature of science and more fully grasp the content-

    related concepts.

     Kindergarten Page 2

Standard K.1

    Overview Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes

    The concepts developed in this standard include the following: In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students

    should be able to Observation is an important way to learn about the world.

    Through observation one can learn to compare, contrast, observe objects and describe their basic properties. These and note similarities and differences. include color, shape (circle, triangle, square, and

    rectangle), size (big, little, large, small), texture (rough, An object can appear very different depending on how it is smooth, hard, soft), and weight (heavy, light). oriented. To describe an object fully and accurately, it

    should be observed from several different positions. observe an object or objects from multiple positions to

    achieve different perspectives. In order to accomplish this, Putting objects in a sequence allows one to understand how the student should look at the object from top, bottom, things are related. A sequence can show how things can front, and back. change a little at a time.

     arrange a set of objects in sequence according to size. Picture graphs are useful ways to display and report

    information. separate a set of objects into two groups based on a single

    physical attribute, including size, color, texture, and A nonstandard unit of measure, such as the length of a paper weight. clip, can be used to describe and communicate the

    dimensions of an object. For the nonstandard unit to be most construct picture graphs using 10 or fewer units.

    useful, it should be consistent and easily applied. measure common objects with nonstandard units.

    Examples of nonstandard units include hands, pennies, Observations about familiar objects or events often lead to

    the development of important questions that can spark and paper clips.

    further investigation. predict an unseen member in a sequence of objects to

    complete a pattern. Observations can be communicated through pictures and

    discussions. develop a question from one or more observations.

     It is important to observe the results of an investigation describe objects both pictorially and verbally. carefully. Results that are unexpected or unusual may be of

    interest for further study. identify unusual or unexpected results in an activity.

     Kindergarten Page 3

    Strand: Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

    Standard K.2

    Students will investigate and understand that humans have senses that allow one to seek, find, take in, and react or respond to information in order to learn about one’s surroundings. Key concepts include

    a) five senses and corresponding sensing organ (taste tongue, touch skin, smell nose, hearing ears, and sight

    eyes); and

    b) sensory descriptors (sweet, sour, bitter, salty, rough/smooth, hard/soft, cold, warm, hot, loud/soft, high/low,

    bright/dull).

    Understanding the Standard

    The second standard at the kindergarten level is very closely related to the inquiry skill of observation developed in K.1. This standard focuses on the senses sight, smell, hearing, touch, and taste. Standard K.2

    focuses on student understanding that each sensing organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin) is associated with a sense. It is important to emphasize that one should never taste, touch, or sniff something when the

    identity is unknown or has any potential danger.

     Kindergarten Page 4

Standard K.2

    Overview Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes

    The concepts developed in this standard include the following: In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students

    should be able to A particular sensing organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and

    skin) is associated with each of the five senses. identify and describe the five senses: taste, touch, smell,

    hearing, and sight. Using the senses, we can make careful observations about

    the world and communicate those observations through match each sensing organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and

    descriptors. skin) with its associated sense.

     match sensory descriptors with the senses (taste: sweet,

    sour, bitter, salty; touch: smooth, hard, soft, cold, warm,

    hot; hearing: loud, soft, high, low; sight: bright, dull,

    color, black, and white.)

     Kindergarten Page 5

Kindergarten

    Science Strand

    Force, Motion, and Energy

    This strand focuses on student understanding of what force, motion, and energy are and how

    the concepts are connected. The major topics developed in this strand include magnetism,

    types of motion, simple and compound machines, and energy forms and transformations,

    especially electricity, sound, and light. This strand includes science standards K.3, 1.2, 2.2,

    3.2, 4.2, 4.3, 5.2, 5.3, 6.2, and 6.3.

     Kindergarten Page 6

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