By Jerome Pierce,2014-03-18 16:47
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Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Shier, Butler & Lewis

    Twelfth Edition

Chapter 5 Outline

    5.1: Introduction

     A. Similar cells with a common function are called tissues.

     B. The study of tissues is called histology.

     C. There are four (4) primary or major tissue types:

     1. Epithelial Tissue

     2. Connective Tissue

     3. Muscle Tissue

     4. Nervous Tissue

     Intercellular Junctions

     A. Tight junctions

     1. Close space between cells

     2. Located among cells that form linings

     B. Desmosomes

     1. Form “spot welds” between cells

     2. Located among outer skin cells

     C. Gap junctions

     1. Tubular channels between cells

     2. Located in cardiac muscle cells 5.2: Epithelial Tissue

     A. General characteristics:

     1. Cover organs and the body

     2. Line body cavities

     3. Line hollow organs

     4. Have a free surface

     5. Have a basement membrane

     6. Are avascular

     7. Cells readily divide

     8. Cells tightly packed

     9. Cells often have desmosomes

     10. Function in protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion

     11. Classified according to cell shape and number of cell layers

     Epithelial Tissue

     A. Simple squamous:

     1. Single layer of flat cells

     2. Substances pass easily through

     3. Line air sacs

     4. Line blood vessels

     5. Line lymphatic vessels

     B. Simple cuboidal:

     1. Single layer of cube-shaped cells

     2. Line kidney tubules

     3. Cover ovaries

     4. Line ducts of some glands

     C. Simple columnar:

     1. Single layer of elongated cells

     2. Nuclei usually near the basement

     3. Membrane at same level

     4. Sometimes possess cilia

     5. Sometimes possess microvilli

     6. Often have goblet cells

     7. Line uterus, stomach, intestines

     D. Pseudostratified columnar:

     1. Single layer of elongated cells

     2. Nuclei at two or more levels

     3. Appear striated

     4. Often have cilia

     5. Often have goblet cells

     6. Line respiratory passageways

     E. Stratified squamous:

     1. Many cell layers

     2. Top cells are flat

     3. Can accumulate keratin

     4. Outer layer of skin

     5. Line oral cavity, vagina, and anal canal

     F. Stratified cuboidal:

     1. 2-3 layers

     2. Cube-shaped cells

     3. Line ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and

     the pancreas

     G. Stratified columnar:

     1. Top layer of elongated cells

     2. Cube-shaped cells in deeper layers

     3. Line part of male urethra and part of pharynx

     H. Transitional:

     1. Many cell layers

     2. Cube-shaped and elongated cells

     3. Line urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra

     Glandular Epithelium

     A. Composed of cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances

     B. There are two (2) types:

     1. Endocrine glands are ductless (key word: hormone)

     2. Exocrine glands have ducts

     a. Unicellular exocrine gland:

     1.) Composed of one cell

     2.) Goblet cell

     b. Multicellular exocrine gland:

     1.) Composed of many cells

     2.) Sweat glands, salivary glands, etc.

     3.) Simple and compound

     Types of Glandular Secretions

     A. Merocrine Glands

     1. Fluid product

     2. Salivary glands

     3. Pancreas gland (?)

     4. Sweat glands

     B. Apocrine Glands

     1. Cellular product

     2. Portions of cells

     3. Mammary glands

     4. Ceruminous glands

     C. Holocrine Glands

     1. Secretory products

     2. Whole cells

     3. Sebaceous glands

    5.1 From Science to Technology: Nanotechnology Meets the Blood-Brain Barrier

    5.3: Connective Tissues

     A. General characteristics:

     1. Most abundant tissue type

     2. Many functions:

     a. Bind structures

     b. Provide support and protection

     c. Serve as frameworks

     d. Fill spaces

     e. Store fat

     f. Produce blood cells

     g. Protect against infections

     h. Help repair tissue damage

     3. Have a matrix

     4. Have varying degrees of vascularity

     5. Have cells that usually divide

     Connective Tissue: Major Cell Types Present

     A. Fibroblasts

     1. Fixed cell

     2. Most common cell

     3. Large, star-shaped

     4. Produce fibers

     B. Mast cells

     1. Fixed cell

     2. Release heparin

     3. Release histamine

     C. Macrophages

     1. Wandering cell

     2. Phagocytic

     3. Important in injury or infection

     Connective Tissue: Fiber Types Present

     A. Collagenous fibers

     1. Thick

     2. Composed of collagen

     3. Great tensile strength

     4. Abundant in dense CT

     5. Hold structures together

     6. Tendons, ligaments

     B. Reticular fibers

     1. Very thin collagenous fibers

     2. Highly branched

     3. Form supportive networks

     C. Elastic fibers

     1. Bundles of microfibrils embedded in elastin

     2. Fibers branch

     3. Elastic

     4. Vocal cords, air passages

     Connective Tissues

     A. Connective Tissue Proper:

     1. Loose connective tissue

     2. Adipose tissue

     3. Reticular connective tissue

     4. Dense connective tissue

     5. Elastic connective tissue

     B. Specialized Connective Tissue:

     1. Cartilage

     2. Bone

     3. Blood

     Connective Tissue Types

     A. Loose Connective Tissue

     1. Mainly fibroblasts

     2. Fluid to gel-like matrix

     3. Collagenous fibers

     4. Elastic fibers

     5. Bind skin to structures

     6. Beneath most epithelia

     7. Blood vessels nourish nearby epithelial cells

     8. Between muscles

     B. Adipose Tissue

     1. Adipocytes

     2. Cushions

     3. Insulates

     4. Store fats

     5. Beneath skin

     6. Behind eyeballs

     7. Around kidneys and heart

     C. Reticular Connective Tissue

     1. Composed of reticular fibers

     2. Supports internal organ walls

     3. Walls of liver, spleen, lymphatic organs

     D. Dense Connective Tissue

     1. Packed collagenous fibers

     2. Elastic fibers

     3. Few fibroblasts

     4. Bind body parts together

     5. Tendons, ligaments, dermis

     6. Poor blood supply

     E. Elastic Connective Tissue

     1. Abundant in elastic fibers

     2. Some collagenous fibers

     3. Fibroblasts

     4. Attachments between bones

     5. Walls of large arteries, airways, heart

     F. Bone (Osseous Tissue)

     1. Solid matrix

     2. Supports

     3. Protects

     4. Forms blood cells

     5. Attachment for muscles

     6. Skeleton

     7. Osteocytes in lacunae

     G. Cartilage

     1. Rigid matrix

     2. Chondrocytes in lacunae

     3. Poor blood supply

     4. Three (3) types:

     a. Hyaline Cartilage

     1.) Most abundant

     2.) Ends of bones

     3.) Nose, respiratory passages

     4.) Embryonic skeleton

     b. Elastic Cartilage

     1.) Flexible

     2.) External ear, larynx

     c. Fibrocartilage

     1.) Very tough

     2.) Shock absorber

     3.) Intervertebral discs

     4.) Pads of knee and pelvic girdle

     H. Blood

     1. Fluid matrix called plasma

     2. Red blood cells

     3. White blood cells

     4. Platelets

     5. Transports

     6. Defends

     7. Involved in clotting

     8. Throughout body in blood vessels

     9. Heart

    5.1 Clinical Application: The Body’s Glue: The Extracellular Matrix 5.2 Clinical Application: Abnormalities of Collagen 5.4: Types of Membranes

     A. There are four (4) types of epithelial membranes:

     1. Serous Membranes

     a. Line body cavities that do not open to the outside

     b. Reduce friction

     c. Inner lining of thorax and abdomen

     d. Cover organs of thorax and abdomen

     e. Secrete serous fluid

     2. Mucous Membranes

     a. Line tubes and organs that open to outside world

     b. Lining of mouth, nose, throat, etc.

     c. Secrete mucus

     3. Cutaneous Membranes

     a. Covers body

     b. Skin

     4. Synovial Membranes

     a. Composed entirely of connective tissue

     b. Lines joints

    5.5: Muscle Tissues

     A. General characteristics:

     1. Muscle cells also called muscle fibers

     2. Contractile

     3. Three (3) types:

     a. Skeletal muscle

     1.) Attached to bones

     2.) Striated


     b. Smooth muscle

     1.) Walls of organs

     2.) Skin

     3.) Walls of blood vessels

     4.) Involuntary

     5.) Non-striated

     c. Cardiac muscle

     1.) Heart wall

     2.) Involuntary

     3.) Striated

     4.) Intercalated discs

    5.6: Nervous Tissue

     A. Found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves

     B. Functional cells are neurons

     C. Neuroglial cells support and bind nervous tissue components

     D. Sensory reception

     E. Conduction of nerve impulses

    5.2 From Science to Technology: Tissue Engineering: Replacement Bladders and Hearts Outcomes to be Assessed

     5.1: Introduction

    ; Describe a tissue, and explain the intercellular junctions found in tissues.

    ; List the four major tissue types in the body.

     5.2: Epithelial Tissues

    ; Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissue.

    ; Name the types of epithelium and identify and organ in which each is found.

    ; Explain how glands are classified.

     5.3: Connective Tissues

    ; Describe the general characteristics of connective tissue.

    ; Compare and contrast the cellular components, structures, fibers, and

    extracellular matrix (where applicable) in each type of connective tissue.

    ; Describe the major functions of each type of connective tissue.

     5.4: Types of Membranes

    ; Describe and locate each of the four types of membranes.

     5.5: Muscle Tissues

    ; Distinguish among the three types of muscle tissue.

     5.6: Nervous Tissues

    ; Describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissue.

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