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TEACHER'S GUIDE

By Mike Rice,2014-07-06 13:02
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GUIDE STUDENTS TO THINK ABOUT THE DIFFERENT EXPERIENCES OF EACH GROUP, INCLUDING LIFESTYLE, SECURITY, ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE U.S. ARMY, HOW THEY WERE AFFECTED BY THE ...

    TEACHER’S GUIDE

     Grades 3 to 8

    Crazy Horse and the Lakota Sioux Indians

    Great Native American Leaders Series

    Subject areas: Social Studies, US History, Native American Studies, Multicultural Studies

    Synopsis: Chronicles Crazy Horse’s long struggle to protect Lakota land rights and remain free. Includes his early battles against Fetterman along the Bozeman trail and his victory in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Shows how the warrior was held back by his own people when the Lakota Chiefs aided the United States Army in his capture and arrest.

Learning Objectives:

    Objective 1) Students will be able to describe the culture and lifestyle of the Lakota Sioux before

    westward expansion, including their religious beliefs and spiritual ties to the Black Hills

    of South Dakota.

    Objective 2) Students will be able to discuss the Lakota Sioux tribe’s conflicts with the United States

    over land rights, including the struggles caused by the construction of the Bozeman Trail

    and settlers’ illegal prospecting of the Black Hills.

    Objective 3) Students will be able to discuss the Lakota victory in the Fetterman Fight and how the

    United States government responded to the defeat.

    Objective 4) Students will be able to explain why Crazy Horse split from Red Cloud to join Sitting

    Bull and the Hunkpapa.

    Objective 5) Students will be able to explain the significance of the Battle of the Little Bighorn,

    especially how the battle influenced the Lakota tribe’s standing with the United States

    government.

    Objective 6) Students will be able to discuss the tension between the free Lakota and the reservation

    Lakota and how this disunity eventually led to the capture of Crazy Horse.

Pre-Viewing Discussion and Activities:

    1) Define: sacred, commune, Great Spirit, holy men, treaty, vision, war chief, raid,

    massacre, westward expansion, pursue, abandon, agency, prospecting, violation, protest,

    negotiation, Sun Dance, skin offering, reservation, refuge, capture and scaffold.

    2) Locate the Black Hills on a map.

    3) Explore the concept of freedom. What does it mean to be free? What basic rights are

    essential to freedom?

Post-Viewing Discussion:

    1) What is the significance of the Black Hills in Lakota culture? What did Lakota Warriors

    do in the Black Hills? Why were White settlers interested in the Black Hills? What was

    the Lakota reaction to this?

    2) Describe Crazy Horse’s vision as a young boy. What was the warrior doing in the vision?

    What held the warrior back? In what specific ways did Crazy Horse’s vision become

    reality?

    3) Why did the United States government build the Bozeman Trail? Where was the trail

    located? How did the Lakota respond to the United States Army’s presence along the

    trail?

    4) What was the compromise Red Cloud made with the United States government? Why

    did he make this compromise? How did Crazy Horse feel about Red Cloud’s decision?

    How would you describe Red Cloud’s priorities as a leader? How would you describe

    Crazy Horse’s priorities as a leader?

    5) Why did George Armstrong Custer lead people into the Black Hills? Was this legal?

    What was President Grant’s solution to the treaty violation?

    6) Why was the Battle of the Little Bighorn significant? How did the battle affect the free

    Lakota? The Lakota who lived on the reservation?

    7) Why did the warriors split up after the Battle of the Little Bighorn? Where did they go?

    Would the outcome have been different if they had stayed together?

    8) How would you describe Crazy Horse’s attitude towards the Lakota on the reservation?

    How did the reservation Lakota feel about him?

    9) Who helped the United States Army capture Crazy Horse? What were their motivations

    for helping the United States Army? Who was Little Big Man? Why did Crazy Horse

    attack him?

    Additional Activities:

    1) In small groups, assign students to design memorials for Crazy Horse. Direct students to

    consider including some sort of art or poetry in their memorials and select a location for

    them. After each group has presented their memorial ideas, show students pictures of the

    Crazy Horse Memorial that is currently in progress. Photographs and information are

    available at www.crazyhorse.org.

    2) Have students write journal entries either as young Lakota following Red Cloud to live

    on a reservation or young Lakota following Crazy Horse. Guide students to think about

    the different experiences of each group, including lifestyle, security, attitudes towards the

    U.S. Army, how they were affected by the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and their feelings

    towards the other group.

    Related New Dimension Media Titles:

    ; Great Native American Nations Series

    ; Native Americans Before Columbus Series

    ; More than Bows and Arrows

    ; Legacy of the Mound Builders

    ; Mesa Verde National Park

FOR INFORMATION, OR TO ORDER CONTACT:

    NEW DIMENSION MEDIA

    A QUESTAR COMPANY

    w w w . n d m q u e s t a r . c o m 680 N. Lake Shore Drive, Suite 900, Chicago, IL 60611

    800.288.4456

    TEACHER’S GUIDE

     Grades 3 to 8

    Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce Indians

    Great Native American Leaders Series

    Subject Area: Social Studies, US History, Native American Studies, Multicultural Studies

    Synopsis: Told as a personal narration by a young member of the Nez Perce, this poignant and authentic treatment details the struggle between the Nez Perce wanting to keep their land, the government’s role in seizing it, and relentless pursuit of the often-bested United States soldiers to overpower them.

Learning Objectives:

    Objective 1) Students should be able to detail the movements of the Nez Perce from their homeland to

    their end-point in Canada, as well as the specific conflicts and motives of the Nez Perce

    and the United States soldiers throughout their evasion and pursuit.

    Objective 2) Students should be able to evaluate and give examples of the combat abilities and tactics

    of the Nez Perce.

    Objective 3) Students should be able to imagine the thoughts and feelings of General Howard due to

    his unsuccessful pursuit of the Nez Perce, and the reaction of his commanding officer.

    Objective 4) Students should be able to understand Chief Joseph’s ultimate decision to surrender, and

    discuss the United States government’s position prior to and after the final surrender.

Objective 5) Students should be able to detail Chief Joseph’s efforts to regain his people’s homeland

    after the final surrender.

    Objective 6) Students should be able to consider the possible outcomes if the Nez Perce had been able

    to cross over the border into Canada.

    Objective 7) Students should be able to compare the life of the Nez Perce before and after white

    European explorers, settlers, and soldiers came to their land.

Pre-viewing Discussion or Activities:

    1) Define: missionary, measles, jagged, harmony, accuse, teepee, flee, energetic, mingled,

    bluff (land formation), council, and pleading.

    2) Locate: the centralized Nez Perce area of Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana;

    Wallowa Valley; Salmon River; Clearwater River; Lolo Trail, Continental Divide, and

    Yellowstone National Park. Use a map of North America (topographical would be best)

    to show the distance (and difficulties to negotiate) of the route of the Nez Perce from the

    Wallowa Valley in Oregon to their final place of surrender in northern Montana. Point

    out how near they came to the Canadian border.

    3) Discuss what students know about Native American Indian reservations. Ask for ideas on

    why and how they came to be. Ask if anyone has ever visited a reservation, and if so, to

    share their impressions with the class.

    Post-viewing Discussion:

    1) What was life like for the Nez Perce before the European explorers, settlers, and soldiers

    arrived? Give specific examples of how life was changed after each of these groups came?

    2) What happened to the Nez Perce land after gold was discovered there? What did the U.S.

    government say to the white settlers about going to this area? What did one of the Nez

    Perce chiefs do that affected the control of their land? Then what happened to the Nez

    Perce people?

    3) In 1876, the settlers accused a young Nez Perce boy of stealing a horse. The Nez Perce

    knew the settlers would probably attack them. What did Chief Joseph want his people to

    do? Why did the Nez Perce go to White Bird Canyon? What happened there? How did

    the Nez Perce at White Bird Canyon and at the Clearwater River outsmart General

    Howard and his soldiers? Why did the Nez Perce then leave their land and head for

    Montana? What did Chief Joseph want them to do?

    4) What was it like for the Nez Perce on the Lolo Trail? Why do you think they kept going?

    What mistake did the Nez Perce make when they finally reached the end of the Lolo Trail?

    What happened as a result of this bad decision? Where did the Nez Perce decide to go

    next? Why?

5) What were General Howard’s thoughts and feelings after so much time spent and lives

    lost trying to capture the Nez Perce? What was the reaction of his commanding officer,

    General Sherman?

    6) Why did Chief Joseph finally decide to surrender? What did the government promise

    Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce? Did they keep this promise? Where were the Nez Perce

    forced to live? What happened eight years later? Was the government’s promise ever

    kept?

    7) Until his death, Chief Joseph worked to return his people to their homeland. What did he

    do to accomplish this goal? Was he successful?

    8) How would you describe the abilities of the Nez Perce to fight the United States soldiers?

    Give specific examples.

    9) Do you think the fate of the Nez Perce would have been different if they were able to

    outrun the soldiers and cross into Canada? Why?

    Additional Activities:

    1) Have students do a “Chief Joseph” keyword search on the Internet and report the relevant

    sites they have found. Divide the class into groups and assign one site for each group to

    explore. As possible follow-up activities, have each group member write a brief summary

    of the site they investigated, or have the group make an oral presentation of their findings.

    (Perhaps your class would like to develop a service project to help the Chief Joseph

    Foundation.)

    2) Chief Joseph’s American Indian name was “Thunder Traveling to High Mountains.”

    Each name was carefully chosen to reflect positive qualities about the person. Think of

    someone you admire. What Native American name would you choose for this person?

    Explain the reason for your choice. (You may want to make an illustrated classroom

    display of the students’ choices.)

    3) Divide the class into three groups: Nez Perce, United States soldiers, congressmen and

    congresswomen. Have each group discuss their feelings about and reasoning behind their

    decision to fight for the land or take control of it. Groups can develop a chart of their

    findings and/or debate their positions. An alternative activity is to have each student write

    a journal entry or a personal letter to a friend or family member, detailing his or her

    actions and thoughts on a specific day as they imagine it. Remind students they are to be

    writing as a Nez Perce, a soldier, or a congressman/woman.

    4) For this activity, you will need string and a United States map. Show students the map

    legend for distance ratio. Have students determine and measure the amount of string

    needed to represent the 1,400-mile journey of the Nez Perce. Using your hometown as

    the central point, extend the string in several directions. This should give students

    familiar reference points, and so, a better understanding of how far the Nez Perce traveled.

    Related New Dimension Media Titles:

    ; Native Americans Before Columbus Series

    ; More Than Bows and Arrows

    ; Legacy of the Mound Builders

    ; Mesa Verde National Park

    ; Great Native American Nations

    FOR INFORMATION, OR TO ORDER CONTACT:

    NEW DIMENSION MEDIA

    A QUESTAR COMPANY

    w w w . n d m q u e s t a r . c o m

    680 N. Lake Shore Drive, Suite 900, Chicago, IL 60611

    800.288.4456

    TEACHER’S GUIDE

     Grades 3 to 8

    Geronimo and the Apache Indians

    Great Native American Leaders Series

    Subject areas: Social Studies, US History, Native American Studies, Multicultural Studies

Synopsis: Depicts Geronimo’s determination to resist defeat by the U.S. and Mexican armies and guide his

    people to freedom on their traditional lands. Chronicles Geronimo’s escapes from the San Carlos Reservation and the pursuits of the U.S. Army until his final surrender in 1886. Discusses the fate of the Chiricahua Apache after the surrender as well as Geronimo’s lifelong commitment to obtaining freedom and a homeland for his people.

Learning Objectives:

    Objective 1) Students will be able to describe Chiricahua Apache life in the tribe’s native land before

    they were pressed onto reservations by the United States government.

    Objective 2) Students will be able to document the life of Geronimo, the events that thrust him into

    leadership and his lifelong commitment to the freedom of his people. Students will also

    be able to explain how Geronimo embodied the essence of Apache values.

    Objective 3) Students will be able to discuss the U.S. policy of relocating Native Americans to

    reservations and how this policy impacted the Chiricahua Apache.

    Objective 4) Students will be able to describe conditions on the San Carlos Apache reservation and

    explain why the Chiricahua did not want to live there.

    Objective 5) Students will be able to chronicle Geronimo’s escapes from San Carlos and his evasion of

    the U.S. Army.

Objective 6) Students will be able to outline the terms of Geronimo’s final surrender.

    Objective 7) Students will learn about the Chiricahua Apaches’ exile in Florida and their time as

    prisoners of war in Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Students will also be able to discuss Geronimo’s

    ongoing efforts to obtain a homeland for his people.

Pre-Viewing Discussion and Activities:

    1) Define: subdue, medicine man, warrior, bounty hunter, reservation, fled, posse, arrest,

    border, stronghold, telegraph, surrender, travoy, humiliated, successor, truce, escape,

    mystical, dispatched, exile and homeland.

    2) Locate southern Arizona and New Mexico on a map. Discuss the climate, weather and

    geographical characteristics of the area.

Post-Viewing Discussion and Activities:

    1) What was Geronimo’s role in the Chiricahua Apache tribe? What events in his life

    prepared him to lead his people? What inspired him to lead battles against the Mexicans?

    How would you describe Geronimo’s fight against the Mexicans? Against the Americans?

    2) What land did Cochise and Geronimo agree to accept as the Chiricahua reservation? Did

    the U.S. Government keep their agreement with the Chiricahua concerning their

    reservation? Why did the U.S. Government want to move all of the Apache to San

    Carlos? What was the problem with this plan?

    3) Why did the Chiricahua refuse to move to the San Carlos Reservation? Where did they

    go instead? What was the U.S. Government’s response to this? How did John Clum

    finally relocate the Chiricahua?

    4) Where did Geronimo and his people escape to after being forced to move to San Carlos?

    How long did they remain free? Who pursued them at this time? Why did Geronimo

    decide to surrender? What happened to the Chiricahua after this surrender?

    5) Describe the conditions of San Carlos. What type of work were the Chiricahua expected

    to do in San Carlos? What type of work did they do in their traditional homeland? Why

    were the Chiricahua unhappy in this land?

    6) How did Geronimo and his followers avoid capture by both the U.S. Army and the

    Mexican Army for so long? In what ways were they better equipped to survive in the

    mountains of Mexico than their pursuers?

    7) After Geronimo’s surrender, where were the Chiricahua men taken? Where were the

    Chiricahua women and children taken? Where were many of the children taken? Why

    were the children taken to the Carlisle Indian School? How long did the Chiricahua

    remain in Florida? Where were they sent after Florida?

    8) Why do you think President Roosevelt invited Geronimo to participate in his inaugural

    parade? What message did this action send to the American people? To Native

    Americans? What did Geronimo ask of President Roosevelt? Why might this request

    have been denied?

    Additional Activities:

    1) Have students write a persuasive letter from Geronimo to President Roosevelt requesting

    a homeland for the Chircahua Apache.

    2) On a map, retrace Geronimo’s movements from the Chiricahua homeland in southern

    Arizona and New Mexico near the Chiricahua Mountains to the Warm Springs Apache

    reservation, the San Carlos reservation, Mexico, the San Carlos reservation, Mexico, Los

    Embudos Canyon, Skeleton Canyon, Fort Bowie, Fort Marion and Fort Pickens in

    Florida and Fort Sill in Oklahoma. Review the important events that happened in each

    location.

    Related New Dimension Media Titles:

    ; Great Native American Nations Series

    ; Native Americans Before Columbus Series

    ; More than Bows and Arrows

    ; Legacy of the Mound Builders

    ; Mesa Verde National Park

    FOR INFORMATION, OR TO ORDER CONTACT:

    NEW DIMENSION MEDIA

    A QUESTAR COMPANY

    w w w . n d m q u e s t a r . c o m 680 N. Lake Shore Drive, Suite 900, Chicago, IL 60611

    800.288.4456

    TEACHER’S GUIDE

     Grades 3 to 8

    Quanah Parker and the Comanche Indians

    Great Native American Leaders Series

    Subject areas: Social Studies, US History, Native American Studies, Multicultural Studies

    Synopsis: Depicts Quanah Parker’s leadership as a young warrior defending Comanche land rights and freedoms, and later as a Chief advocating for his people’s religious freedoms and position in the new

    society. Reveals how Parker lived between White American society and traditional Comanche society, achieving great success in both worlds.

Learning Objectives:

    Objective 1) Students will be able to describe Comanche life and how it was changed by interaction

    with Europeans, from the introduction of horses and gunpowder to the loss of land to the

    United States Army.

    Objective 2) Students will be able to summarize the events in the life of Cynthia Ann Parker, the

    mother of Quanah Parker.

    Objective 3) Students will be able to explain how westward expansion impacted the Comanche and

    discuss the Medicine Lodge Creek treaty, in which most Comanche leaders lost their land.

    Objective 4) Students will be able to detail Quanah Parker’s leadership as a warrior fighting against

    westward expansion into Comanche land.

    Objective 5) Students will be able to summarize Quanah Parker’s contributions as Comanche Chief,

    including his success as a cattle rancher, his position on the Court of Indian Offenses, and

    his political influence.

    Objective 6) Students will understand how Quanah Parker lived both in the Comanche society and the

    White American society and how he used this position to help his people.

Pre-Viewing Discussion and Activities:

    1) Define: captured, raid, settlement, chief, treaty, exchange, wagon train, subdue, scouts,

    vow, outraged, canyon, escaped, desperate, messiah, sun dance, target, fury, slaughtered,

    surrender, reservation, ranching, graze, undisputed, traitor, hallucinatory, visions, peyote,

    cattlemen, teepee, polygamy, boomers, communal land, inaugural, celebrity, powwow,

    healing ceremony, and shaman.

    2) Locate the Great Plains area on a map and discuss westward expansion. When did

    settlers begin to move to that area? What were the settlers seeking? Who lived in the

    plains before the settlers arrived? How did westward expansion affect the people who

    already inhabited this land?

Post-Viewing Discussion and Activities:

    1) How did Cynthia Ann Parker come to live with the Comanche? At what age was she

    returned to her family? How did she feel about leaving the Comanche?

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