The Indira Gandhi National Open University, established by an Act of Parliament in 1985, has emerged as the largest Mega University in the democratic world. To achieve the objective of widening access for all sections of society and providing continual professional development and training to all sectors of the economy, the University uses a variety of media and latest technology in imparting education.
The mandate of the University is to:
； provide access to higher education to all segments of society;
； offer high quality, innovative and need-based programmes at different levels, to all those
who require them;
； reach out to the disadvantaged by offering programmes in all parts of the country at
affordable costs; and
； promote, coordinate and regulate the standards of education offered through open and
distance learning in the country.
IGNOU has following unique features:
； National and international reach
； Flexible entry qualifications
； Wide range of academic programmes at affordable costs
； Diverse learner groups
； Modular programmes based on a credit system
； Rigorous course development mechanisms to ensure quality
； Multi-lingual and multiple media instructional packages
； Flexibility in terms of place, pace and duration of study
； Use of latest information and communication technologies for blended learning ； An effective and integrated student support services network
； Resource sharing, collaboration and networking with state open universities and distance
education/correspondence course institutions
； Joint course offerings with a number of formal institutions of higher learning ； Collaboration with faculty and professionals in formal institutions of higher learning and
industry for the design, development and delivery of courses.
； Walk-in admissions and examinations
The University provides multi-channel, multiple media teaching-learning packages for instruction and self learning. The different components used for teaching-learning include self-instructional print and audio-video materials, radio and television broadcasts, face-to-face counselling/tutoring, laboratory and hands-on experience, teleconferencing, video
conferencing, interactive radio counselling, interactive multimedia CD-ROM and internet-based learning, and the use of mobile phones for instant messaging.
For courses in Sciences, Computers, Nursing, Medical Sciences, Teacher Training and Engineering Technology, arrangements have been made to enable students to undertake practical classes/practice teaching at select study centres /work centres / Programme Study Centres.
The learner-centric instructional system of IGNOU
The chemists occupy positions in different capacities in industry and national laboratories. The list of industries is very large; a few to name are Fertilizers, Sugar and Confectionery, Food Processing, Paints, Plastics and Polymers, Detergents, Glass and Ceramics, Cement, Dyes and Textiles, Pharmaceuticals, Petroleum Refining & Petrochemicals, Steel and Alloys, etc. Apart from the above, chemists are employed in many national laboratories run by CSIR, ICAR, etc.
Post Graduate Diploma in Analytical Chemistry (PGDAC) is a continuing education
programme designed and developed keeping in view the role of chemists played directly and indirectly in industry and national laboratories.
2.1 Background of the Programme
Seen against the demanding situation in which a chemist in an industry finds himself/herself, the training given through B.Sc. or in some cases even through M.Sc. curriculum is quite inadequate. While formulating a continuing education programme like PGDAC, adequate care and attention has been taken with respect to the of varied skill requirements such as practical work, problem tackling, information and quantitative skills, etc. The programme design was carried out systematically by holding an explorative workshop involving expertise from industry, academic institutions, professional/chartered bodies and Federation of industry. A thread bare discussion lead to the broad structure of the PGDAC programme. 2.2 Objectives of the Programme
The objectives of this programme are:
； To provide training in modern analytical techniques to the learners.
； To provide appropriate theoretical background and develop practical skills for analysing
materials even in trace amounts using modern analytical methods and instruments. ； To enable students acquire the analytical data and interpret the same using statistical
； To inculcate a problem solving approach by coordinating different analytical techniques. 2.3 Programme Structure
This Diploma programme is worth 32 credits and is spread over eight courses. Out of eight,
4 are theory courses of 6 credits each and 4 lab courses of 2 credits each. The basic structure of the programme is as given below.
S. N Course Title Codes Credits
1 Basic Analytical Chemistry MCH-001 6
2 Separation Methods MCH-002 6
3 Spectroscopic Methods MCH-003 6
4 Electroanalytical and Other Methods MCH-004 6
5 Basic Analytical Chemistry Lab MCHL-001 2
6 Separation Methods Lab MCHL-002 2
7 Spectroscopic Methods Lab MCHL-003 2
8 Electroanalytical and Other Methods Lab MCHL-004 2
2.4 Duration of the Programme
To fulfill the requirements for acquiring the PGDAC programme, a student may clear all the courses in one year. If a student is unable to clear all the requirements of courses in 1 year
s/he may be permitted to stretch it over a period of another 2 years. In case the student is unable to pass all the courses of PGDAC programme in 3 years, the student may be permitted
to stretch it for another one year. In such cases, the student has to seek readmission as per the „Re-admission‟ rules and pay the requisite fee. Please refer to Form No. 5 for further
information on Re-admission. The fee paid at the time of initial admission is valid for 3 years.
You may contact the Regional Centre for further information about the same. But, you are advised to pass all the courses successfully in 3 years.
2.5 Medium of Instruction
The medium of instruction is English only. The course material is also printed in English. 2.6 Fee Structure
At present the programme fee for PGDAC is Rs. 7,000/-. As and when it is necessary, the University can revise the programme fee, therefore, please refer to the Student Handbook
and Prospectus of your academic session for recent information related to fee.
As stated above there are four theory and four laboratory courses in this programme which are worth six and two credits respectively. In this section a brief introduction of each of the course is given which gives an insight of the course. A list of units belonging to different blocks is given for an overall perception of the course.
MCH-001 BASIC ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY CREDITS: 6
This is the first course of Analytical Chemistry programme and addresses to the basics of Analytical techniques in the first few units. The first unit gives a general perspective of the analytical chemistry on the whole. The second and third units are devoted to concepts like accuracy, precision types of measurements and evaluation of analytical data. Unit 4 deals with Sampling- the most important initial step crucial for any analytical measurement. As a chemical laboratory is prone to a number of hazards, a practicing chemist needs to and must adhere to the laboratory safety norms. The Unit 5 addresses the safety aspect of the laboratory in requisite details so that the learners are equipped with the information required for the safety of their own as well as the fellow workers in the laboratory. Sixth Unit deals with an introduction to the instruments used for analytical measurements as the modern means of analysis are instrument based.
The rest of the course from seventh unit onwards deals with a number of conventional analytical techniques. These include kinetic methods, neutralisation titrations, redox titrations, complexometric titrations, precipitation titrations and the gravimetric analysis.
The Basic Analytical Chemistry course has an integrated laboratory component which gives a
hands-on experience of the related principles and concepts. These lab experiments have been
listed in section 4 under a separate course i.e., MCHL-001 which is titled „Basic Analytical
Chemistry Lab‟. The contents of the “Basic Analytical Chemistry” course are as under.
BLOCK 1: BASIC ASPECTS
Unit 1 Analytical Chemistry ‒ General Perspectives
Unit 2 Evaluation of Analytical Data I
Unit 3 Evaluation of Analytical Data II
BLOCK 2: INITIATION INTO ANALYTICAL LABORATORY
Unit 4 Sampling
Unit 5 Safety in Chemical Laboratory
Unit 6 Kinetic Methods of Analysis
BLOCK 3: ESTIMATIONS BASED ON KINETIC AND ACID – BASE
Unit 7 Acid-Base Equilibria
Unit 8 Neutralisation Titrations ‒ I
Unit 9 Neutralisation Titrations ‒ II
Unit 10 Redox Titrations
BLOCK 4: ESTIMATIONS BASED ON REDOX AND COMPLEXATION
Unit 11 Complexometric Titrations
Unit 12 Redox Titrations
BLOCK 5: ESTIMATIONS BASED ON PRECIPITATION AND GRAVIMETRY
Unit 13 Precipitation Titrations
Unit 14 Gravimetric Analysis
Unit 15 Introduction of Analytical Instruments
MCH-002 SEPARATION METHODS CREDITS: 6
As the list of details of the units indicates, the first Block on „Classical Methods‟ of
separation comprises of three units. The course begins with the discussion on basic aspects
such as importance of separation methods, their classification and choice of separation methods in the first unit. Units 2 and 3 deal with the techniques of „Solvent Extraction‟ and cover the general principles, classification of extraction systems, extraction equlibria, factors
influencing extraction & metal ion separations as well as choice of organic phase for extractions.
Block 2 and 3 deal with the „Chromatographic Methods‟ of separation. Block 2 comprises of
three units. The first unit i.e. Unit 4 of this block explains the „General Principles of
Chromatography‟. Unit 5 on „Liquid Column Chromatography‟ recapitulates the basic
aspects, explains experimental details and the choice of stationary and mobile phases, development techniques in addition to giving basic idea of HPLC. Unit 6 on „Planar
Chromatography‟ explains basic principles of paper chromatography and its applications. A
discussion of thin layer chromatography also forms the part of this unit. Block 3 continues the discussion on chromatographic methods and covers „Gas Chromatography‟ in Unit 7 wherein
the theoretical aspects, instrumental details and applications are discussed. Unit 8 on „High
Performance Liquid Chromatography‟ highlights the basic aspects as well as the applications
Block 4 comprises of two units, i.e. Unit 9 and Unit 10. Unit 9 on „Ion Exchange
Chromatography‟ describes the mechanism of ion exchange, classification of ion exchangers, synthesis of ion exchange resins and properties of resins. Besides this, details of operation, inorganic ion exchangers and applications of ion exchange chromatography have also been explained. Unit 10 on „Size Exclusion Chromatography‟ discusses the basic principles of separation involving gels, gels and their properties and applications of this technique.
Block 5 covers other separation methods with two units i.e. Unit 11 and 12. Unit 11 on „Membrane Separation‟ begins with classification of membrane processes, the mechanism of separation through membranes is also highlighted. This unit also discusses the phenomenon osmosis, reverse osmosis as well as dialysis and electro-dialysis. Finally, the applications of the membrane separation have also been explained in this unit. Unit 12 on „Electrophoresis‟
discusses the theory of electrophoresis, classification and its applications.
Besides, the above 5 blocks on theoretical aspects, the experiments related to this course are provided in a separate booklet. The titles of the experiments are given in section 4 under the course MCHL-002. The contents of this theory course are given below.
BLOCK 1: CLASSICAL METHODS
Unit 1 General Aspects of Separation Methods
Unit 2 Solvent Extraction – I
Unit 3 Solvent Extraction – II
BLOCK 2: CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS - I
Unit 4 General Principles of Chromatography
Unit 5 Liquid Column Chromatography
Unit 6 Planar Chromatography
BLOCK 3: CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS - II
Unit 7 Gas Chromatography
Unit 8 High Performance Liquid Chromatography
BLOCK 4: CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS - III
Unit 9 Ion Exchange Chromatography
Unit 10 Size Exclusion Chromatography
BLOCK 5: OTHER SEPARATION METHODS
Unit 11 Membrane Separation
Unit 12 Electrophoresis
MCH-003 SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS CREDITS: 6
Spectroscopic methods of analysis are based on the consequences of the interaction of radiation with matter. Spectroscopic methods course deals with the concepts based on the nature of matter and the type of interaction involved. It is divided into five blocks. Blocks 1 and 2 deal with molecular systems and are titled as „Molecular Spectroscopic Methods-I‟
and „Molecular Spectroscopic Methods-II‟, respectively. The first of these deals with
absorption and scattering of radiation while the second covers methods based on emission of radiation. Blocks 3 and 4 deal with atomic systems and are accordingly titled as „Atomic
Spectroscopic Methods-I‟ and „Atomic Spectroscopic Methods-II‟ respectively. Block 5,
i.e. the last block, is titled „Miscellaneous Methods‟ and covers the nuclear magnetic
resonance and mass spectrometric methods. We would like to mention here that though mass spectrometry is not a type of spectroscopy, yet it is included in the course as it is one of the important techniques of structural elucidation. Needless to say that it is an integral part of analytical methods. All the units covered in these blocks deal with details of principles, instrumentation and the applications of the techniques described.
The course has an integrated component of the laboratory work which is offered as a stand –
alone course. The course is titled Spectroscopic Methods of Analysis Laboratory with a
code MCHL-003. The list of experiments is given under the course details in Section 4.
The details of the blocks dealt in the theory course are as follows.
BLOCK 1: MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS – I
Unit 1 Electromagnetic Radiation
Unit 2 Ultraviolet – Visible Spectrometry
Unit 3 Infra Red Specftrometry
Unit 4 Raman Spectroscopy
BLOCK 2: MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS – II
Unit 5 Fluorimetry and Phosphorimetry ‒ I
Unit 6 Applications of Fluorimetry and Phosphorimetry ‒ II
BLOCK 3: ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS ‒ I
Unit 7 Flame Photometry
Unit 8 Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry
BLOCK 4: ATOMIC SPECTROSCPIC METHODS ‒ II
Unit 9 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
Unit 10 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
Unit 11 Applications of AAS and AES
BLOCK 5: MISCELLANEOUS METHODS
Unit 12 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Unit 13 Mass Spectrometry
Unit 14 Structure Elucidation by Integrated Methods
MCH-004 ELECTROANALYTICAL AND OTHER METHODS
This course is introduced to give you a reasonable understanding in the major techniques of electroanalytical methods, thermal methods and radioanalytical methods. In this course we will cover the basic theory, the practical aspects and scope of all individual techniques of these three categories. In electroanalytical techniques we use one or more electrical properties under controlled condition to obtain qualitative and quantitative information of a sample. These techniques can be divided into several classes depending on which aspects of the electrochemical cell are controlled and which are measured. You may be familiar with some of the electroanalytical techniques like potentiometry. In this course along with these
techniques we will also introduce few new electroanalytical techniques like coulometry and
voltametry. All these electroanalytical techniques will be discussed in Blocks 1, 2 and 3.
Similar to electrical properties, in thermal methods we study changes in the physical and
chemical properties of a sample while it is undergoing heating process. We are also focusing on three important thermal techniques, that is, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA),
differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). There
techniques are discussed in Block 4. In last block of this course, i.e. Block 5, you will study radioanalytical methods which are unique with regard to theoretical principles involved, handling of radioisotopes, and instrumentation.
This course also has an integrated laboratory component which is titled „Electroanalytical and Other Methods Lab‟ having a code MCHL – 004. The list of experiments covered in it is
given in Section 4.
The details of the blocks of the theory courses is given below.
BLOCK 1: ELECTROANALYTICAL METHODS ‒ I
Unit 1 Introduction to Electroanalytical Methods
Unit 2 Potentiometry ‒ I
Unit 3 Potentiometry ‒ II (pH Metry)
BLOCK 2: ELECTROANALYTICAL METHODS ‒ II
Unit 4 Conductometry
Unit 5 Electrogravimetry and Coulometry
Unit 6 Applications of Conductometry, Electrogravimetry and Coulometry BLOCK 3: ELECTROANALYTICAL METHODS ‒ III
Unit 7 Voltammetry
Unit 8 Polarography and Amperometruc Titrations
Unit 9 Applications of Polarography, Amperometric Titrations and
BLOCK 4: THERMAL METHODS
Unit 10 Thermogravimetric Analysis
Unit 11 Differential Thermal Analysis Scanning Calorimetry and
BLOCK 5: RADIOANALYTICAL METHODS
Unit 12 Fundamentals of Radioactivity
Unit 13 Radioanalytical Methods
Laboratory courses are an integral component of any science programme. Analytical Chemistry being an experimental science, a laboratory component has been integrated with each of the theory courses. As mentioned earlier, the Post Graduate Diploma in Analytical Chemistry programme has a 25% component of the laboratory work. There are four
laboratory courses for this programme. These courses are worth 2 credits each. Each of these
laboratory course will require full-time presence of the student at the laboratory for one week
or seven days continuously. During this time a student has to work for around 60 hours. Of this, 40 hours would be spent on experimental work and the remaining time will be used for doing calculations, preparations of records, viewing or listening to the video/audio programmes.
The list of experiments for the four laboratory courses is as follows. MCHL-001 BASIC ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY LAB CREDITS: 2
1. Calibration of volumetric apparatus and weights, and statistical treatment of data 2. Determination of percentage of tin in brass sample gravimetrically 3. Determination of nickel(II) in nickel steel gravimetrically using dimethylglyoxime 4. Determination of pK value of phosphoric acid titrimetrically a
;;2;OH,HCO,CO5. Determination of total alkalinity of for a water sample 33
6. Determination of ascorbic acid in a vitamin C tablet iodimetrically 7. Determination of hard water
8. Determination of available chlorine in a bleaching powder sample iodometrically 9. Determination of zinc by KFe(CN) by precipitation titration 46
10. Determination of silver by Mohr‟s/Volhard‟s/Fajan‟s method
MCHL-002 SEPARATION METHODS LAB CREDITS: 2
1. Liquid- liquid extraction behavior of Fe (III) and Ni (II) in tri- n-butyl phosphate (TBP)
from hydrochloric acid medium
2. Separations of Fe (III) and Ni (II) using TBP-HCl liquid- liquid extraction system 3. Determination of ion exchange capacity of a cation and an anion exchanger 4. Determination of total milliequivalents of metal ions in tap/sea water sample using a
strong cation exchanger from HCl medium
5. Separation of Fe (III) and Ni (II) using a strongly basic anion exchanger 6. Separation of cations by paper chromatography
7. Separation of amino acids by chromatography
8. Separation of carbohydrates by thin layer chromatography
9. Separation of chlorophyll pigments by column chromatography 10. Separation of iron and aluminium by column chromatography 11. Demonstration of working of HPLC and GLC and interpretation of plots MCHL-003 SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS LAB CREDITS: 2
1. Spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) ions using orthophenanthroline 2. Spectrophotometric determination of Ni(II) ions using dimethylglyoxime. 3. Spectrophotometric determination of Cr and Mn ions in a mixture of the two 4. Characterisation of functional group in organic compounds using IR spectroscopy 5. Characterisation of functional group in organic compounds using NMR spectroscopy 6. Turbidometric determination of sulphate ions
7. Flame photometric determination of Na and K or Ca and Mg 8. Ultraviolet spectroscopic determination of ethyl methyl ketone 9. Determination of pK value of indicators spectrophotometerically a
10. Interpretation spectroscopy (IR, NMR and Mass)
MCHL-004 ELECTROANALYTICAL AND OTHER METHODS LAB
1. pH titration of a strong acid (battery acid)
2. pH titration of a weak acid – determination of pK of acetic acid a
3. Potentiometric titration of a strong acid with a strong base using quinhydrone electrode
2+2;O4. Potentiometric titration of Fe with Cr 27? 5. Potentiometric determination of Clion content of common salt using AgNO 3
6. Conductometric titration of a strong acid with a strong base 7. Conductometric determination of acetic acid content of vinegar 8. Conductometric titration of a mixture of a strong acid and weak acid with a base 2+2+2+9. Identification and determination of Cd/Pb/Zn by polarography
2+2;O10. Amperometric Titration of Pb with Cr 27
11. Demonstration experiment ‒ solubility product