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1.0. Project Background - Department of Natural Resources and Parks

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1.0. Project Background - Department of Natural Resources and Parks

    Sammamish River Water

    and Sediment Quality

    Assessment

    Sampling and Analysis Plan

    December 2004

    Alternate Formats Available

    206-296-7380 TTY Relay: 711

Sammamish River Water and Sediment

    Quality Assessment

    Sampling and Analysis

    Project: Sammamish River Water and Sediment Quality Evaluation Project No.: 423528, Phase 001, Subproject 050

    SAP Prepared By: Jenée Colton and Deb Lester

    King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks

    Water and Land Resources Division

    Deb Lester, Project Manager

    Sammamish River Water and Sediment Quality Study Tom Fox, Program Manager

    Water Reuse Program

    Jean Power, Environmental Laboratory Scientist King County Environmental Laboratory

    Katherine Bourbonais, Laboratory Project Manager King County Environmental Laboratory

    Colin Elliott, QA Officer

    King County Environmental Laboratory

Department of Natural Resources and ParksWater and Land Resources Division201 S Jackson St. Ste 600Seattle, WA 98104(206) 296-6519

    Sammamish River Water and Sediment Quality Assessment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0. PROJECT BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................ 1 1.1. Study Area Description ................................................................................................................ 1 1.2. Summary of Previous Studies ...................................................................................................... 3 2.0. STUDY DESIGN ............................................................................................................................ 4 2.1. Station Locations ......................................................................................................................... 4 2.2. Chemical and Biological Testing ................................................................................................. 6 2.2.1. Chemical Testing .................................................................................................................. 6 2.2.2. Field Parameters ................................................................................................................... 7 2.2.3. Benthic Community Identification and Enumeration ............................................................. 7 2.2.4. Data Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 7 2.3. Data Quality Objectives ............................................................................................................... 7 2.3.1. Precision, Accuracy, and Bias ............................................................................................... 7 2.3.2. Representativeness................................................................................................................ 8 2.3.3. Completeness ....................................................................................................................... 8 2.3.4. Comparability ....................................................................................................................... 8 3.0. PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND SCHEDULE ............................................................................. 9 4.0. SAMPLE COLLECTION METHODS AND TECHNIQUES .......................................................... 9 4.1. Station Positioning .................................................................................................................... 10 4.2. Sample Collection Methodologies ............................................................................................. 10 4.2.1. Sediment and Benthic Community Samples ........................................................................ 10 4.2.2. Surface Water ..................................................................................................................... 12 4.3. Sample Acceptability Criteria .................................................................................................... 12 4.3.1. Petite Ponar Sampler........................................................................................................... 12 4.3.2. Ekman Grab Sampler .......................................................................................................... 12 4.3.3. PVC Core Tubes ................................................................................................................. 12 4.4. Sample Processing ..................................................................................................................... 13 4.4.1. Chemistry Testing .............................................................................................................. 13 4.4.2. Sample Compositing Procedures ......................................................................................... 13 4.4.3. Benthic Sample Analysis .................................................................................................... 13 4.5. Sampler Decontamination .......................................................................................................... 14 4.6. Sample Documentation .............................................................................................................. 14 4.6.1. Sample Numbers and Labels ............................................................................................... 14 4.6.2. Field Notes ......................................................................................................................... 14 4.6.3. Field Analytical Results ...................................................................................................... 15 4.6.4. Station Coordinates............................................................................................................. 15 5.0. SAMPLE HANDLING PROCEDURES ........................................................................................ 17 5.1. Sample Containers and Labels ................................................................................................... 17

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    Sammamish River Water and Sediment Quality Assessment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    5.2. Sample Preservation and Storage Requirements ......................................................................... 18 5.3. Chain-of-Custody Procedures .................................................................................................... 19 6.0. LABORATORY ANALYTICAL METHODS ............................................................................... 19 6.1. Testing Requirements ................................................................................................................ 19

    6.1.1. Sediment ............................................................................................................................ 19

    6.1.2. Surface Water ..................................................................................................................... 22

    6.1.2.2. Microbiology ................................................................................................................... 23

    6.1.2.3. Trace Organics ................................................................................................................ 23

    6.1.2.4. Trace Metals .................................................................................................................... 27

    6.1.2.5. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals ...................................................................................... 27 6.2. Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Practices .............................................................. 28

    6.2.1. Sediment Chemistry ........................................................................................................... 28

    6.2.2. Benthic Taxonomy Sorting and Identification ..................................................................... 30

    6.2.3. Water Chemistry ................................................................................................................. 31

    6.2.4. Data Qualifiers ................................................................................................................... 33 7.0. DATA ANALYSIS, RECORD KEEPING, AND REPORTING .................................................... 35 7.1. Interpretation of Chemistry Data ................................................................................................ 36 7.2. Interpretation of Biological Data ................................................................................................ 36 7.3. Record Keeping ......................................................................................................................... 36 7.4. Reporting .................................................................................................................................. 36 8.0. HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS................................................................................ 37 8.1. General Vessel Safety ................................................................................................................ 37 8.2. Grab Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 38

    8.2.1. Boat Sampling .................................................................................................................... 38 8.3. Chemical Hazards...................................................................................................................... 38 9.0. REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 39

    FIGURES

    Figure 1. Study Area............................................................................................................................... 2

    Figure 2. Sammamish River Sampling Stations ....................................................................................... 5 Figure 3. Field Sheet (Example) ............................................................................................................16

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    Sammamish River Water and Sediment Quality Assessment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    TABLES

    Table 1. Historical Chemistry and Biological Data for Sammamish River ............................................... 4 Table 2. Project Team Members and Responsibilities ............................................................................. 9

    Table 3. Sampling Station Coordinates ..................................................................................................10

    Table 4. Sediment Sample Containers, Preservation, and Holding Times ...............................................17 Table 5. Water Sample Containers, Preservation, and Holding Times.....................................................18 Table 6. Conventional Analytical Methods and Detection Limits ...........................................................20 Table 7. Metals Analytical Methods and Detection Limits .....................................................................21

    Table 8. Organic Analytical Methods and Detection Limits ...................................................................22

    Table 9. Conventional Parameters Methods and Detection Limits ..........................................................23 Table 10. Microbiology Parameters Methods and Detection Limits ........................................................23 Table 11. Trace Organic Parameters Methods and Detection Limits .......................................................24 Table 12. Trace Metal Parameters Methods and Detection Limits ..........................................................27 Table 13. Miscellaneous Endocrine Disrupting Compounds and Detection Limits (μg/l) ........................28

    Table 14. Chemistry QC Samples for Sediment Analysis .......................................................................29

    Table 15. Recommended Chemistry QC Limits for Sediment Samples...................................................30 Table 16. Conventional QC Requirements .............................................................................................31

    Table 17. Microbiology QC Requirements .............................................................................................32

    Table 18. Trace Organics QC Requirements ..........................................................................................32

    Table 19. Trace Metals QC Requirements ..............................................................................................33

    Table 20. Trace Organic Laboratory QC Samples and Control Limits ....................................................33 Table 21. Laboratory Data Qualifiers .....................................................................................................34

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    Sammamish River Water and Sediment Quality Assessment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    1.0. PROJECT BACKGROUND

    King County plans to conduct a sediment and water quality assessment of the Sammamish River. Sediment, surface water, and benthic community samples will be collected for analyses during the summer/early fall of 2001 and 2003. Additionally, surface water samples will be collected in 2002 to broadly characterize potential changes between years. King County may continue the sampling program into 2004 and beyond depending on the results of a comprehensive review of Sammamish River monitoring data and/or specific data needs. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) describes the planned scope of work for 2001-2003, including field sampling procedures, and laboratory analytical requirements for the project. A SAP addendum will be prepared as necessary to document the scope of work for 2004 and beyond.

    Currently, little or no concentration data exist for metals, pesticides, and/or organic compounds that may be present in the water column or sediments of the Sammamish River. It is unknown if water or sediment quality conditions limit reproduction and/or survival of aquatic life, especially endangered salmon, which reside in or use the river as a migration corridor to reach rearing or spawning areas (e.g., Bear Creek, Issaquah Creek). A variety of land uses currently exist in the river corridor that likely contribute to the overall contaminant loading to the river (e.g., agriculture, suburban, light industrial). Recently, research conducted by NMFS (Scholz et al. 2000) suggests short-term exposure to low levels (i.e., 0.1 ppb) of diazinon (one of many pesticides used in the basin) can interfere with the homing behavior of endangered Chinook. Diazinon concentrations within the Lake Washington watershed tributaries have been found to exceed 0.1 ppb (USGS 1999, King County 2002a). Based on the current land use activities in the Sammamish basin (e.g., suburban residential, agriculture, golf courses), it is likely diazinon along with other pesticides and contaminants are present in the river. It is unknown, however, if aquatic life, especially endangered salmon, are exposed to harmful levels of these compounds that result from non-point source runoff in the basin.

    Before restoration, salmon recovery, and/or other efforts (e.g., water reuse implementation) within the Sammamish Corridor can be designed and implemented, it is critical to develop a thorough scientific understanding of the current chemical and biological conditions of the river. This project will provide some of the information necessary for decision-makers to better identify problem areas and assist with management decisions regarding water reuse, the Endangered Species Act issues, and watershed management. These data will also be used in a number of modeling applications as part of the Sammamish and Washington Assessment and Modeling Project (SWAMP). The models will be able to simulate potential conditions associated with various reuse options and compare predicted sediment and water quality under these options to baseline conditions.

    Finally, the data collected in this sampling program will be used to develop a long-term monitoring plan for Sammamish River. Various King County sampling programs have generated chemical and biological data for Sammamish River over multiple years. All of the data, including that generated from the activities described in this SAP, will be evaluated to assess the specific needs for long-term monitoring in the Sammamish River.

    1.1. STUDY AREA DESCRIPTION

    From Lake Sammamish, the Sammamish River flows in a north and then westerly direction for approximately 15 miles (~22 km) to the confluence at the north end of Lake Washington (Figure 1). Several tributaries enter the Sammamish River including Bear, Little Bear, North, and Swamp Creeks and several smaller named and unnamed creeks.

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    Sammamish River Water and Sediment Quality Assessment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    King County LineKing County Line

    Sammamish ivRre Puget

     Sound

     Lake

     Washington

    Lake

    Sammamish

    Figure 1. Study Area

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    Sammamish River Water and Sediment Quality Assessment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    The Sammamish River Corridor can be divided into two reaches, based on topography and, to a lesser extent, land use. The upper river corridor extends from the head at river mile (RM) 15.3 north to RM 4.9 through a floodplain valley that is more than one-mile wide in places. Two salmon-bearing tributaries are located in the upper reach: Bear Creek, at RM 13.7, and Little Bear Creek at RM 5.5. Land use includes open space and recreational areas at Marymoor Park, urban commercial and residential development in the City of Redmond, Willows Run Golf Course, Sammamish Valley Agricultural Production District (which includes large turf farms and smaller nurseries and crop farms) and urban development again in the City of Woodinville. The lower corridor extends from RM 4.9 to RM 0.0 at Lake Washington. The lower corridor is narrow, topographically constrained, and includes the downtown core areas of the cities of Bothell and Kenmore. However, there are some open space areas, including the Wayne and Inglemoor Country Club golf courses, Bothell parkland along the Sammamish River Trail, and King County-owned parcels at the mouth of Swamp Creek and the mouth of the river. The lower reach includes two large salmon-bearing tributaries, North Creek, at RM 4.4 and Swamp Creek, at RM 0.6. A major King County

    sewer line runs underneath portions of the Sammamish River Trail, which is adjacent to most of the river. Prior to Euro-American settlement, the Sammamish River had a complex, highly sinuous, meandering channel and abundant swampy areas filled with peat and diatomaceous earth. Prior to lowering Lake Washington, there was approximately an 8.5-foot elevation difference between Lakes Sammamish and Washington (King County 2002a). However, after the lowering of Lake Washington, the river lost much of this elevation in its upper reach; backwater effects associated with Lake Washington appear to have extended beyond the confluence with Little Bear Creek. This area included extensive forested wetlands, especially at the mouth of North Creek (King County 2002a). Historically, the Sammamish River was approximately twice as long as it is today and frequently overflowed its banks. Its corridor was densely forested with cedar, hemlock and Douglas fir, with willows and deciduous vegetation dominating close to the river banks (Stickney and McDonald, 1977).

    The river corridor was heavily logged from the 1870s through the early twentieth century, by which time it had been essentially cleared of its old growth areas. Small-scale farming was attempted in the floodplain, but became more feasible on a much larger scale after the Chittenden Locks opened in 1916, which as previously mentioned, lowered Lake Washington and drained most of the sloughs and wetland habitat within the corridor (Stickney and McDonald 1977; Martz et al. 1999). Lake Sammamish was lowered by this action as well, which increased the elevation difference between the lakes to about twelve feet, likely increasing river flow. Around this time, Sammamish Valley farmers formed a drainage district, which began to significantly straighten the upper reach of the river (King County 2002a). Lowering of the lake level, channelization of the river and construction of drainage ditches in the river valley eliminated much of the floodplain complexity, including wetlands, side-channels and many spring-fed streams that flowed into the river from adjacent hillsides. Beginning in 1962, the Corps of Engineers systematically dredged and channelized the river into its current form, primarily to prevent flooding of adjacent farmland during high spring flows. This action deepened the river five feet throughout the

    valley and hardened the rivers banks along much of its length, dramatically decreasing any remaining

    connection with the floodplain and cutting off most of the smaller tributaries as refuge or forage area (Martz et al. 1999).

    1.2. SUMMARY OF PREVIOUS STUDIES

    Previous studies of water and sediment quality in the Sammamish River are limited. Little or no work has been conducted to characterize the sediment quality or benthic community structure within the river. In general, previous water quality evaluations have been limited to analysis of conventional parameters and nutrients. While some metal analysis has been conducted, it has been limited both spatially and temporally. Select reaches of the Sammamish River have frequently been on the Washington Department of Ecology (DOE) 303(d) list for temperature, dissolved oxygen, and fecal coliform. Table 1 provides an overview of the available data.

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    Sammamish River Water and Sediment Quality Assessment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Table 1. Historical Chemistry and Biological Data for Sammamish River

    # Project Sampling Period Media Analyses

    Stations

    Sammamish River Storm Conventionals, 1993-1995 Surface water 19 Sampling metals, bacteria

    Water Quality Monitoring of Conventionals, Northern Lake Washington 1979-2002 Surface water 5 metals, bacteria Streams

    2.0. STUDY DESIGN

    The primary objective of this study is to provide data to assess water and sediment quality in the Sammamish River. Few studies have been designed to assess the overall water and sediment quality conditions in the Sammamish River. Other than a limited number of sediment samples collected at the outlet of Lake Sammamish, the mouth of Lake Washington, and the mouths of some tributaries limited to mainly metals analysis, no sediment quality data are available for the Sammamish River. This lack of information has made it difficult to assess the potential effects of sediment-associated chemicals on the aquatic organisms that reside in the river. The limited water quality data available for the Sammamish River have also made it difficult to assess overall water quality conditions and their potential impact on aquatic life residing or migrating through the river. As previously noted, available data indicate a number of conventional parameters frequently exceed water quality criteria, resulting in placement on the 303d list. However, there is very limited data on concentrations of metals and organic compounds in the river and if any of these chemicals may be having an adverse impact on aquatic life. King County will be collecting chemistry and benthic community data and will use a weight-of-evidence approach to evaluate potential risks to aquatic organisms.

    There are multiple purposes for the data generated in this study. The objectives of the Sammamish River Sediment and Water Quality Assessment are to:

    ; conduct an overall assessment of sediment and water quality conditions in the Sammamish River

    using chemical and biological data;

    ; provide a baseline dataset of water and sediment quality for the reclaimed water program (i.e., water

    reuse) for use in future planning and activities;

    ; provide data for SWAMP modeling and assessment efforts; and

    ; provide additional data for development of a long-term monitoring plan for Sammamish River. There will also be an opportunity to coordinate with the Small Streams Toxicity Study, which will provide analytical results for over 150 pesticides as well as water column toxicity data for several locations within the Sammamish River study area. Methods for this study can be found in Small Streams Toxicity Study 2001 SAP Addendum (King County 2001).

    2.1. STATION LOCATIONS

    Sediment and water samples will be collected from ten locations in the Sammamish River for chemical analysis (Figure 2). Sediment samples will also be collected from the same locations for analysis of benthic community structure. In addition, water samples will be collected from two irrigation returns that drain into the Sammamish River (i.e., at 124th Street and 145th Street). The sampling locations were located below all major tributaries and in the vicinity of potential contaminant sources (e.g., golf course, turf farm, boat launch etc.).

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Sammamish River Water and Sediment Quality Assessment Sampling and Analysis Plan

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