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Appendix

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Appendix

    Appendix 4 - Pest data sheets

    Baris sp. [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] .................................................................. 3 Cholus spinipes (Fabricius, 1781) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]............................ 5 Cholus vaurieae (O‟Brien, 1994) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] ............................ 6

    Cholus zonatus (Swederus, 1787) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] ............................ 7

    Cotinis mutabilis (Gory and Percheron, 1833) [Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae] .......... 8

    Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick, 1913) [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae].................10

    Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi, 1913) [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae] ..................15

    Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley, 1959 [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae] ...........18

    Fusarium subglutinans (Wollenweb. and Reinking) P.E. Nelson, T.A. Tousson

    and Marasas [Mitosporic fungi] ..........................................................................23 Melanaspis bromeliae (Leonardi, 1899) [Hemiptera: Diaspididae] .....................29

    Melanoloma canopilosum Hendel, 1933 [Diptera: Richardiidae] ........................31

    Melanoloma viatrix Hendel, 1911 [Diptera: Richardiidae] ..................................32

    Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, 1992 [Hemiptera:

    Pseudococcidae] .................................................................................................34 Phenacoccus hargreavesi (Laing, 1925) [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae] ...............38

    Planococcoides njalensis (Laing, 1929) [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae] ...............41

    Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel and Miller, 1996 [Hemiptera:

    Pseudococcidae] .................................................................................................49 Strymon megarus (Godart, 1824) [Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae] ..............................54

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Baris sp. [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]

    Synonym(s) and changes in combination(s): Not known.

    Common name(s): Weevil.

    Host(s): Ananas comosus (pineapple) (Martínez, 1976).

    Species of Baris attack a wide variety of crop plants, including Armoracia rusticana

    (horseradish) (Anon., 1977a), Brassica napus (rape) (Anasiewicz and Szczygiel Bylicka, 1977), Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) (Zemkova et al., 1975), Medicago sativa

    (lucerne) (Anon., 1980), Morus sp. (mulberry) (Kikuchi, 1976), and Parthenium sp.

    (McClay, 1980).

    Plant part(s) affected: Pineapple fruit, causing gummosis (Martínez, 1976). Larvae of other species feed on roots (Anon., 1977b, McClay, 1980; Zemkova et al.,

    1975).

    Distribution: Venezuela (Martínez, 1976).

    The genus occurs in China (Zhen et al., 1990), Egypt (Awadallah et al., 1980), France

    (Leterme, 1990), India (Thompson, 1973), Iraq (Al-Janabi et al., 1983), Japan (Kikuchi,

    1976), Mexico (McClay, 1980), Morocco (Lahmer et al., 1992), Poland (Anasiewicz and

    Szczygiel Bylicka, 1977), Puerto Rico (Schotman, 1989), Ukraine (Zemkova et al., 1975),

    Europe (Anon., 1977a), Middle East (Thompson, 1973), and introduced into the United States (Anon., 1977a).

    Biology: The biology of Baris sp. on pineapple has been inadequately reported. In Venezuela, this species attacks pineapple fruit, causing gummosis (Martínez, 1976). Other species in the genus Baris are root-boring weevils that have potential for biological control of weeds (McClay, 1980), or pests whose adults form galls on the stems of Brassica spp. (Anon., 1977b). Larvae feed on roots (Anon., 1977b). Many weevils are parthenogenetic with males unknown or rarely produced (Zimmerman, 1994). Most weevils are able flyers but many have reduced wings and are flightless (Zimmerman, 1994).

    References:

    Al-Janabi, G.D., Al-Azawi, A.F. and Tamimi, T.M. (1983). Identification and

    transmission of bacterial soft disease of kohlrabi by insects. Plant Protection for thHuman Welfare. 10 International Congress of Plant Protection 1983. Volume 3.

    Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton, England, 2025 November, 1983.

    (Croydon, UK: British Crop Protection Council), 1196 pp.

    Anasiewicz, A. and Szczygiel Bylicka, B. (1977). Infestation of winter rape by

    Ceutorrhynchus quadridens Panz. and C. napi Gyll. (Curculionidae, Coleoptera) in

    the Province of Lublin in 1974 and 1975. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 7, 209218.

    Anon. (1977a). A weevil (Baris lepidii Germar) - Illinois. Cooperative Plant Pest Report

    2 (27), 490.

    Page 3

    Anon. (1977b). Pests not known to occur in the United States or of limited distribution. A

    weevil (Baris lepidii Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - Illinois. Cooperative

    Plant Pest Report 2 (34), 680685.

    Anon. (1980). A weevil (Baris lepidii) - Ohio. Cooperative Plant Pest Report 5 (3), 76.

    Awadallah, K.T., Tawfik, M.F.S. and Shalaby, F.F. (1980). Notes on the life-history of

    Baris arctithorax Pic on the weed Portulaca oleraceae L. (Coleoptera:

    Curculionidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt 60, 3543.

    Kikuchi, M. (1976). Control of insect pests of mulberry in Japan. Japan Pesticide

    Information 29, 911.

    Lahmer, M., Filali, R.M. and Sekkat, A. (1992). Preliminary study of the insect pest

    fauna of rape and its importance in the Saiss region. Al-Awamia 75, 2539.

    Leterme, P. (1990). Attention Baris: La recherche se mobilise. Bulletin CETIOM (Centre

    Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux Metropolitains) 104, 1617. (In

    French).

    Martínez, N.B. (1976). Estudio preliminar en el control de los insectos causantes de la

    gomosis en piña. Agronomia Tropical 26, 37. (In Spanish).

    McClay, A.S. (1980). Studies of the natural enemies of Parthenium hysterophorus (for

    Queensland). Trinidad, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Report of

    Work Carried out, April 1979 March 1980. (Slough, UK: Commonwealth

    Agricultural Bureaux), pp. 5859.

    Schotman, C.Y.L. (1989). Plant Pests of Quarantine Importance to the Caribbean.

    RLAC-PROVEG 21. (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Caribbean Plant

    Protection Commission), 81 pp.

    Thompson, R.T. (1973). Preliminary studies on the taxonomy and distribution of the

    melon weevil, Acythopeus curvirostris (Boheman) (including Baris granulipennis

    (Tournier)) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 63,

    3148.

    Zemkova, R.I., Prutenskaya, M.D. and Globova, N.D. (1975). A pest of Dutch carnations.

    Zashchita Rastenii 11, 55.

    Zhen, M.E., Wu, H.P., Xu, J.S., Fang, L.D., Li, M. and Yao, Y.G. (1990). Study on the

    life history and control of Baris deplanata Roelofs. Zhejiang Nongye Kexue 4,

    187190.

    Zimmerman, E.C. (1994). Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Volume 1.

    Orthoceri: Anthribidae to Attelabidae: The Primitive Weevils. (Melbourne,

    Australia: CSIRO Australia), 741 pp.

    Page 4

Cholus spinipes (Fabricius, 1781) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]

    Synonym(s) and changes in combination(s): Curculio spinipes Fabricius, 1781; Cholus

    wattsi Marshall, 1922.

    Common name(s): Pineapple weevil.

    Host(s): Ananas comosus (pineapple) (Marshall, 1922; O‟Brien, 1994).

    Plant part(s) affected: Crown, developing fruit, fruit suckers, leaf, stalk (Marshall, 1922).

    Distribution: Grenada (O‟Brien, 1994; Marshall, 1922; Vaurie, 1976).

    Biology: C. spinipes is known to be a pest of pineapples (O‟Brien, 1994). Injury to the pineapple is caused by the feeding of the larvae and adults (Marshall, 1922). Larvae feed in the fruit stalk, in the centre of the developing fruit, and in the crown (Marshall, 1922). The feeding punctures of adults in developing fruit, fruit suckers, stalk, the crown, and leaves of the base of suckers (Marshall, 1922; O‟Brien, 1994), and excavations made by the female for egg-laying cause considerable damage (Marshall, 1922). From field observations, it appears that eggs are laid in shallow, oval excavations in the flower stalk (Marshall, 1922). The larva travels up or down, feeding on the fruit stalk (Vaurie, 1976). Larvae were found burrowing upward in the stalks into the base of the fruit and downward into the crown (Marshall, 1922; O‟Brien, 1994). The larva can penetrate into the fruit, and can eat out the base of the crown (Marshall, 1922).

    Adults are 16.522 mm in length. Feeding punctures made by the adults in stalks and fruit are small and circular (Marshall, 1922). These feeding punctures often completely spoil the fruit. A badly attacked pineapple shows a gummy exudate, and will be deformed and undersized (Marshall, 1922). Attacked pineapples often lose their crowns, even if the fruit itself is uninjured (Marshall, 1922). Loss of the crown is common and the greatest damage is loss of fruit due to breakage of the fruiting stalk by the weight of the fruit (Marshall, 1922; O‟Brien, 1994). Adult weevils in captivity fed on the fruit, stalk, crown, and the leaves of the base of suckers, as well as perforating the leaves of the crown and suckers (Marshall, 1922). Vegetative portions of the plants, roots, root-stock, stem and leaves, are not attacked (Marshall, 1922).

    Control of this weevil appears to lie in good cultivation practices (i.e. well-kept fields, with plants in straight and regular rows, and clean weeded), and the absence of shade (Marshall, 1922). Damage appears to be worst in fields that are neglected and overgrown with weeds, or partly shaded (Marshall, 1922).

    References:

    Marshall, G.A.K. (1922). Some injurious Neotropical weevils (Curculionidae). Bulletin of

    Entomological Research 13, 5971.

    O‟Brien, C.W. (1994). Two new species in the Cholus spinipes group (Cholini,

    Curculioninae, Curculionidae). Transactions of the American Entomological

    Society 120, 412421.

    Vaurie, P. (1976). Revision of the Neotropical Cholinae. The subgenus Cholus (Cholus)

    (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History

    158, 178.

    Page 5

Cholus vaurieae (O’Brien, 1994) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]

    Synonym(s) and changes in combination(s): None.

    Common name(s): Pineapple weevil.

    Host(s): Ananas comosus (pineapple) (O‟Brien, 1994).

    Plant part(s) affected: Crown, flower stalk, fruit, leaf (O‟Brien, 1994).

    Distribution: Venezuela (O‟Brien, 1994; Salas and O‟Brien, 1997).

    Biology: Adults vary in size from 10.618.2 mm in length. This species is regarded as a

    serious pest of pineapples in plantations in northern Venezuela (O‟Brien, 1994).

    Most eggs are laid at the base of the flower stalk. The female excavates a small oviposition hole and lays one egg inside. More rarely, females lay eggs at the base of the crown and in the basal shoots (O‟Brien, 1994). The larva feeds inside the flower stalk, moving up or down from the point of entry (O‟Brien, 1994). Occasionally it bores through the central, woody part of the fruit (O‟Brien, 1994). The damage caused by the larva is the destruction of the inner tissue of the flower stalk, which inhibits the normal growth of the fruit, and is characterised by lack of formation of the crown (O‟Brien, 19944). Fruits attacked when fully developed and in the process of ripening may rot (O‟Brien, 1994; Salas and O‟Brien, 1997).

    Adults normally feed on the leaves, making holes, which can be recognised by their necrotic edges (O‟Brien, 1994). When they attack the basal part of the leaves, a gummy sap exudes from the resulting wounds (O‟Brien, 1994). When high populations are

    present, small fruits may also be attacked (O‟Brien, 1994).

    This species is considered to be a serious pest of pineapples in plantations in northern Venezuela (O‟Brien, 1994).

    References:

    O‟Brien, C.W. (1994). Two new species in the Cholus spinipes group (Cholini,

    Curculioninae, Curculionidae). Transactions of the American Entomological

    Society 120, 412421.

    Salas, J. and O‟Brien, C.W. (1997). Cholus vaurieae O‟Brien (Coleoptera:

    Curculionidae), nueva plaga de la piña en el estado Lara, Venezuela. Boletin de

    Entomologia Venezolana 12, 157158. (In Spanish).

    Page 6

Cholus zonatus (Swederus, 1787) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]

    Synonym(s) and changes in combination(s): Curculio zonatus Swederus, 1787;

    Curculio tricinctus Fabricius, 1792; Polyderces zonatus (Swederus).

    Common name(s): Weevil.

    Host(s): Ananas comosus (pineapple) (Schotman, 1989); Cocos nucifera (coconut)

    (Anon., 1972; Schotman, 1989).

    Plant part(s) affected: Fruit, stalk (pineapple) (Schotman, 1989); leaf (coconut)

    (Parasram and Mederick, 1971).

    Distribution: Dominica (Vaurie, 1976); Grenada (Vaurie, 1976); Guadeloupe (Vaurie, 1976); Martinique (Schotman, 1989); Trinidad (Anon., 1972); Saint Lucia (Parasram and Mederick, 1971; Schotman, 1989).

    Biology: This species is closely related to C. spinipes. Adults are 1116 mm in length

    with four conspicuous alternating yellow and mottled black coloured stripes on the thorax and elytra (Schotman, 1989). The larvae tunnel into the fruit and stalks of the pineapple (Schotman, 1989).

    In coconuts in Saint Lucia, the larvae tunnel into the leaves (Parasram and Mederick, 1971). Damage caused to the leaves included drying up and breaking, and young palms were sometimes killed under heavy attack (Parasram and Mederick, 1971). Eggs were laid singly in cavities on the lower surface of the midrib of the leaves and on the axis of the inflorescence (Parasram and Mederick, 1971). No predator or parasites were found. From tests made in the field, the removal and destruction of infested leaves, especially those already dead is recommended (Parasram and Mederick, 1971).

    References:

    Anon. (1972). Report 19711972. (St Augustine, Trinidad: University of the West Indies,

    Faculty of Agriculture), 255 pp.

    Parasram, S. and Mederick, F. (1971). A note on damage to coconuts in St. Lucia, West

    Indies, by a beetle of the Cholus zonatus complex. Tropical Agriculture 48, 125

    126.

    Schotman, C.Y.L. (1989). Plant Pests of Quarantine Importance to the Caribbean.

    RLAC-PROVEG 21. (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Caribbean Plant

    Protection Commission), 81 pp.

    Vaurie, P. (1976). Revision of the Neotropical Cholinae. The subgenus Cholus (Cholus)

    (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History

    158, 178.

    Page 7

Cotinis mutabilis (Gory and Percheron, 1833) [Coleoptera:

    Scarabaeidae]

    Synonym(s) and changes in combination(s): Gymnetis mutabilis Gory and Percheron,

    1833; Gymnetis atrata Gory and Percheron, 1833; Cotinis mutabilis var. atrata; Gymnetis

    nigrorubra Gory and Percheron, 1833; Cotinis mutabilis var. nigrorubra; Gymnetis

    mexicana Gory and Percheron, 1833; Cotinis mutabilis var. mexicana; Gymnetis palliata

    Gory and Percheron, 1833; Cotinis mutabilis var. palliata; Cotinis palliata; Gymnetis

    sobrina Gory and Percheron, 1833; Cotinis sobrina; Cotinis sobrina var. cabira

    Burmeister, 1842; Cotinis malinus Janson, 1880; Cotinis malina; Cotinis mutabilis var.

    cuprascens Bates, 1889; Cotinis mutabilis var. cuprascenti Bates, 1889; Cotinis mutabilis

    var. subcastanea Bates, 1889; Cotinis mutabilis var. intergenea Bates, 1889; Cotinis

    mutabilis var. aurantiaca Bates, 1889; Cotinis mutabilis var. robusta Bates, 1889; Cotinis

    sobrina var. schafraneki Nonfried, 1894; Cotinis mutabilis var. piciventris Kraatz, 1898;

    Cotinis mutabilis var. nigrovariegata Kraatz, 1898; Cotinis mutabilis var. cupraea Kraatz,

    1898; Cotinis mutabilis var. atropurpurea Kraatz, 1898; Cotinis mutabilis var. atra

    Kraatz, 1898; Cotinis texana Casey, 1915; Cotinis arizonica Casey, 1915; Cotinis

    abdominalis Casey, 1915; Cotinis abdominalis subsp. discolor; Cotinis obliqua subsp.

    coahuilae Casey, 1915; Cotinis obliqua subsp. viridicauda Casey, 1915; Cotinis obliqua

    subsp. commiscens Casey, 1915; Cotinis mutabilis ovicornuta Casey, 1915; Cotinis

    capito Casey, 1915; Cotinus mutabilis (sic).

    Common name(s): Fig beetle; fig eater; green fig beetle; peach beetle.

    Host(s): Ananas comosus (pineapple) (Camino-Lavín et al., 1996); Baccharis

    sarothroides (seep willow) (Thomas, 1981); Ficus carica (fig) (Stone, 1982); Prunus

    persica (peach) (Stone, 1982); Vitis sp. (grapevine) (Stone, 1982).

    Plant part(s) affected: Adults feed on fruit and larvae damage roots (Camino-Lavín et

    al., 1996; Moron and Deloya, 1991).

    Distribution: El Salvador (McGuire and Crandall, 1967); Mexico (Camino-Lavín et al.,

    1996; Deuve, 1992); northern South America (Goodrich, 1966); United States (Arizona, California, Mexico, New Mexico, Texas (Goodrich, 1966)).

    Biology: The biology of this insect on pineapple has not been reported.

    This beetle is very variable in colour, hence the large number of synonyms. These forms intergrade, and are considered by Goodrich (1966) to represent a single variable species. In California, over 60 eggs are laid in the soil in August, and hatch after 12 days. Eggs are whitish and large (2.1 ; 2.6 mm) and are easily detected in the soil (Stone, 1982). Newly emerged larvae are whitish with brownish head and legs. With abundant food they develop rapidly and reach a size of 1250 mm before pupation (Stone, 1982). The first

    two instars are usually completed by autumn, and the third instar occurs in spring of the second year. Larvae are soil dwelling and feed on organic matter on the soil surface (Coviello and Bentley, 2000). Mature larvae may be 2 inches long and are cream coloured with tan head capsules and legs. Rows of short, stiff, brown hairs on the back of thorax are used for locomotion rather than the legs. Mature larvae form hollow cells in the soil and pupate there (Coviello and Bentley, 2000).

    In California, the pupa is formed in JuneJuly in an earthen case constructed by the

    mature larva. The case may vary in size depending on the size of the pupa and gender. The average pupa size is 15 ; 25 mm. The duration of the pupal period ranges from 25

    27 days. In California, pupation outdoors may occur from early May up until August.

    Page 8

    Newly formed pupae are whitish and becoming cream coloured as they mature. Traces of green colour appear as the pupa matures.

    Adults are velvet green on top with a brownish yellow band around the edge of the wings and a bright metallic green colour on its ventral side. Female adults are larger, averaging 17 ; 25 mm, as compared with 13 ; 22 mm for males. The head is equipped with a short

    horn-like process on the front which is used for puncturing the skin of hard-skinned fruits (Stone, 1982). Adults occur in California from June until November (Stone, 1982). Adults are strong fliers (Chappell, 1984). Egg laying females are especially attracted to compost and manure piles (Stone, 1982).

    Adults damage figs by scraping a hole in the fruit and feeding on the flesh inside (Coviello and Bentley, 2000). Their excrement stains the skin of the fruit. Adults are attracted to traps containing chemicals from pineapple (Camino-Lavín et al., 1996).

    Reported as a destructive pest of peaches, figs and grapes in southern California (Stone, 1982).

    References:

    Camino-Lavín, M., Jiminez-Perez, A., Castrejon-Gomez, V., Castrejon-Ayala, F. and

    Figueroa-Brito, R. (1996). Performance of a new trap for melolonthine scarabs,

    root pests. Southwestern Entomologist 21, 325330.

    Chappell, M.A. (1984). Thermoregulation and energetics of the green fig beetle (Cotinus

    [Cotinis] texana) during flight and foraging behaviour. Physiological Zoology 57,

    581589.

    Coviello, R. and Bentley, W.J. (2000). UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Fig. Fig

    beetle (Cotinis texana). http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r261300511.html

    Deuve, T. (1992). Segmentary origin of male and female ectodermic genitalia in insects.

    New data from a gynandromorph in the Coleoptera. Comptes Rendus de

    308. (In French). l’Academie des Sciences Series I II, Sciences de la Vie 314, 305

    Goodrich, M.A. (1966). A revision of the genus Cotinis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Annals of the Entomological Society of America 59, 550568.

    McGuire, J.U. and Crandall, B.S. (1967). Survey of Insect Pests and Plant Diseases of

    Selected Food Crops of Mexico and Central America. (United States Department

    of Agriculture), 157 pp.

    Moron, M.A. and Deloya, C. (1991). The lamellicorn Coleoptera of the biosphere reserve

    “La Michilia”, Durango, Mexico. Folia Entomológica Mexicana 81, 209283. (In

    Spanish).

    Stone, M.W. (1982). The peach beetle, Cotinis mutabilis (Gory and Percheron) in

    California (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 58, 159161.

    Thomas, D.B. Jr (1981). Fighting behavior of Cotinus mutabilis (Cetoniinae) observed.

    Scarabaeus 5, 5.

    Page 9

Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick, 1913) [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae]

    Synonym(s) and changes in combination(s): Argyroploce leucotreta Meyrick;

    Cryptophlebia roerigii Zacher; Olethreutes leucotreta Meyrick; Thaumatotibia roerigii

    Zacher.

    Common name(s): Citrus codling moth; false codling moth; orange codling moth; orange moth.

    Host(s): This species has been recorded feeding on over 50 species of plants (van der Geest et al., 1991), including Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) (Pearson, 1958; Reed, 1974);

    Ananas comosus (pineapple) (Krüger, 1998; Pinhey, 1975); Annona reticulata (custard

    apple) (Pearson, 1958; Reed, 1974); Camellia sinensis (tea) (Krüger, 1998; Pinhey, 1975);

    Capsicum annuum var. annuum (sweet pepper) (Bourdouxhe, 1982); Citrus aurantium

    (laranja, sour orange) (Krüger, 1998; Pinhey, 1975); Citrus ; paradisi (grapefruit) (Carter,

    1984); Citrus spp. (Krüger, 1998; Pinhey, 1975; Schwartz and Milne, 1972); Coffea

    arabica (arabica coffee) (Krüger, 1998; Pinhey, 1975); Diospyros virginiana (persimmon)

    (Pearson, 1958; Reed, 1974); Ficus sp. (wild fig) (Pearson, 1958; Reed, 1974); Garcinia

    mangostana (mangosteen) (Pearson, 1958; Reed, 1974); Gossypium sp. (cotton)

    (Angelini and Couilloud, 1972; Pearson, 1958; Reed, 1974); Harpephyllum caffrum

    (Kaffir plum) (Willers, 1979); Hibiscus sp. (Pearson, 1958; Reed, 1974); Litchi chinensis

    (litchi, lychee) (Anon., 1974); Mangifera indica (mango) (Javaid, 1986); Olea europaea

    (olive) (Pearson, 1958; Reed, 1974); Persea americana (avocado) (du Toit et al., 1979);

    Pimenta dioica (pimento) (Bourdouxhe, 1982); Piper sp. (pepper) (Krüger, 1998; Pinhey,

    1975); Prunus domestica (plum, prune) (Blomefield, 1989; Krüger, 1998; Pinhey, 1975); Prunus persica (peach) (Blomefield, 1989; Daiber, 1976); Prunus persica var.

    nucipersica (nectarine) (Blomefield, 1989); Psidium guajava (guava) (Krüger, 1998;

    Pinhey, 1975); Punica granatum (pomegranate) (Krüger, 1998; Pinhey, 1975); Quercus

    robur (English oak) (Zhang, 1994); Quercus spp. (acorn, oak) (Anderson, 1986; Krüger,

    1998; Pinhey, 1975); Ricinus communis (castor bean) (Krüger, 1998; Pinhey, 1975;

    Valle-y-March, 1972); Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) (Pearson, 1958; Reed, 1974); Zea

    mays (maize) (Reed, 1974; Whitney, 1970).

    Plant part(s) affected: Larvae attack ears of maize (Whitney, 1970), cotton bolls (Nyiira, 1974), citrus fruit (Schwartz and Milne, 1972), avocado fruit (du Toit et al., 1979),

    macadamia nuts (Wysoki et al., 1986) mango fruit and leaves (Javaid, 1986), acorn nuts (Anderson, 1986), and pineapple fruit (Pinhey, 1975).

    Distribution: Angola (CIE, 1976); Benin (CIE, 1976); Burkina Faso (CIE, 1976); Burundi (CIE, 1976); Cameroon (CIE, 1976); Chad (CIE, 1976); Congo Democratic Republic (CIE, 1976); Côte d‟Ivoire (CIE, 1976); Ethiopia (CIE, 1976); Gambia (CIE, 1976); Ghana (CIE, 1976); Israel (Wysoki, 1986; Wysoki et al., 1986); Kenya (CIE,

    1976); Madagascar (CIE, 1976); Malawi (CIE, 1976); Mali (CIE, 1976); Mauritius (CIE, 1976); Mozambique (CIE, 1976); Niger (CIE, 1976); Nigeria (CIE, 1976); Rwanda (CIE, 1976); Réunion (CIE, 1976); Saint Helena (CIE, 1976); Senegal (CIE, 1976); Sierra Leone (CIE, 1976); Somalia (CIE, 1976); South Africa (CIE, 1976); Sudan (CIE, 1976); Tanzania (CIE, 1976); Togo (CIE, 1976); Uganda (CIE, 1976); Zaire (Zhang, 1994); Zambia (CIE, 1976); Zimbabwe (CIE, 1976).

    Biology: The biology of this insect on pineapple has not been reported. Eggs are translucent white, flattened, oval, ridged and flanged with a diameter of 0.9 mm (Pinhey, 1975; van der Geest et al., 1991). Females deposit 100400 eggs, usually laid

    singly, on fruits or cotton bolls of the respective crops (van der Geest et al., 1991). In

    contrast, eggs may be laid in groups on the surface of citrus fruits (Pinhey, 1975). The

    Page 10

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