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Batte's Pine... - Africa Rural Connect

By Jacqueline Powell,2014-11-21 23:00
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INTRODUCTION About Kayunga District Kayunga District is approximately 270,560 sq miles total cover land, Kayunga lies approximately 74 kilometres (46 mi) northeast of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city, on an all-weather tarmac highway. This location is approximately 58 kilometres (36 mi), by road, northwest of the city of J..

INTRODUCTION

    About Kayunga District

    Kayunga District is approximately 270,560 sq miles total cover land, Kayunga lies approximately 74 kilometres (46 mi) northeast of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city, on an all-weather tarmac highway. This location is approximately 58 kilometres (36 mi), by road, northwest of the city of Jinja, Uganda's second industrial city, after Kampala, also on an all-weather tarmac highway.The

    coordinates of the town are: 00 42 09N, 32 53 20E (Latitude:0.7025?; Longitude:32.8886?).

    According to the last national population census of 2002, Kayunga District had a population of 300,000 people. In 2008, the Uganda Bureau of Statistics estimated the population of the District at 350,000 people.

    Kayunga borders with 6 districts, including Apac in the north, Kamuli in the East, Mukono in the south, Luwero and Nakasongola in the west and Jinja. Thatare also

    potential beneficiaries and at certain point the project maybe extended to the mentioned districts.

    The district Headquarters is situated at Ntenjeru hill, 2km from Kayunga town. Kayunga district is divided into two regions. Ntenjeru County, Bbaale County has its headquarters at Bbaale in the northern extreme of the district. The district has 8 sub-counties, one town council headed by a Mayor, 61 parishes and 366 villages. Kayunga district has 3 political constituencies each represented by a Member of Parliament and the district Women constituency represented by a Woman Member of Parliament.

    Kayunga district has both tarmac and murram roads. It has a total of 48km of tarmac from Sezibwa Bridge to Nyinze in Kangulumira sub-county on the boundary between Mukono and Jinja district

    A number of programs such as the Plan for modernization of Agriculture, Poverty Action Fund and District Development Project have supported the district in the maintenance and rehabilitation of roads.

    Agriculture is the main economic activity in Kayunga district and represents 90% of the total employment. Kayunga practices mainly 2 types of agriculture that is animal husbandry or livestock farming and crop husbandry. The good climate, fertile soils, rainfall which peaks in March-May and October-November and huge lands makes agriculture one of the best alternatives for the population Kayunga district. Today Kayunga is the leading producer of high quality vanilla in Uganda and 88% population is engaged in production of cassava, matooke (plantains), pineapples, , maize, millet, watermelon, potatoes and passion fruits.

    Kayunga district has 157 government-aided primary schools and 50 private primary schools. It also has 7 government-aided secondary schools. Some of them include St. Kalemba, Bbaale, Kanjuki, Kangulumira Public, Nangabi, Ndeeba and Busaana Secondary Schools.

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Pineapple Growing.

    The pineapple is the leading edible member of the family Bromeliaceae which embraces about 2,000 species, mostly epiphytic and many strikingly ornamental. Now known botanically as Ananas comosus Merr. (syns. A. sativus Schult. f., Ananassa sativa Lindl., Bromelia ananas L., B. comosa L.), the fruit has acquired few vernacular names. It is widely called pina by Spanish-speaking people, abacaxi in the Portuguese tongue, ananas by the Dutch and French and the people of former French and Dutch colonies; nanas in southern Asia and the East Indes. In China, it is po-lo-mah; sometimes in Jamaica, sweet pine; in Guatemala often merely "pine" Description

    The pineapple plant is a terrestrial herb 2 1/2 to 5 ft (.75-1.5 m) high with a spread of 3 to 4 ft (.9-1.2 m); a very short, stout stem and a rosette of waxy, strap like leaves, long-pointed, 20 to 72 in (50-180cm) 1ong; usually needle tipped and generally bearing sharp, upcurved spines on the margins. The leaves may be all green or variously striped with red, yellow or ivory down the middle or near the margins. At blooming time, the stem elongates and enlarges near the apex and puts forth a head of small purple or red flowers, each accompanied by a single red, yellowish or green bract. The stem continues to grow and acquires at its apex a compact tuft of stiff, short leaves called the "crown" or "top". Occasionally a plant may bear 2 or 3 heads, or as many as 12 fused together, instead of the normal one. As individual fruits develop from the flowers they join together forming a cone shaped, compound, juicy, fleshy fruit to 12 in (30 cm) or more in height, with the stem serving as the fibrous but fairly succulent core. The tough, waxy rind, made up of hexagonal units, may be dark-green, yellow, orange-yellow or reddish when the fruit is ripe. The flesh ranges from nearly white to yellow. If the flowers are pollinated, small, hard seeds may be present, but generally one finds only traces of undeveloped seeds. Offshoots, called "slips", emerge from the stem around the base of the fruit and shoots grow in the axils of the leaves. Suckers (aerial suckers) are shoots arising from the base of the plant at ground level; those proceeding later from the stolons beneath the soil are called basal suckers or "ratoons". Varieties

    In international trade, the numerous pineapple cultivars are grouped in four main classes: 'Smooth Cayenne', 'Red Spanish', 'Queen', and 'Abacaxi', despite much variation in the types within each class. Mainly, 'Smooth Cayenne' is prized for canning, having sufficient fiber

    for firm slices and cubes as well as excellent flavor. In this project we shall try to test atleast each of the mentioned variaty for the successful production and utilisation of the pineapple products.

    The Favourable Climate of Pineapple Farming basically in Kayunga

    The pineapple is a tropical or near tropical plant limited (except in greenhouses) to low elevations between 30?N and 25?S. A temperature range of 65?-95?F (18.33-45?C) is most favorable, though the plant can tolerate cool nights for short periods. Prolonged cold retards growth, delays maturity and causes the fruit to be more acid. The good altitude has an important effect on the flavor of the fruit. Ideally, rainfall would be about 45 in (1,143 mm).

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    Pineapple is drought tolerant and will produce fruit under yearly precipitation rates ranging from 25 to 150 in (650-3,800 mm), depending on cultivar, and location and degree of atmospheric humidity in the District favour its productivity.

    The favourable soils

    Kayunga District has one of the best soils for pineapple culture, a well-drained, sandy loam with a high content of organic matter and it should be friable for a depth of at least 2 ft (60 cm), and pH within a range of 4.5 to 6.5.

    Propagation and existing local technology in the pineapple growing in Kayunga

    Crowns (or "tops"), slips (called nlbs or robbers in New South Wales), suckers and ratoons as commonly utilized for vegetative multiplication of the pineapple. To a lesser degree, some growers have used "stumps", that is, mother plant suckers that have already fruited. Seeds are desired only in breeding programs and are usually the result of hand pollination. The seeds are hard and slow to germinate. high rates of germination (75-90 % ) and more vigorous growth of seedlings results from planting untreated seeds under intermittent mist. The seedlings will be planted when 15-18 months old and will bear fruit 16-30 months later. Vegetatively propagated plants fruit in 15-22 months. For example in Queensland, tops and slips from the summer crop of 'Smooth Cayenne' are stored upside down, close together, in semi-shade, for planting in the fall. The project will use the suckers, those of medium size, approximately 18 in (45 cm) long, planted shallow and upright, yield best.

    During the harvest, plants that have borne single-crowned, superior fruits without basal slips will be selected and marked. Following harvest, these plants are cut close to the ground, the leaves will be stripped off and the stemsusually 1 to 2 ft (30-60 cm) long and 3 to 4 in

    (7.5-10 cm) thickare sliced lengthwise into 4 triangular strips. The strips are disinfected and placed 4 in (10 cm) apart, with exterior side upward, in beds of sterilized soil, semi-shaded and sprinkler-irrigated. Shoots emerge in 3 to 5 weeks and are large enough to transplant to the nursery in 6 to 8 weeks. 'Smooth Cayenne' yields an average of 3 shoots per slice. A one-acre (0.4 ha) nursery of 25,000 butts, therefore, yields between 100,000 and 200,000 suckers.

    General Pineapple Farming Culture

    The land will be well prepared at the outset because the pineapple is shallow-rooted and easily damaged by post-planting cultivation. No use of soil fumigation believed to contributes to high quality and high yields unless specified and approved by our final buyers.

    Planting Techniques of Pineapples in the District of Kayunga

    Planting will be done manually using the traditional short-handled narrow-bladed hoe, the handle of which, 12 in (30 cm) long, is used to measure the distance between plants. Crowns are set firmly at a depth of 2 in (5 cm); slips and suckers at 3 1/2 to 4 in (9 10 cm). Butts, after trimming and drying for several days, are laid end-to-end in furrows and covered with 4 in (10 cm) of soil. Double-rowing has been standard practice for many years, the plantlets set 10 to 12 in (25 30 cm) apart and staggered, not opposite, in the common rows, and with 2 ft (60 cm) between the two rows. An alley 3, 5 1/2 or 6 ft (.9, 1.6 or 1.8 m) wide is maintained between the pairs, allowing for plant populations of 17,400, 15,800 or 14,500 per acre (42,700, 37,920 or 33,800 per ha) respectively.

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Close spacing gives highest total crop weighte.g.. 18,000 plants/acre = 28.8 tons (43,200

    plants/ha = 69.12 tons). However, various trials have shown that overcrowding has a negative effect, reducing fruit size and elongating the form undesirably, and it reduces the number of slips and suckers per plant.

    Planting Season

    Main season of planting is April-May. But it is also planted in almost all months depending on the availability of land and planting material, avoiding the heavy rainy period in June-July.

    Weed Control Technologies

    Manual weeding in pineapple fields is difficult and expensive. It requires protective clothing and tends to induce soil erosion. Coffees husks will be used as mulch and fertilizers to discourage weeds.

    Flower Induction for Better Yields

    Pineapple flowering may be delayed or uneven, and it is highly desirable to attain uniform maturity and also to control the time of harvest in order to avoid overproduction in the peak periods.

    Harvesting Periods of Pineapples

    It is difficult to judge when the pineapple is ready to be harvested. The grower must depend a great deal on experience. Size and color change alone are not fully reliable indicators. Conversion of starch into sugars takes place rapidly in just a few days before full maturity. In general, for the fresh fruit market, the crop is harvested when the eye shows a light pale green color. At this season, sugar content and volatile flavors develop early and steadily over several weeks. When the crop is about 30 days slower to mature, and the fruits are picked when there is a slight yellowing around the base.

    In manual harvesting, one man cuts off or breaks off the fruits (depending on the cultivar) and tosses them to a truck or passes them to 2 other workers with baskets who convey them to boxes in which they are arranged with the stems upward for the removal of bracts and application of a 3% solution of benzoic acid on the cut stem of all fruits not intended for immediate processing.

    Life of Span of Pineapple Plantation

    In current practice, after the harvesting of the first crop, workers trim off all but 2 ratoons which will bear fruit in 15-18 months. Perhaps there may be a second or third ratoon crop. Then the field will be cleared to minimize carryover of pests and diseases. The method will vary with the interest in or practicality of making use of by products. According to the NAADS programme survey in the District 30 tones of coffee husks are required for 1 acre to support life span of 14 15 years at capacity.

Recommended Storage and Related Facilities.

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    The pineapples will be preserved in a cold storage at a temperature of 40?F (4.44?C) at the factory and under cool shed. Lower temperature causes chilling injury and breakdown in pineapples. At 44.6-46.4?F (7-8?C) and above, 80-90% relative humidity and adequate air circulation, normal ripening progresses during and after storage. At best, pineapples may be stored for no more than 4-6 weeks.

    The Main Target Use of the Project Pineapples

    Today there is a growing demand for pineapples as a beverage. Crushed pineapple, juice, nectar, concentrate, marmalade and other preserves are commercially prepared from the flesh remaining attached to the skin after the cutting and trimming of the central cylinder. All residual parts cores, skin and fruit ends are crushed and given a first pressing for juice to be canned as such or prepared as sirup used to fill the cans of fruit, or is utilized in confectionery and beverages, or converted into powdered pineapple extract which has various roles in the food industry. Chlorophyll from the skin and ends imparts a greenish hue that must be eliminated and the juice must be used within 20 hours as it deteriorates quickly. A second pressing yields "skin juice" which can be made into vinegar or mixed with molasses for fermentation and distillation of alcohol. In Africa, young, tender shoots are eaten in salads.

    Food Value per 100 g of Edible Portion (Laboratory Research)

    Moisture 81.3-91.2 g

    Ether Extract 0.03 0.29 g

    Crude Fiber 0.3-0.6 g

     Nitrogen 0.038-0.098 g

    Ash 0.21-0.49 g

    Calcium 6.2 37.2 mg

    Phosphorus 6.6-11.9 mg

     Iron 0.27-1.05 mg

    Carotene 0.003 0.055 mg

    Thiamine 0.048 0.138 mg

    Riboflavin 0.011-0.04 mg

     Niacin 0.13-0.267 mg

    Ascorbic Acid 27.0-165.2 mg

    ―Analyses of ripe pineapple made in Central America‖.

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Toxicity

    When unripe, the pineapple is not only inedible but poisonous, irritating the throat and acting as a drastic purgative. Excessive consumption of pineapple cores has caused the formation of fiber balls (bezoars) in the digestive tract. History of Pineapples Growing in Kayunga District

    Pineapples growing was adopted in Kayunga District following the devastation of coffee plantations by the coffee wilt disease, other youth resorted to growing passion fruits, after spending some years growing passion fruit, the enterprise proved to be hard and non- profitable because most of the fruit plants dried up after they were attacked by a strange disease.

    ―After most of our passion fruits dried up, we invited Mr Moses Byaruhanga (the

    special presidential assistant for political affairs) and Mr Salim Nandy, the NAADS executive director to assist us financially to revive our project,‖ Mr Njuba says

    When Mr Byaruhanga and Mr Nandy met the youth they advised them to abandon passion fruit growing for pineapples because the climate in the area was not favourable for former. In 2007, through the Presidential special and NAADS intervention many youth started growing pineapples

    Our Current Proposed Pineapples Projects

    During the process of consultations among the Youth, local service providers, Local Government Leaders, political representatives and the demand from the Presidents office to modernise Kayunga District through farming, Hon Nayiga Florence Ssekabira, the Women Member of parliament, supported AICC consultation to assist youth of Kayunga start up enterprises, the project was supported by H.E. The President and ordered Mr. Moses Byaruhanga and Mr. Ali Lule to work hand in hand with Hon Nayiga for the project success.

    The following youth farmers were selected from each village out of the many who were interested in the project for an immediate partnership Support.

    1. Kangulumira Sub- County

    Model Youths selected from Kigayaza Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size.

    1. Bwayo Geoffrey Kigayaza 3

    2. Wanda Geoffrey Kamira 3

    3. Kungu Geoffrey Kitambuza 3

    Model Youths selected from Kangulumira Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size.

    1. Kabuye James Kasambya 3

    2. Gimeyi Sperito Kalagala 3

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    3. WafanaYahaya Kiwugu 3 4. Nawati Soozi Kiwalasi 3 5. Namusobya Haawa Kasambya 3 Model Youths selected from Seta Nyiize Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Mukisa akubu Nyiize 3 2. Mutesi Gorret Nakirubi 3 Model Youths selected from Kikwanya Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Lubyayi Paul Kisawuzi 3 2. Luboyera Geoge W Kibetu 3

     3. Ssali John Kimooli 3 4. Ssekimpi David Kireku 3 5. Byekwaso Patrick Kikwanya 3 Model Youths selected from Nakatundu Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Kaggwa Miggo Nnongo 3 2. Katamba Richard Bugiri 3

     3. Ndugwa William Mpumudde 3 4. Nsubuga Joseph Kisega 3 Model Youths selected from Kawoomya Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Olyeki Eric Kawoomya 3 2. Wogwale Nambi Kungu 3 3. Kisalita Ben Maligita 3 4. Walimbwa Richard Mirembe 3

    2. Nazigo Sub- County.

    Model Youths selected from Katikanyonyi Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size.

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    1. Kakooza Rajjabu Katikanyonyi 3 2. Adde Moses Nakatooke 3 Model Youths selected from Nateta Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Dravuga Franc Kiribedda 3 2. Kigundu Dirisa Kawonawo 3

     3. Namala Yudaya Busagazi 3 Model Youths selected from Nazigo Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Ssemwanje Shabani Kyampisi 3 2. Nakabiri Robinah Kigobero 3

     3. Wadadda Isaya Senda 3 Model Youths selected from Bukamba Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Mutondo Tayibu Bukamba 3 2. Ssozi Gayanza 3 3. Kayanja Jackson Namirembe 3 Model Youths selected from Kirindi Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Matovu David Kasega 3 2. Nalweyiso Edith Samba 3

     3. Namudoola Jalia Nsiima 3 Model Youths selected from Nsiima Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Mutebi Ben Headquarters 3 2. Nalwoga Phiona Suppotta 3

     3. Bambaga Criss Salama 3 Model Youths selected from Kimanya Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size.

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    1. Monday Monga Kyetume 3 2. Susume Minsusera Gangama 3

     3. Kiweddeko David Kiziika 3 5. Moddo Annet Kimanya 3

    3. Kayunga Sub- County.

    Model Youths selected from Buyobe Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Wasswa Adams Patrick Buyobe 3 2. Kakeeto Ronald Kanjuki 3

     3. Kabogoza John Buwungiro 3 4. Nakamya Juliet Kawuku 3 Model Youths selected from Bubajwe Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Kajoba Rwajaga Bubajwe 3 2. Kawuma Vicent Kaazi 3

     3. Muwonge Hassan Bubajwe 3 4. Iga Salim Namatogonya 3 5. Namirimu Eva Wajanzi 3 Model Youths selected from Kiteredde Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Lubwama Elijah 3 2. Mukungu Henley Kiteredde Luguddo 3

     3. Okoth Vicent Bugoge 3 4. Sekwati Joseph Bugogge 3 5. Nnobi Ivan Kagoye 3 Model Youths selected from Bukujju Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Senkanjja Richard Nalweweta 3 2. Katali Shaban Kyamimbi 3

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     3. Ssali Wilson Busoolo 3 4. Kaana James Kiyagi 3 Model Youths selected from Bukolooto Parish

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Kyalimpa Annet Gaaza 3 2. Ssempagama Sunday Ndeeba 3

Model Youths selected from Busaale Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Title Ramos Moses Kito 3 2. Bassu Steven Busaale 3

     3. Kayiwa Richard Kyebanja 3 4. Magumba Muzamiru Busaale 3 Model Youths selected from Nsotoka Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Walusimbi Mataba 3 2. Nabbingo Moses Kiwooza 3

     3. Musuuza Eric Nsotoka 3 4. Balikowa Steven Bunyumya 3 5. Kafeero Mamulanda 3 6. Lwanyaga Alex Ssuka 3 Model Youths selected from Nakaseeta Parish.

    S/no Name of Youth beneficially Village Acreage size. 1. Nanyange Terira Kilyamuli 3 2. Kyeswa Francis Nakaseeta 3

     3. Mwogezi Francis Wankyaliraki 3 4. Ntalo Abdullah Nakaziba 3 5. Sentongo Livingstone Kisombwa 3 6. Ssebiyungo David Kigombwa 3

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