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CHAPTER 12

By Jane Lewis,2014-07-08 09:43
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B. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE RETURN ON THE MARKET AND THE RISK-FREE RATE. C. BETA TIMES THE MARKET RISK PREMIUM. D. BETA TIMES THE RISK-FREE RATE. E. MARKET RATE OF RETURN.

    CHAPTER 12

    Risk, Cost of Capital, and Capital Budgeting

Multiple Choice Questions:

I. DEFINITIONS

WACC

    e 1. The weighted average of the firm’s costs of equity, preferred stock, and after tax debt is

     the:

     a. reward to risk ratio for the firm.

     b. expected capital gains yield for the stock.

     c. expected capital gains yield for the firm.

     d. portfolio beta for the firm.

     e. weighted average cost of capital (WACC).

     Difficulty level: Easy

CAPM

    b 2. If the CAPM is used to estimate the cost of equity capital, the expected excess market return is

    equal to the:

     a. return on the stock minus the risk-free rate.

     b. difference between the return on the market and the risk-free rate.

     c. beta times the market risk premium.

     d. beta times the risk-free rate.

     e. market rate of return.

     Difficulty level: Easy

CHARACTERISTIC LINE

    c 3. The best fit line of a pairwise plot of the returns of the security against the market index

    returns is called the:

     a. Security Market Line.

     b. Capital Market Line.

     c. characteristic line.

     d. risk line.

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

USE OF DEBT

    c 4. The use of debt is called:

     a. operating leverage.

     b. production leverage.

     c. financial leverage.

     d. total asset turnover risk.

     e. business risk.

     Difficulty level: Medium

    12 -1

WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL

    b 5. The weighted average cost of capital for a firm is the:

     a. discount rate which the firm should apply to all of the projects it undertakes.

     b. overall rate which the firm must earn on its existing assets to maintain the value

     of its stock.

     c. rate the firm should expect to pay on its next bond issue.

     d. maximum rate which the firm should require on any projects it undertakes.

     e. rate of return that the firm’s preferred stockholders should expect to earn over the long

     term.

     Difficulty level: Medium

II. CONCEPTS

WACC

    a 6. The WACC is used to _______ the expected cash flows when the firm has ____________ .

     a. discount; debt and equity in the capital structure

     b. discount; short term financing on the balance sheet

     c. increase; debt and equity in the capital structure

     d. decrease; short term financing on the balance sheet

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

CAPM

    d 7. Using the CAPM to calculate the cost of capital for a risky project assumes that:

     a. using the firm's beta is the same measure of risk as the project.

     b. the firm is all-equity financed.

     c. the financial risk is equal to business risk.

     d. Both A and B.

     e. Both A and C.

     Difficulty level: Medium

WACC

    c 8. The use of WACC to select investments is acceptable when the:

     a. correlation of all new projects are equal.

     b. NPV is positive when discounted by the WACC.

     c. risk of the projects are equal to the risk of the firm.

     d. firm is well diversified and the unsystematic risk is negligible.

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Easy

    12 -2

DISCOUNT RATE

    b 9. If the risk of an investment project is different than the firm's risk then:

     a. you must adjust the discount rate for the project based on the firm's risk.

     b. you must adjust the discount rate for the project based on the project risk.

     c. you must exercise risk aversion and use the market rate.

     d. an average rate across prior projects is acceptable because estimates contain errors.

     e. one must have the actual data to determine any differences in the calculations.

     Difficulty level: Easy

SECURITY MARKET LINE

    a 10. If the project beta and IRR coordinates plot above the SML the project should be:

     a. accepted.

     b. rejected.

     c. It is impossible to tell.

     d. It will depend on the NPV.

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

BETA

    d 11. The beta of a security provides an:

     a. estimate of the market risk premium.

     b. estimate of the slope of the Capital Market Line.

     c. estimate of the slope of the Security Market Line.

     d. estimate of the systematic risk of the security.

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Easy

BETA ESTIMATION

    a 12. Regression analysis can be used to estimate:

     a. beta.

     b. the risk-free rate.

     c. standard deviation.

     d. variance.

     e. expected return.

     Difficulty level: Easy

BETA

    d 13. Beta measures depend highly on the:

     a. direction of the market variance.

     b. overall cycle of the market.

     c. variance of the market and asset, but not their co-movement.

     d. covariance of the security with the market and how they are correlated.

     e. All of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

    12 -3

BETA

    b 14. The formula for calculating beta is given by the dividing the ___________ of the stock with

    the market portfolio by the ___________ of the market portfolio.

     a. variance; covariance

     b. covariance; variance

     c. standard deviation; variance

     d. expected return; variance

     e. expected return; covariance

     Difficulty level: Medium

BETA AND CHARACTERISTIC LINE

    b 15. The slope of the characteristic line is the estimated:

     a. intercept.

     b. beta.

     c. unsystematic risk.

     d. market variance.

     e. market risk premium.

     Difficulty level: Medium

CYCLICAL BUSINESS AND BETA

    b 16. Companies that have highly cyclical sales will have a:

     a. low beta if sales are highly dependent on the market cycle.

     b. high beta if sales are highly dependent on the market cycle.

     c. high beta if sales are independent on the market cycle.

     d. All of the above.

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

INDUSTRY OR FIRM BETA

    b 17. Betas may vary substantially across an industry. The decision to use the industry or firm beta:

    to estimate the cost of capital depends on

     a. how small the estimation errors are of all betas across industries.

     b. how similar the firm's operations are to the operations of all other firms in the industry.

     c. whether the company is a leader or follower.

     d. the size of the company's public float.

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

BETA

    b 18. Beta is useful in the calculation of the:

     a. company's variance.

     b. company's discount rate.

     c. company's standard deviation.

     d. unsystematic risk.

     e. company's market rate.

     Difficulty level: Medium

    12 -4

PROJECT AND FIRM BETA

    c 19. For a multi-product firm, if a project's beta is different from that of the overall firm, then the:

     a. CAPM can no longer be used.

     b. project should be discounted using the overall firm's beta.

     c. project should be discounted at a rate commensurate with its own beta.

     d. project should be discounted at the market rate.

     e. project should be discounted at the T-bill rate.

     Difficulty level: Medium

FIRM’S BETA

    e 20. The problem of using the overall firm's beta in discounting projects of different risk is the:

     a. firm would accept too many high-risk projects.

     b. firm would reject too many low risk projects.

     c. firm would reject too many high-risk projects.

     d. firm would accept too many low risk projects.

     e. Both A and B.

     Difficulty level: Medium

ASSET BETA

    e 21. The asset beta of a levered firm is generally:

     a. equal to the equity beta.

     b. different from the equity beta.

     c. different from the debt beta.

     d. the simple average of the equity beta and debt beta.

     e. Both B and C.

     Difficulty level: Medium

LEVERED VS. UNLEVERED BETA

    d 22. Comparing two otherwise equal firms, the beta of the common stock of a levered firm is

    ____________ than the beta of the common stock of an unlevered firm.

     a. equal to

     b. significantly less

     c. slightly less

     d. greater

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

DETERMINANTS OF BETA

    d 23. The beta of a firm is determined by which of the following firm characteristics?

     a. Cycles in revenues

     b. Operating leverage

     c. Financial leverage

     d. All of the above.

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

    12 -5

FACTORS AFFECTING BETA

    b 24. The beta of a firm is more likely to be high under what two conditions?

     a. High cyclical business activity and low operating leverage

     b. High cyclical business activity and high operating leverage

     c. Low cyclical business activity and low financial leverage

     d. Low cyclical business activity and low operating leverage

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

CYCLICAL EARNINGS

    a 25. A firm with cyclical earnings is characterized by:

     a. revenue patterns that vary with the business cycle.

     b. high levels of debt in its capital structure.

     c. high fixed costs.

     d. high price per unit.

     e. low contribution margins.

     Difficulty level: Medium

OPERATING LEVERAGE

    c 26. A firm with high operating leverage has:

     a. low fixed costs in its production process.

     b. high variable costs in its production process.

     c. high fixed costs in its production process.

     d. high price per unit.

     e. low price per unit.

     Difficulty level: Medium

OPERATING LEVERAGE

    a 27. If a firm has low fixed costs relative to all other firms in the same industry, a large change in

    sales volume (either up or down) would have:

     a. a smaller change in EBIT for the firm versus the other firms.

     b. no effect in any way on the firms as volume does not effect fixed costs.

     c. a decreasing effect on the cyclical nature of the business.

     d. a larger change in EBIT for the firm versus the other firms.

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

    12 -6

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL LEVERAGE

    c 28. A firm with high operating leverage is characterized by __________ while one with high

    financial leverage is characterized by __________.

     a. low fixed cost of production; low fixed financial costs

     b. high variable cost of production; high variable financial costs

     c. high fixed costs of production; high fixed financial costs

     d. low costs of production; high fixed financial costs

     e. high fixed costs of production; low variable financial costs

     Difficulty level: Medium

DETERMINANTS OF BETA

    b 29. Firms whose revenues are strongly cyclical and whose operating leverage is high are likely to

    have:

     a. low betas.

     b. high betas.

     c. zero betas.

     d. negative betas.

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

DETERMINANTS OF BETA

    e 30. An industry is likely to have a low beta if the:

     a. stream of revenues is stable and less volatile than the market.

     b. economy is in a recession.

     c. market for its goods is unaffected by the market cycle.

     d. Both A and B.

     e. Both A and C.

     Difficulty level: Medium

ASSET AND EQUITY BETAS

    a 31. For the levered firm the equity beta is __________ the asset beta.

     a. greater than

     b. less than

     c. equal to

     d. sometimes greater than and sometimes less than

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

LIQUIDITY

    e 32. All else equal, a more liquid stock will have a lower ________.

    a. beta

    b. market premium

    c. cost of capital

    d. Both A and B.

    e. Both A and C.

    Difficulty Level: Challenge

    12 -7

LIQUIDITY

    d 33. Two stock market based costs of liquidity that affects the cost of capital are the:

     a. bid-ask spread and the specialist spread.

     b. market impact cost and the brokerage costs.

     c. investor opportunity cost and the brokerage costs.

     d. bid-ask spread and the market impact costs.

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty Level: Medium

ADVERSE SELECTION

    b 34. When a specialist is caught in the middle of a trade between an informed and an uniformed

     traders which effectively eliminates the spread or causes a loss is subject to:

    a. market impact costs.

    b. adverse selection.

    c. broker's quotation bias.

    d. increasing the number of uninformed traders.

    e. None of the above.

Difficulty Level: Challenge

III. PROBLEMS

    WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL c 35. Jack’s Construction Co. has 80,000 bonds outstanding that are selling at par value.

     Bonds with similar characteristics are yielding 8.5%. The company also has

     4 million shares of common stock outstanding. The stock has a beta of 1.1 and sells for

     $40 a share. The U.S. Treasury bill is yielding 4% and the market risk premium

     is 8%. Jack’s tax rate is 35%. What is Jack’s weighted average cost of capital?

     a. 7.10 %

     b. 7.39 %

     c. 10.38 %

     d. 10.65 %

     e. 11.37 %

     Difficulty level: Medium

    12 -8

WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL

    d 36. Peter’s Audio Shop has a cost of debt of 7%, a cost of equity of 11%, and a cost of preferred

    stock of 8%. The firm has 104,000 shares of common stock outstanding at a market price of

    $20 a share. There are 40,000 shares of preferred stock outstanding at a market price of $34 a

    share. The bond issue has a total face value of $500,000 and sells at 102% of face value. The

    tax rate is 34%. What is the weighted average cost of capital for Peter’s Audio Shop?

     a. 6.14%

     b. 6.54%

     c. 8.60%

     d. 9.14%

     e. 9.45%

     Difficulty level: Medium

WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL

    c 37. Phil’s Carvings, Inc. wants to have a weighted average cost of capital of 9%. The firm has an

    after-tax cost of debt of 5 %and a cost of equity of 11%. What debt-equity ratio is needed for

    the firm to achieve its targeted weighted average cost of capital?

     a. .33

     b. .40

     c. .50

     d. .60

     e. .67

     Difficulty level: Medium

WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL

    d 38. Jake’s Sound Systems has 210,000 shares of common stock outstanding at a market price of

    $36 a share. Last month, Jake’s paid an annual dividend in the amount of $1.593 per share. The

    dividend growth rate is 4%. Jake’s also has 6,000 bonds outstanding with a face value of

    $1,000 per bond. The bonds carry a 7 % coupon, pay interest annually, and mature in 4.89 years.

    The bonds are selling at 99% of face value. The company’s tax rate is 34%. What is Jake’s

    weighted average cost of capital?

     a. 5.3%

     b. 5.8%

     c. 6.3%

     d. 6.9%

     e. 7.2%

     Difficulty level: Medium

CAPM

    d 39. The Consolidated Transfer Co. is an all-equity financed firm. The beta is .75, the market risk

    premium is 8% and the risk-free rate is 4%. What is the expected return of Consolidated?

     a. 7%

     b. 8%

     c. 9%

     d. 10%

     e. 13%

     Difficulty level: Easy

    12 -9

CAPM

    a 40. Assuming the CAPM or one-factor model holds, what is the cost of equity for a firm if the

    firm's equity has a beta of 1.2, the risk-free rate of return is 2%, the expected return on the

    market is 9%, and the return to the company's debt is 7%?

     a. 10.4%

     b. 10.8%

     c. 12.8%

     d. 14.4%

     e. None of the above.

     Difficulty level: Medium

EQUITY BETA

    b 41. The cost of equity for Ryan Corporation is 8.4%. If the expected return on the market is 10%

    and the risk-free rate is 5%, then the equity beta is ___.

     a. 0.48

     b. 0.68

     c. 1.25

     d. 1.68

     e. Impossible to calculate with information given.

     Difficulty level: Medium

CAPM

    e 42. Suppose that the Simmons Corporation's common stock has a beta of 1.6. If the risk-free rate

    is 5% and the market risk premium is 4%, the expected return on Simmons' common stock is:

     a. 4.0%.

     b. 5.0%.

     c. 5.6%.

     d. 10.6%.

     e. 11.4%.

     Difficulty level: Easy

CALCULATING BETA

    b 43. Suppose the Barges Corporation's common stock has an expected return of 12%. Assume that

    the risk-free rate is 5%, and the market risk premium is 6%. If no unsystematic influence

    affected Barges' return, the beta for Barges is ______ .

     a. 1.00

     b. 1.17

     c. 1.20

     d. 2.50

     e. It is impossible to calculate with the information given.

     Difficulty level: Medium

    12- 10

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