University students are expected to read widely to gain knowledge
and construct informed opinions about their subject areas. You
must acknowledge all the sources you use in a process called
‘referencing’. Depending on the referencing technique, external
sources are usually given twice: (1) in the body of your work in the
form of in-text referencing; and (2) at the end of your work in the
form of a compiled reference list.
Which reference system to use?
There are many referencing systems and they differ in two main ways: (1) in the format of the references; and (2) in the location of the references.
Consult your course coordinator or course guide and establish which referencing system to use when you have been given an assessment task.
Why do I need to reference?
Different faculties, departments and even lecturers will have their preferences about how you should reference. While different lecturers may not agree on what type of referencing system you should use, they do agree that acknowledging sources is vital and that consistency in the referencing format you adopt is essential.
Referencing has several functions:
; to acknowledge the source of a quotation/ idea/ figure/ diagram etc.
; to demonstrate that you are building on previous research
; to provide details so the reader can verify the sources used
; to show that you are well-informed and that your writing is trustworthy
; to support a claim being made
; so other writers can find background material to use in their own writing
; so the reader can check that you have not misrepresented what the author wrote
; so the reader can find additional background information from the same source
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How do I know when to reference sources? When expressing ideas or concepts in your work you need to ask yourself the following questions to
guide you to reference your originating sources appropriately.
Q1. Are the words your own or someone else's words:
someone else's? provide an in-text citation and add full
details of the work to your reference list.
your own words: go to Q2.
Q2. Is this idea common knowledge? common knowledge:
you do not need to reference it.
NOT common knowledge: go to Q3.
Q3. Did you think of this yourself or you thought of it:
are you re-stating (paraphrasing) you do not need to reference it.
someone else's idea?
someone else's idea:
provide an in-text citation and add full
details of the work to your reference list.
You need to reference sources when you You need to reference sources when you obtain information from any works, such borrow or adapt material from other people,
as: such as:
Conferences Dictionaries Designs Diagrams
Documentaries Emails Figures Graphs
Encyclopedias Guides Ideas Images
Handbooks Journals Lectures Methods
Magazines Movies Photographs Presentations Newspapers Recordings Recordings Speeches
Textbooks Websites Tables Theories
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How do I integrate sources into my writing?
When you remove something from another source, you are taking it out of its original context and putting it into a new context. You must ensure that it fits properly into the new context i.e. your own assignment. The material from other sources must:
; be relevant to your argument
; join cohesively with the information before and after
; make logical and grammatical sense
When should I use quotations or paraphrase the information?
Quotations should be reserved for those occasions when a writer uses an unusual word or phrase, or expresses an idea in a particularly interesting way. Shorter quotations are better than long quotations, but you should try to use any quotations sparingly. If you are quoting, always use the original writer’s exact words. If you want to change them, you can do this by using square brackets [ ] or ellipsis (…). For example, if the original reads ‘Chocolate is good for everyone and essential for our mental wellbeing’, you could add information: ‘Chocolate is good for everyone and essential for our mental [and emotional]
wellbeing’; or you could omit some words: ‘Chocolate is . . . essential for our mental wellbeing’.
In most other cases, you should aim to paraphrase or, better still, use your own words. Whether you choose to use a direct quotation or to paraphrase, you will still need to reference the work.
When and how do I cite page numbers?
Page numbers should be used whenever you quote directly, whether it be words, ideas, facts, charts, designs, tables or figures.
In some referencing styles, such as Harvard, page numbers should also be provided for paraphrases. (This requirement can vary according to your department, so always check with your lecturer.) The following examples illustrate the use of page numbers in Harvard referencing style. Note the use of p. for one page and pp. for more than one page:
; One page (Smith 2009, p. 4)
; Pages in sequence (Smith 2009, pp. 25–26)
; Pages not in sequence (Smith 2009, pp. 1, 4 & 6)
; Pages from a website (Smith 2009)
What if a book was published several times with different dates?
Use the publication date of the book you used, because your edition may contain information which is different to another edition. If a book has been reprinted several times, use the date given in the
copyright information. Reprinting does not mean the book has changed; reprinting a book is not the same as publishing it in a new edition.
What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography?
A reference list includes only those sources which are referred to in the text. The names in the text and the reference list should match. A bibliography gives extra sources which the reader may find helpful. Some lecturers use the terms ‘reference list’ and ‘bibliography’ interchangeably, so check which they mean.
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What is EndNote??
It is necessary to make an accurate record of the resources that you find and use for an assignment. One
of the best ways to do this is to use the EndNote? package which is available to staff and students of the University of Adelaide. EndNote? is a software system for storing and managing bibliographic references. It allows you to add or easily import references from databases into your own EndNote? file,
to sort and search them, and to incorporate references automatically into papers you write using Microsoft Word.
For more information on EndNote? refer to:
University of Adelaide Referencing Guides
Other useful resources
University of Adelaide Library Information on Referencing
General Guides - Referencing
http://www.mq.edu.au/studyskillssupport/OnlineResources/Writing/CitingandReferencing.html Harvard Referencing
http://www.unisa.edu.au/ltu/students/study/referencing/harvard.pdf APA Referencing
If you require more assistance with Quick Guide to Referencing, please contact the Writing Centre on 8313 5771.
Visit the Writing Centre website for additional resources: www.adelaide.edu.au/writingcentre/
Principal Author: Donna Velliaris 2009, revised Julia Miller 2010
4 Learning Guide ? 2010 The University of Adelaide