Ladies and Gentlemen, Leaders and Experts:

By Bradley Anderson,2014-05-02 07:17
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Ladies and Gentlemen, Leaders and Experts:

Study on the Evaluation System of Cadres Environmental Protection Performance

    Study on the Evaluation System of Cadres

    Environmental Protection Performance

    Guangdong Party School Project Team

Ladies and Gentlemen, Leaders and Experts:

    I am confided by Guangdong Institute of Administration and our research group to give a report on Study on the evaluation system of cadres environmental

    protection performance. My report includes three parts: First, briefly introduce our research group, Second, introduce some background of this study, why is this study put forward. Third, to introduce our progress on this study.

Introduction of our research group

    Cadres environmental protection performance evaluation is becoming a great concern nowadays. With the reform and opening policy, Guangdong has achieved great economic development. Guangdong is now among the most advanced provinces in China. But with the economic development, environmental problems occurred and kept worsening. That causes great concern. To promote environmental awareness of our administrators and cadres, carry out the cadres environmental protection

    performance evaluation and relate the evaluation result to their promotion and demotion is the key to control the situation.

    With the project of Sino-Canada environmental sustainable management collaboration being carried out, we proposed this topic when we contacted with Canadian experts. Due to the sensibility and uncertainness of this topic, it is not included in the scope of the Sino-Canada environmental sustainable management collaboration project. At the beginning of this year, we were informed by National Institute of administration that an international symposium will be held in our institute, and the Cadres

    environmental protection performance evaluation will be the focus of discussion. Thus, our vice president Cheng Hongyu and vice president Zheng Zuxuan held a special meeting to organize the research group for this study.

    Our research group includes six members, they are Fu Erlin(Ph.D in management, Professor), Cheng Yuyan(Ph.D candidate of resource and environmental law, lecturer), Wang Yuming(Master of Law, associate professor), Dai Yanyan(associate professor), Yue Fangmin(Ph.D candidate of manangement) and Zhou Licai( Ph.D candidate of Management, associate professor).


Study on the Evaluation System of Cadres Environmental Protection Performance

Background of this study

    Since Stockholm United Nations Conference on Human and Environment held 35 years ago, Rio de Janeiro United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held 15 years ago, and Johannesburg World summit Conference on sustainable development, most governments in the world have got to a common view: Every government must be responsible for the sustainable development of their own countries. Good administration is the fundamental of sustainable development. .Any

    emphasis on the role of state policy and development strategies is not too excessive. In the South Africa world summit conference, to establish an responsibility pursue system for environmental protection is being emphasized. Though the situation of different countries varies, their responsibility pursue system of environmental protection differs, but the target to protect our earth is the same. By exchange and collaboration, more common views on sustainable development can be reached. Due to large population but limited resource, our ecological environment is weak. Unbalanced development of different regions and low gross state economy quality made the contradiction between economic development and environmental protection prominent. Though the energy consumption per unit of GDP keeps

    decreasing(Figure1), but resource utility efficiency is still low. For example, our waste water discharge per unit of GDP is four times of that of developed countries. Solid waste produced by one GDP unit is 10 times higher than that of developed countries. Recently, total discharge of the main pollutants is still increasing(Fig.2).Discharge of Organic water pollutant and emission of SO are the No.1 in the world. The energy 2

    consumption coefficient is larger than 1, which indicate the growth rate of energy consumption is faster than growth rate of GDP. The total discharge of pollutant is 62% higher than environmental capacity, but Chinas GDP per capita is only one tenth of

    that of developed countries.



    Trend of Energy consumption of per unit GDP in China (unit 100000

    standard coal/a hundred million)

     Figure 1 Trend of Energy consumption of per unit GDP in China


Study on the Evaluation System of Cadres Environmental Protection Performance







    waste watersulfur dioxide industry solid castoff

    Figure 2 Gross discharge of waste water, SO, and solid waste in China in recent years 2








    energy consumption flexible coefficient=growth rate of energy

    consumption/growth rate of GDP

     Figure 3 Change of energy consumption flexible coefficient in China

    We need to develop economy and protect environment either. Development of economy should harmonize with ecological environment. The Eleventh- Five Year Plan has highlighted construct a society of resource saving, and environmental friendly as our basic state policy. General secretary of Chinese Communist party Hu Jintao often emphasizes its importance for our economic construction. Premiere Wen Jiabao once said We absolutely shouldnt make living by depending on the

    environment and resources we heritaged from our ancesters, but starving our descendants by destroying it. To construct a society of resource saving and

    environmental friendly, the key is how to evaluate our cadres environmental

    protection performance. In Chinese fiscal and taxation administration system, distribution of revenue to the central government and provincial government is based on GDP. If a provincial government hope to contribute more revenue to central government and get more revenue for local construction, the only way is to produce more GDP. In another word, an officials career achievement is directly related to the

    local GDP. That may drive the local government chasing the GDP lopsidedly, protection of environment and resource saving may be neglected. Since the economic growth pattern(which industry should be developed, which project should be constructed, ect.) is influenced or guided by the local government. If the environmental protection awareness of local government is weak, their policy making will be lopsided to the GDP instead of environmental protection. If the evaluation system of cadres career achievements doesnt bring in the evaluation index of

    environmental protection, and still focus on GDP lopsidedly, the economic growth


Study on the Evaluation System of Cadres Environmental Protection Performance

    pattern of three high(high input, high consumption and high pollution) will never be changed.

Study progress on the evaluation system of cadres environmental

    protection performance

    This part includes three parts, first, is our investigation and data collection, Secondly, comment on current evaluation system of cadres environmental protection

    performance. Third, our future research direction.

    Case investigation and data collection

    This study has some special difficulties. Currently, our evaluation of cadrescareer

    achievement on environmental protection is carried out by Environmental protection bureau and organizational department. Other unit or people has little knowledge about the evaluation procedure. Our research group is also not the except. For Guangdong, the evaluation system of cadres achievement on environmental protection is opened

    to the public, the results are also openly declared. But our knowledge about the evaluation procedure is limited. In order to get the first hand investigation material, our research group need to contact the local environmental protection bureau, leaders of organizational department and secretary general of the local government, they are the participants of the evaluation procedure. Secondly, we need to contact with the leaders who has been evaluated. In Guangdong, the head of the local government is the person who should be evaluated. But the leader is usually the most busy people. To have an interview with them is not easy. All that made our investigation last long.

    Guangdong is one of the earliest provinces which put the evaluation of cadres career

    achievement on environmental protection into practice. Up to now, we have interviewed some heads of the government, environmental protection bureau and organizational department of different prefecture. We also have interviewed the leaders of Guangdong provincial environmental protection bureau. From the investigation and material collection, we got some knowledge about the whole evaluation system.

    Comment on current evaluation system of cadres environmental protection

    performance - case stuty of Guangdong province

    ?.General objectives and principles of the evaluation system of cadres

    environmental protection performance: the general environmental quality can only be better, not worse.

    In the period of the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" , Chinas environmental quality was

    generally improved, but the environmental pollution is still serious and the environmental capacity is over burdened. So the general objectives of the evaluation system of cadres environment protection performance is that environmental quality must be better, not worse. This objective is also the general principle for the designing of the cadres environmental protection performance evaluation system. If our cognition on the general objectives and principles deviated, our action will go in a wrong way. For example, some regions with good environmental quality but weak


Study on the Evaluation System of Cadres Environmental Protection Performance

    economy maybe ignore environment and give economic development priority. Such phenomena exists in less developed regions of Guangdong.

    Generally, eastern regions is development first and then remediation, now we must and also have condition to increase investment on pollution remediation. Like the water quality in Pearl River Delta has been obviously improved in recent years. But it still hasnt reached the level of 1970s.

    The western regions are located in inner land of China. They are ecological fragile region and an ecological barrier region. The environmental quality of western

    region determines our countrys ecological safety in some extent, so we cant put it at


    The middle region has already started to accept some industries transferred from eastern region. The pollution also started affecting eastern region at down reach. So the environmental problems in middle region is very urgent now.

    According to Strategic report on Chinas sustainable development in 2006 issued by

    Chinese Academy of Sciences, by 2020, the growth of general demand for main energy and resource should be under control, the general environmental quality should keep stable and getting better. That also set the target for our environmental protection.

    ?Evaluation of cadres environmental protection performance must be enforced.

    If the baton for the head of government at different levels is still the solid economic index such as GDP and fiscal income, but the environmental quality is not included, rough production and management pattern will not be changed, our environmental quality can never be improved.

    Since Guangdong put the evaluation of cadres career achievement on environmental

    protection into practice, great effect has been achieved. Currently, the break point of Guangdongs environmental Kuznets curve has occurred. The general environmental quality is getting better. Usually, the break point of Americas environmental Kuznets

    curve is $10000 GDP per capita, Japan is $8000 GDP per capita, while the GDP per capita in Guangdong in 2006 is only $3509. The reason is mainly due to the enforcement of cadres environmental protection performance evaluation. China is now a market economy, but government plays a role of guidance. In Guangdong, there is a regulation that any project, its design, construction and operation all need environmental risk assessment. In 2006, 10% of projects have been abandoned because they failed passing the environmental risk assessment. The Environmental Special Fund arranged by Guangdong provincial finance increased up to 0.2 billion RMB Yuan in 2005 from 50 million RMB Yuan in 2003. During the Tenth-Five-Year Plan, the total environmental investment amount has researched about 200 billion RMB Yuan. Furthermore, the environmental investment accounts on over 2.5% of GDP within 4 consecutive years. The desulfurization of coal and fuel oil used in heat engine plant has been fully carried out. Huizhou and Jiangmen city have got the title of National model city of environmental protection. In Huizhou, any investment

    which hopes to enter the industrial park must pass the environmental risk assessment. Yingde city has already worked out the eleventh five year planning for


Study on the Evaluation System of Cadres Environmental Protection Performance

    environmental protection. Shaoguan city has set up a domestic sewage treatment plant for each county though the city is in tight fiscal situation.

    ? Establish an authoritative evaluation organization, in the evaluation system of cadres career achievement, ones achievement on environmental protection must be

    seriously taken into account.

    In the evaluation system of cadres career achievement, ones achievement on

    environmental protection must be seriously taken into account. In China, Communist party is in charge of cadres. Organizational department is responsible for assessing and appointing leading cadres. An authoritative organization must be constituted by organizational department, environmental protection department which provides technical support, and supervisory organ. That will ensure the evaluation maintain authoritative, fair and scientific.

    In Guangdong, provincial environmental protection bureau is in charge of the evaluation of the prefecture or municipal leader. Prefecture or municipal organizational department and environmental protection bureau are responsible for the evaluation of county leaders. The detailed procedure for the evaluation of leaders at prefecture level is : First, all the prefecture leaders carried out self evaluation, provincial environmental protection bureau take 30% out for a selective examination, then experts listen to the opinions of people who is been evaluated and then audit the evaluation results and give a final conclusion which will be reported to provincial organizational department and kept in archives. But without the participation of the provincial organizational department, the authority of environmental protection bureau is not enough, since the weight of the evaluation result of cadres

    environmental protection performance in the whole evaluation system of cadres

    career achievement is low. For the evaluation of leaders at county level, in some prefectures, both organizational department and environmental protection bureau participated the whole process, in other prefectures, only environmental protection bureau is responsible for that, the result of the former one is much better than the latter one. Since for the former one, organizational department may put more emphasis on the result, in other words, the weight of the evaluation result plays more important role in cadres assessment and promotion. That will drive the local

    government leader put more strength on environmental protection.

    In Jiangsu province, the evaluation committee is organized by Provincial organizational department, the committee is composed of provincial organizational department, provincial environmental protection bureau, personnel department, supervisory department, peoples congress, political consultation conference.

    Provincial environmental protection bureau provides the technical support for the whole evaluation. The committee ensures the authority of the evaluation result. But more details need to be investigated.

    ? Ensure the reliability and authenticity of the evaluation result

    From technical aspect, the authenticity of the environmental data could be ensured. But in practice, if the basic situation of the local environment is undervalued, a better evaluation result can be easily got. Secondly, environmental monitoring data


Study on the Evaluation System of Cadres Environmental Protection Performance

    sometimes can be influenced by man made factors. Such problems are often found in different extent.

    In order to ensure the authenticity of the evaluation results, surveillance of the evaluation process must be strengthened. The whole evaluation process must be opened to the public. Besides the evaluation committee members, the public should have the right to participate, express their own opinions, supervise and know the facts. In Shanghai, satisfactory investigation will be carried out on some key project. By holding symposium or sending out investigation form, the opinions of residents, delegates of peoples congress or committee member of Chinese peoples political

    consultative conference were investigated. That method can be used for reference. How to strengthen the participation of the public in the evaluation of cadres career

    achievement on environmental protection still needs to be further studied. ?For ones promotion, rewards or punishment, the evaluation results of cadres

    career achievement on environmental protection should be seriously taken into account. Environmental responsibility must be pursued.

    In Guangdong province, if the annual evaluation result of the government leader is excellent, the department in charge will circulate a notice of praise, if evaluation result is excellent for three consecutive years, party committee and peoples government at

    higher level will circulate a notice of praise and the leader group will be awarded a title of advanced collective in environmental protection. And a reward to the leader

    of the party or government . If the government leader failed the evaluation, the department in charge will circulate a notice of criticism, if that case continued for three consecutive years, party committee and government at higher level will circulate a notice of criticism, the leader of the party and the government cant be promoted

    within 5 years.

    This evaluation system plays some incentive role in driving government leaders to protect the environment. The environmental awareness of the government leader is strengthened, investment in environment protection is increasing, and the environmental quality is improving. But from investigation, the incentive and punishing strength of the evaluation system is not strong, punishment cant be

    seriously enforced in practice because of face saving reasons. Some leaders once said, only if the evaluation of cadres achievement on environmental protection can

    absolutely decide someones promotion or demotion, like family plannings impletion

    policy, otherwise the environmental problems cant be taken seriously. So on one

    hand, incentive scheme should be improved, on the other hand, punishment also should be enforced strictly.

    By the way , a report about annual evaluation results should be issued, reasonable improving suggestions should be put forward as well.

    Supervisory system of Canadas environmental sustainable development which is in

    charge by chief auditor of house of Representative of Canada could provide some enlightenment for us. In Chief auditor law of Canada, the part of participation of

    public in environmental protection, there is clear description about the duties of the chief auditor, minister of the government, expert in sustainable development, each


Study on the Evaluation System of Cadres Environmental Protection Performance

    performs his own function, otherwise is illegal. The law provides an operative procedure for the government officer. China should establish an operative scheme for the evaluation of cadres environmental protection performance, with the guidance of the scheme, related cadres could perform their own function within the scheme. The cadre who should be checked on their achievement in environmental protection is the first in command of the party and the government. In practice, the pressure is often transferred to the environmental protection department. But the environmental protection department only have the duties while have no corresponding rights, it is difficult for them to harmonize the relationship among different departments. The lack of coordination among different departments is the important reason for the waste of resources and environmental devastation. It is very necessary to establish an systematic and scientific evaluation system which could help to bring all the related departments working together.

    At the same time, environmental responsibility must be pursued. Resources and environment are valuable national fortune, any person who caused great resources waste and environmental devastation should be pursued. Evaluation of ones

    achievement in environmental protection is usually carried out after the event, sometimes the occurrence of environmental problems have some time lagging, if the leader left the office, it is difficult to pursue his responsibility for the environmental problems. If ascribe the previous environmental problem to the next leader, it is not fair . It is the important reason why it is not easy to keep the evaluation reliable and authentic. Sometimes it will make a situation of that nobody will be responsible for the environmental problems.

    ?The essential is to treat the relationship between the government and market properly.

    Under the condition of market economy guided by government, the local government need develop economy but also protect environment. So the governments function

    should be oriented definitely. The economic development should be led by the market. The government just do what the market cant . Even some environmental problems

    also can be solved by some market way. The topic has gone beyond the range of our object research. However, we think that cadres environmental protection performance

    evaluation will promote the improvement of the governments function.

    ?. Create favorable condition for cadres environmental protection performance


    It is obvious that the evaluation of cadres environmental protection performance

    doesnt mean to bewilder the cadres, but through the assessment system to advance the management of sustainable development. Currently, the puzzle for local government is the asymmetry between authority and duty.

    Since reform and opening policy, we have carried out the reform of the financial distribution system from “unified collection and allocation of funds by the central

    government to have separate kitchens ” . In 1994, revenue system was adjusted

    again as the local government had too much financial power , now higher level government has higher financial power. For example, the centralized degree of


Study on the Evaluation System of Cadres Environmental Protection Performance

    provincial level finance has been improved 2% per average year, moreover the deficit of county level finance was increased. Meanwhile, the payment responsibility including the providing of the public products & service, such as pubic infrastructure, basic education, medical health welfare, social security , environmental protection etc.) is transferring to lower level government. So it is very common that the local government reduce the investment on environmental protection.

    As for the phenomenon of local government non-action on the enterprise which violated environmental protection law and regulation, it varies in different degree. For example, some places which cannot provide fund for the environmental protection infrastructure due to their bad economic condition also cant get corresponding

    environmental infrastructure supporting fund from higher level government. In many cities of Guangdong there is no sewage treatment plant , even if some plants was built , they just operate sometimes and stop often because of the high cost of operation.

    The premise of finance decentralization is that right and duty should be clear and the supervision is efficient from central to each level of governments to harden the government financial budget and strengthen the supervision of finance management at the same time.

Further Research Plan

    There are still a lot of problems and issues to be studied further. If more supports can be offered by the related sides, we are planning to do the following investigation and research:

    (1) To expand the scope of investigation, to do much deeper research.

    At present, the measures of Cadres Environmental Protection Performance Evaluation (CEPPE) have been implementing in many provinces. Therefore, it is necessary to do the comparative research. Firstly, to enlarge the scope and fields of investigation into different level of leaders and cadres, and into the selected different provinces and regions in eastern, central and western China. To do it, we hope to get some supports and assistant from the Central Party School and other Provincial Party Schools. We have already got the support of the leaders of our institute at the beginning of this year. Secondly, to work out and study quantitatively on the issues of the Cadres Environmental Protection Performance Evaluation System and its indices weight. (2) On the relationship of this Cadres Environmental Protection Performance

    Evaluation with other evaluations.

    To coordinate the links and relationship between CEPPE and other evaluations. Nowadays, generally speaking, this CEPPE has not been paid enough attention to. Moreover, there are a lot of evaluation items for cadres at grass root with different contents, for example, evaluation on Birth-Planning, Production Safety, etc., these cadres, therefore, are often busy in coping with these various check and evaluations. All of these necessarily weakens the function and effects of CEPPE. Hence it is very necessary to clear the role and weight of CEPPE in all evaluation systems for the leaders and cadres.


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