Americans celebrate a variety of federal holidays and other national observances 庆
祝 仪式throughout the year. American holidays can be secular,非宗教的 世俗的
religious, international, or uniquely American.
The following are American federal holidays and other common national observances.
New Year's Day is January 1. The celebration of this federal holiday begins the night before, when Americans gather to wish each other a happy and prosperous coming year. Many Americans make New Year's resolutions.
Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday in January. Martin Luther King, Jr. was an African-American clergyman who is recognized for his tireless efforts to win civil rights for all people through nonviolent means.
Groundhog Day土拨鼠日 is February 2, and has been celebrated since 1887. On Groundhog Day, crowds gather in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, to see if groundhog Punxsutawney Phil sees his shadow after emerging from his burrow洞穴, thus
predicting six more weeks of winter weather.
Valentine's Day is celebrated on February 14. The day was named after an early Christian martyr殉道者, and on Valentine's Day, Americans give presents like candy or flowers to the ones they love. The first mass-produced valentine cards were sold in the 1840s.
Washington's Birthday is a federal holiday observed the third Monday of February to honor George Washington, the first President of the United States. This date is
commonly called Presidents' Day and many groups honor the legacy of past presidents on this date.
Easter falls on a spring Sunday that varies from year to year. Easter is a Christian holiday celebrating the resurrection 复活of Jesus Christ. For Christians, Easter is a
day of religious services and the gathering of family. Many Americans follow old traditions of coloring hard-boiled煮硬的蛋eggs and giving children baskets of candy.
Earth Day 世界地球日is observed on April 22. First celebrated in 1970 in the United States, it inspired national legislation such as the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. Earth Day is designed to promote ecology, encourage respect for life on earth, and highlight concern over pollution of the soil, air, and water.
National Arbor Day植树节 was proclaimed as the last Friday in April by President Richard Nixon37任 in 1970. A number of state Arbor Days are observed at other times to coincide with the best tree planting weather, from January and February in the south to May in the far north. The observance began in 1872, when Nebraska settlers and homesteaders自耕农 农场所有人 were urged to plant trees on the
largely treeless plains.
Mother's Day celebrates mothers every second Sunday of May. President Woodrow Wilson,28任 who issued a proclamation宣告 in 1914, asked Americans to give a
public expression of reverence to mothers on this day. Carnations 康乃馨have come
to represent Mother's Day, following President William McKinley's 25任habit of
always wearing a white carnation, his mother's favorite flower.
Memorial Day阵亡将士纪念日 is a federal holiday observed the last Monday of
May. It originally honored the people killed in the American Civil War, but has become a day on which the American dead of all wars, and the dead generally, are remembered in special programs held in cemeteries, churches, and other public meeting places. The flying of the American flag is widespread.
Flag Day, celebrated June 14, has been a presidentially proclaimed observance since 1916. Although Flag Day is not a federal holiday, Americans are encouraged to display the flag outside their homes and businesses on this day to honor the history and heritage the American flag represents.
Father's Day celebrates fathers every third Sunday of June. Father's Day began in 1909 in Spokane, Washington, when a daughter requested a special day to honor her father, a Civil War veteran 老兵who raised his children after his wife died. The first presidential proclamation honoring fathers was issued in 1966 by President Lyndon Johnson.36任
Independence Day is July 4. This federal holiday honors the nation's birthday - the
adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. It is a day of picnics and patriotic 爱国的parades, a night of concerts and fireworks. The flying of the American flag is widespread.
Labor Day 劳动节is the first Monday of September. This federal holiday honors the nation's working people, typically with parades. For most Americans it marks the end of the summer vacation season and the start of the school year.
Columbus Day 发现美洲纪念日is a federal holiday celebrated on the second
Monday in October. The day commemorates October 12, 1492, when Italian navigator Christopher Columbus landed in the New World. The holiday was first proclaimed in 1937 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.32任
Halloween万圣节前夕 is celebrated on October 31. On Halloween, American
children dress up in funny or scary costumes and go "trick or treating"不给糖果就捣
蛋 by knocking on doors in their neighborhood. The neighbors are expected to respond by giving them small gifts of candy or money.
Veterans Day退伍军人节 is celebrated on November 11. Originally called Armistice Day,休战纪念日 this federal holiday was established to honor Americans who had served in World War I, but it now honors veterans of all wars in which the U.S. has fought. Veterans' organizations hold parades, and the president places a wreath 花冠
on the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery阿灵顿国家公墓 in
Thanksgiving Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. The holiday began in 1621, when Puritans,清教徒 who had just enjoyed a bountiful
harvest, showed their gratitude to the Native Americans 美洲印第安人for their help
by hosting a feast to give thanks. The Thanksgiving feast became a national tradition and almost always includes some of the foods served at the first feast: roast turkey, cranberry sauce, 酸果曼沙司potatoes, and pumpkin pie.
Pearl Harbor 珍珠港Remembrance Day 荣军纪念日is December 7. In 1994,
Congress designated this national observance to honor the more than 2,400 military service personnel who died on this date in 1941, during the surprise attack突袭 on
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, by Japanese forces. The attack on Pearl Harbor caused the United States to enter World War II.
Christmas Day is a federal holiday celebrated on December 25. Christmas is a Christian holiday marking the birth of the Christ Child. Decorating houses and yards with lights, putting up Christmas trees, giving gifts, and sending greeting cards have become traditions even for many non-Christian Americans.