金陵女子学院 实用英语专业 2011年级 希腊罗马神话课程期末论文
班 级; 6 任课教师; 柏 愔
学 号; 16110625 姓 名; 滕胜男
Grammar Content 题号 总分 (30%) (70%)
Mythology – Human’s Collective Dream
Over 500 years ago, a portrait of a woman by the name of Mona Lisa successfully conquered every looker’s heart at their first sight. Then what’s the secret
behind the perfect effect of touching people by the mysterious beauty of femininity, with a created hazy dreamland? That’s it—the theory of Collective Unconscious Mind,
put by C .G .Jung.
In the aspect of human consciousness, Jung developed his teacher (Freud)’s
“Island metaphor”: sober consciousness is the 1/8 part of an island above sea as always we can see; the left 7/8 hiding below the sea surface which seldom can be seen unless a tide movement refers to the individual unconscious mind; furthermore, the broad limitless seabed deep under the whole sea is the so-called collective unconscious mind which will never been seen (in normal cases). Likewise, collective unconscious mind is the deepest part of human psychology that “inherited” from our
primitive ancestors as a precious legacy and can not be gained by postnatal experiences. In this sense;we can understand that it has something to do with
mythology, an old and mysterious record of our ancestors’ wisdom. What’s more, it’s
easy to find the great similarities existing in almost every peoples’ mythologies: the
mandala pictures, strong heroes, wise elders, great savers, even evil spirits bringing a catastrophe, women bringing destruction……And that’s the reason why we call
mythology a “collective dream”, which reveals the mutual experience, wisdom and
living(mind) state of human beings in ancient times.
According to Jung, collective unconsciousness is what really and actually controls people’s psychology in their deepest aspect. Take an explanation made by Jung for example: poets believed they were creating works in absolute freedom but in reality that was just their fancy. When they imagined they were swimming, the fact was that they were carried along by invisible rivers. Since unconsciousness can not be perceived, the way to explore and analyze it as well as the mythology’s meaning
behind it is going deep into an unconscious state—dream(typically and commonly), a
particular thinking pattern, which can endow human life with ancient images, or something called archetypes (the main content of collective unconscious mind). Let’s
return to the beginning instance. Because deep in everyone’s unconscious mind
(usually in dreams), there is a kind of image of a beauty. To men, it’s called Anima,
which represents the ideal woman figure. Here, take the Greek mythology for example. The figure of Mona Lisa gained success by reappearing the attractive image
of Helen, the well-known beauty in Greek mythology praised for her charming smiles and irresistible sexuality, which emerge in men’s dream, showing their desires for sex.
Meanwhile, this kind of beauty was envied by any goddess and any women owing to themselves’ desires for this beauty. So we can see from above that mythology affects and decides our values and emotions towards things fundamentally, which is showed in our dreams.
Besides, mythology’s wisdom and spirit can be found and appreciated through analyzing dreams, so we can gain a priceless treasure in our spirit. Here I will try to analyze the “Apollonian” and the “Dionysian” .Sometimes, on the one hand, we have
a fantastic dreamland and enjoy the refinement, sobriety, moderation, and the beauty of symmetry in it. It then related to “Apollonian” which represents the dreamlike
beauty of human beings’ reason (sculpture-type). On the other hand, in real life, we can not help to escaping something we fear or hate(even you may not feel so very much) and then at night we may “be deserted or buried” in intoxication, enjoying the
created ecstasy, irrationality and inhumanity. The latter shows a kind of violent and deep tragic emotion in human nature (music-type). And according to Nietzsche (a German philosophy, Rung’s some views partly generated from him), the birth the
Greek tragedy is when “Apollonian” conquered “Dionysian” and he desired the union
of the two to realize the unity of human mind. As to us individuals, we too are in this contradiction or pains. In this case, many people seek fun by deserting their hearts, indulging in the enjoyment of materials instead of seeking inner peace and richness. By approaching mythologies and facing the true selves in dreams, we have the chance to take a brave and new look at our own, otherwise, we have to give up to the fate of being exiled away from our spiritual homeland, struggling in colossal void.
As a whole, while we bear the memories of “collective dreams”, we make great
efforts to weave private mythology in our own dreams, so as to record the living state and emotions belonging to this special generation and era.
Reference Books: 冯川.荣格的精神 (M).海口；海南出版社.2006
Appreciating Greco-Roman Mythology
The Birth of Tragedy