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A Translation Project Report

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A Translation Project Report

    A Translation Project Report-

    Foreignizing/Domesticating Skills in Non-literary

    Translation

    摘要

     当代翻译理论层出不穷,各种翻译方法与策略也不断推陈出新,传统的直译、意译之争随着时代进步依然困扰着翻译理论研究者。至奈达这一集大成者,主张翻译之科学,因而提出形式对等与动态对等之辩;亦有纽马克的语义与交际翻译?之说。而自上世纪七十年代以来描述翻译学、翻译文化倾向的出现,韦努蒂给出了归化与异化翻译之区分,这一思想事实上发轫于施莱尔马赫时期,而在当今内涵更为深刻。这一区分从另一视角解决了直译、意译的难题,却不仅限于此。

     在翻译理论中国化的过程中,学者在对待归化与异化两种翻译策略的态度上分成了旗帜鲜明的两派;随着国内翻译理论的发展,两种方法的结合使用成为了大的趋势,也为跨文化交际研究、翻译理论的发展以及译者地位的正确定位做出了巨大贡献。本文以两篇非文学翻译练习为例,探究这两者翻译策略如何运用于非文学作品之中、起着什么样的作用。

    关键词:归化翻译异化翻译翻译策略非文学翻译

     ?巴斯奈特在《翻译研究》中强调翻译的文化转向。

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    Abstract

     In contemporary times all kinds of translation theories just keep emerging in and there comes along various translation methods and strategies. Traditional argument on literal translation or free translation, as times goes by, still bothers translation theorists. EugeneNida concluded all theories and came up with his Translation Science, discussing formal equivalence & dynamic equivalence. Besides, Peter Newmark put forward similar semantic & communicative translation. Since 1970s, descriptive translation and the tendency towards culture rose, and Lawrence Venuti made a distinction between domesticating and foreignizing translation. Actually this distinction originates from the era of Schleiermacher, and it is given a deeper connotation in recent years. It solves the dilemma of literal translation and free translation and goes further beyond this.

     During the sinicization of translation theories, Chinese scholars are divided into two distinct different schools. As domestic translation theories develop, the combination of the two strategies becomes the main stream, which, at the same time has made critical contributes to study on cross-cultural communication, translation theories and proper positioning about the status of translators. This article, based on the two translation practices, looks into how foreignizing translation and domesticating translation are used in non-literary pieces and what roles they play. Key Words: Domesticating translation foreignizing translation translation strategies non-literary translation

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    Contents

    摘要 ..................................................................................................... i Abstract .............................................................................................. ii 1. Description of the Material for Translating .................................... 1

    1.1 Description of the Content ............................................................................. 1

    1.2 Non-literary Translation................................................................................. 1 2. Conceptions and Connotations of the Translation Strategies ......... 2

    2.1 Basic Knowledge about Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating

    Translation .................................................................................................................... 2

    2.2 Foreignizing Translation vs. Domesticating Translation ............................. 2

    2.3 Domestic Studies on Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating

    Translation .................................................................................................................... 2

    2.4 Lawrence Venuti’s View ................................................................................. 3 3. Case Studies.................................................................................... 4

    3.1 Embodiment of Foreignization in the Material............................................ 4

    3.2 Embodiment of Domestication in the Material ............................................ 4

    3.3 Summary.......................................................................................................... 4 4. Conclusion ...................................................................................... 5

    4.1 Findings............................................................................................................ 5

    4.2 Limitations ....................................................................................................... 5

    4.3 Further studies ................................................................................................ 5 Bibliography....................................................................................... 6

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1. Description of the Material for Translating

     1.1 Description of the Content

     In C-E material (Appendice I) Sense of Justice and the Stability of Social

    Cooperation, it demonstrates the role of sense of justice plays in the stability of social cooperation, how it plays its role and why it is able to do that. The focus is the first one. All over the material there are jargons, numbers and deductive sentences, which means, it is not that literary as novels, poems or whatnot. As a whole it is an essay about economics and politics which is quite objective and based on facts and data. And in E-C material (Appendice II) Measuring African Governance by Attributes or

    by Results, it describes the method which should be used to measure African governance. By comparing the two measurements it comes to a conclusion that what we need is a comprehensive one, namely World Governance Index (WGI) and Ibrahim Index. Obviously it is also an essay about economics and politics. And it is a serious debate which cannot be translated as the translators will.

     Therefore, they are not likely to knock into rhetoric devices such as metaphors, similes, onomatopoeia and so on which need to be translated carefully not to lose their spirits. Such materials are yet connected with culture, just like literary ones. So certain translation strategies must be adopted to bridge the cultural gap.

     1.2 Non-literary Translation

     From the perspective of content translation can be divided into two categories: literary translation and non-literary translation. To discuss those two we need to figure out what are literary text and non-literary text. The former one, with the help of language tools, reflects life vividly and expresses the authors understanding and

    sentiments towards life and society by all kinds of literary forms, to arouse peoples

    ?feelings about beauty and artistic joy.And the rest can be recognized as non-literary

    text, which involves commerce, law, medicine, science, news, advertisement and other practical texts. Comparing with literary text, non-literary text has three features:

     First, it is not fictional yet real on the basis of facts. It has the very details, rich materials and it is accurate and objective in expressions.

     Second, it emphasizes on accuracy and simplicity more than artistry of language. Moreover, a certain text has its own language rules and terms.

     Third, the author of non-literary text uses his logic thinking other than image building. On the level of methods he adopts real things, numbers, logic judgments and deductive sentences.

     Thus some translators at home always pay more attention on domestication when they are dealing with literary texts, such as Qian Zhongshu and his thought of

    ?Huajing.When it comes to non-literary text which shares little literacy, can domestication be applied to it? Is foreignization the best choice for all of this type?

     ?Li Changshuan gives this definition in his book about non-literary translation. ?He agrees with that the translator has to make his audience understand what the original text wants them to know in the easiest way, namely domestication.

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    2. Conceptions and Connotations of the Translation Strategies

     2.1 Basic Knowledge about Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation

     It is generally agreed that the distinction between foreignizing translation and domesticating translation begins from Lawrence Venuti in his bookThe Translator’s

    InvisibilityA History of Translation. On the surface it is similar to the debate about literal translation and free translation. Actually it can be recognized as the development of them. And it has further developed them. Foreignization, according to Venuti, is to accept the language and culture difference of foreign texts and bring the readers to the certain foreign situation. On the contrary, domestication is to bring

    the author into the target language culture. (Venuti, 1995:20) This goes beyond

    language but to culture and aesthetics, etc.

     2.2 Foreignizing Translation vs. Domesticating Translation

     The debate over whether translation should be source-oriented or

    ?sttarget-orientedhas recurred from Cicero to the 21century and has again been a

    focus of discussionsin the last decade.

     Different translators and translation theorists have different views on whetherforeignizing translation or domesticating translation should be put into practice.

    Which one is better? This is the most controversial topic in the circle of translationstudies.

     According to MaysaA.Haywar, in translation theory, foreignization anddomestication are two strategies. Foreignization emphasizes differences betweensource cultures and target cultures; domestication minimizes cultural differences.

     2.3 Domestic Studies on Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation

     In China, the debate over foreignizing translation has been made by many ascholar such as Lu Xun, GuoJianzhong, Sun Zhili, to name only a few. Themost typical writer of foreignizing translation was Lu Xun, “A translation shouldpreserve

    the exotic color of the target text, which we call the foreign flavor. There isno 100 percent domesticated translation in the world. If there is this kind oftranslation, it is not faithful and far away from the target text which is not translationat all.”

     In ancient China Yan Fu and Lin Shu are advocators for domestication due to the political and social circumstances of that time. Domesticating translation offers, in ?Yan Fu’swords, “Faithfulness,expressiveness and gracefulness. No wonder that

    thmost of Yan Fu’s translations were so popular, especially at the end of the 19century

    thand the beginning of the 20century.And in contemporary times Qian Zhongshu is

    certainly a big fan for domestication. In this light, the product is a smooth and fluent

     ?Cicero is an ancient translator, who put forward the debate of literal translation or free translation. ?In Chinese, namely 信、达、雅.

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translation, quite easy for itsreaders to read and comprehend.

     2.4 Lawrence Venutis View

     Ventuti said that domesticating strategy had been implemented at least sinceancient Roman times, when translation was a kind of conquest, and translators into

    Latin not only deleted culturally specific markers but also added allusions to the Roman culture and replaced the names of Greek poets with those of their own,passing

    the translation off as a text originally written in Latin.

     For Venuti, a translation should retain the foreignness or the foreign flavors of the original text, that is, cultural differences. Therefore, as to a foreignizing translation,cultural differences appear, whereas for a domesticating translation, culturaldifferences disappear. In addition, the former is able to represent a strategic culturalintervention in the current state of world affairs.

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3. Case Studies

     3.1 Embodiment of Foreignization in theMaterial

     The application of foreignization is mostly in Appendice II, where many phrases are so exotic considering the cultural difference in China that wed better retain their

    foreign flavors. These differences embrace names, time, idioms, some rhetorical devices and other aspects of culture. For instance, in the source text there are regular name like Devarajan or special title like Lord Acton, we translate them as 德瓦

    拉贾 and 阿克顿勋爵 to remind the readers they are foreigners and endow the article a foreign style. And as for special noun such as the Bonn International Centre

    for Conversion”I use a bracket with the English name and abbreviate BICC in it after the Chinese translation 德国Bonn转化国际中心 (of course you can see I add

    German to it as an explanation to help comprehend, which meanwhile add to an exotic tone).

     3.2 Embodiment of Domestication in theMaterial

     Probably due to Venutis theory is so much rooted in my mind that I have tried hard to use a domesticating method when dealing with the E-C material for fear that we let western value system take ours by translation. For example, in the source text

    as a time marker, and in Chinese it has to be 二十世纪九十年代 as there is 1990s

    a habitual expression. Another instance would be the proverb power tends to corrupt,

    and absolute power corrupts absolutely, because I translate it into a repeated

    sentence 权力使人腐败,绝对的权力绝对使人腐败, which is a rhetorical device in

    Chinese.

     In Appendice I there is domestication too. Idioms such as 最后通牒 and 针锋

    相对 are replaced by phrases the Ultimatum and tit-for-tat that foreigners can

    get. As for numbers, I make some changes too. Say Chinese“10 shall be translated

    into 10 thousand as a habit.

     3.3 Summary

     To sum up, in non-literary texts there can be foreignization as well as domestication and no one can be ignored. To a certain extent they may be of same significance and a combination is needed when translating a non-literary text.

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4. Conclusion

     4.1 Findings

     This thesis has tentatively analyzed the following questions:When it comes to non-literary text which shares little literacy, can domestication be applied to it? And is foreignization the best choice for all of this type? The analysis proceeds on two levels: a theoretical analysis and case studies.

     On the one hand, translation, especially literary translation, is a cultural event, in whichcultural differences are inevitable. Therefore, a translator frequently confrontshimself/herself with cultural gaps which are big problems to deal with. InVenuti’s view, the readers of foreignizing translation will be able to enjoy foreign

    colorsand flavors. This strategy, to a large degree, can play the role in non-literary texts.As for domesticating translation, it is obviously a helpful method for the readers to comprehend foreign texts.

     On the other hand, on many occasions, Ihave employed foreignizing translation in and domesticating translation in completing this work, both of which have assisted me a lot to express the essence I think the source text has.

     4.2 Limitations

     The present tentative attempt is far from being thorough and perfect.Foreignizing translation and domesticating translationare by no meanscure-all in tackling translationproblems in terms of non-literary texts.

     However, many Chinese translators always believe that a translation is either

    black or white other than to combine two methods. Actually the two strategies are complementary.Furthermore, in non-literary texts these two are of significance yet it needs time for all translators to admit that.

     4.3 Further studies

     It is expected that translators and translation theorists pay more attention tothe study of foreignizing translation and domesticating translationin non-literary texts. Yet a translatorshould by no means go to extremes to perform a translation work through onlyforeignizing translation or only domesticating translation. Therefore, there remains a problem that a translator shoulduse the two translation strategies to what extent in translating a non-literary text and in what circumstance they should both be adopted.

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    Bibliography

[1]VenutiLawrence, 1995,

    TheTranslator’sInvisibility:AHistoryofTranslation[M].London:Routledge.

    [2] Bassnett Susan, 2002, Translation Studies [M]. New York: Routledge. [3] Peter Newmark, 2001, A Textbook of Translation [M]. Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

    [4] Eugene Nida, 1993, Language, Culture and Translating [M]. Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

    [5]Hazel M. McFerson, 2009, Measuring African Governance by Attributes or by Results [J], Journal of Developing Societies 25,2(2009):253-274 6] 郭建中,1998,翻译中的文化因素:归化与异化[[J],上海:外国语:12-18.

    [7] 陈江进,1994-2010,正义感与社会合作的稳定性[J],中国学术期刊电子出版

    社。

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