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im_schach_8th_ed_chap10_v06

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    CHAPTER 10

    KEY MATERIAL FROM PART A

    The sole purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of those software engineering con-cepts that the students need to understand to comprehend Part B before studying Part A, so that they can start their software engineering team projects as soon as possible. Most of the problems in this chapter are of the form “Define X” or “Distinguish between Y and Z.” This is to ensure that the students truly understand the key concepts.

    PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

    10.1: A life cycle is the actual series of steps followed in the building of a specific product,

    whereas a life-cycle model is a theoretical description of how to build software.

    10.2: A software product is a model of the real world, and the real world is continually chang-

    ing. In particular, the client’s requirements frequently change while the software is

    being developed.

    10.3 Incrementation adds functionality, whereas iteration improves the quality of an increment.

10.4: The requirements workflow, analysis workflow, design workflow, implementation work

    flow, and test workflow.

    10.5: The aim of the requirements workflow is to determine exactly what the client needs. The

    aim of the analysis workflow is to analyze and refine the requirements to achieve the

    detailed understanding of the requirements. The aim of the design workflow is to refine

    the artifacts of the analysis workflow until the material is in a form that can be imple-

    mented by the programmers. The aim of the implementation workflow is to implement

    the target software product in the chosen implementation language(s). The aim of the

    testing workflow is to ensure that all the artifacts are correct.

    10.6: The Unified Process is a methodology for developing software. The Unified Process

    uses a graphical language, the Unified Modeling Language, to represent the software

    being developed.

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    10.7: A model is a set of UML diagrams that represent one or more aspects of the software

    product to be developed.

    10.8: Most software products are too large (or too complex) to be built by one software

    engineering professional within the given time constraints.

    10.9: Determining whether a possible course of action would be profitable by comparing esti-

    mated future benefits against projected future costs.

10.10: Size, cost, duration, effort, quality.

    10.11: A CASE tool assists in just one aspect of the production of software. A CASE work-

    bench is a collection of tools that together support one or two activities. A CASE envi-

    ronment supports the complete software process.

    10.12: Whenever an artifact is changed, whether during development or maintenance, there will

    be two versions of the artifact: the old version and the new version. The specific version

    of each artifact from which a given version of the complete product is built is called the

    configuration of that version of the product.

    10.13: A fault is injected into a software product when a human makes a mistake. A failure is

    the observed incorrect behavior of the software product as a consequence of a fault, and

    the error is the amount by which a result is incorrect. The word defect is a generic term

    for a fault, failure, or error.

    10.14: The quality of software is the extent to which the product satisfies its specifications.

10.15: Execution-based testing is running test cases, and non-execution-based testing is care

    fully reading through an artifact.

    10.16: Coupling is the degree of interaction between two modules; cohesion is the degree of

    interaction within a module.

    10.17: Reuse refers to using components of one product to facilitate the development of a differ-

    ent product with a different functionality.

    10.18: The work to be done: the resources with which to do it; and the money to pay for it all.

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