Development Trends in the Polish Printing and Printed Packaging Industry
The scientific and technical conference on “Development Trends in the Polish Printing and ththPrinted Packaging Industry” was held in Poznań from 8 to 9 April. The event attracted key
professionals including academic experts, printing and packaging sector managers, machines and materials suppliers as well as representatives of education institutions. The conference programme was dedicated to the analysis of the current situation in the industry, possible development trends and challenges the printing industry has to face.
26 papers, presented during the event, covered a wide range of subjects focused on packaging printing, including production and control processes, equipment, monitoring, materials (substrates, inks) in terms of requirements connected with industrial safety, biodegradability, strength properties, etc. A significant part of the event was dedicated to the unconventional research methods used in the process and material analyses as well as the importance of vocational education in meeting today’s printing challenges.
Abstracts of papers presented during the conference
1. Printing as a Scientific Discipline. Searching for the Definition, Andrzej Makowski,
COBRPP - Research & Development Centre for the Graphic Arts, Warsaw
The author presents origins of printing and its cultural role, history and today’s
technological opportunities to integrate printing with other scientific fields.
2. Packaging – Present Situation and Trends, Stanisław Tkaczyk, COBRO - Polish
Packaging Research and Development Center, Warsaw
The article presents the world’s packaging market and situation of the packaging
industry in Poland. The author discusses the results of COBRO strategic analyses of
priorities for the packaging sector in coming years indicating the importance of
development in such areas as health and human life protection, environmental
protection, optimal protection of transported goods, innovations in packaging,
materials and packaging systems, forecasting production development and material
utilization, training, normalization and information activities. The author also shows
the latest trends in packaging sector and education problems to be solved.
3. Printing in Poland – Present Condition and Development Prospects in the EU
Market, Bernard Jóźwiak, COBRPP - Research & Development Centre for the
Graphic Arts, Warsaw
The author starts with the macro-environmental analysis of the Polish printing industry
(PEST analysis consisting of political, economic, social and technological factors).
The paper shows the opportunities and risks resulting from those factors. The
influence of financial and economic crisis as well as the situation in Asia are also
discussed. The author presents the situation of the graphic arts in the media market and
the condition of the printing industry in the European Union and Poland. Based on the
analyses of strong and weak points of the printing industry in Poland and the
opportunities and risks, the author presents required development trends for the
industry. The paper analyses such aspects as the market structure, management
systems and methods, costs and prices, investment and development trends,
professional qualifications and environmental protection. The author underlines the
role of co-operation between printing houses, value added to printing services,
innovations and cost control.
4. Implementation of the National Qualification Framework, Jan Bagiński, the
Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Production Systems Organization
Differences in the education systems in the EU countries create some barriers which make the integration difficult and limit the mobility of people. The barriers engendered a need for necessary changes in higher education systems to make them more comparable, compatible and coherent. The process of changes aims at creating the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in 2010. Implementation of the National Qualification Framework (NQF) is one of the stages of this process. The author disscusses basic phases of development and implementation of the NQF, objectives of various institutions developing and implementing the NQF, methods for defining teaching results within the NQF, examples of planned results for technical sciences including academic degrees, teaching results at the Warsaw University of Technology Faculty of Production Engineering including papermaking and printing.
5. Tradition and Modernity. Designing Printing Magazines in Poland at the Beginning stof 21 Century, Artur Frankowski, the Warsaw University of Technology
Institute of Mechanics and Printing
The author defines the term of “typography”, which used to be attributed to printed texts and nowadays it has extended its use owing to expansion of the Internet and other modern information and communication technologies. The author gives examples of the newest typefaces designed for specific purposes, e.g. reading in very small type sizes, visual identification of companies, institutions, regions, or commercial design. In his paper the author includes names of eminent Polish typographists and shares his own experience in this field.
6. A Repertoire of Computer Fonts, Andrzej Tomaszewski, COBRPP - Research &
Development Centre for the Graphic Arts, Warsaw
The author defines computer fonts and turns his attention to the significance of the issues connected with production of fonts and their practical use. A specific example is discussed including basic design aspects. The author underlines the need for designing graphically consistent alphabets and he discusses issues connected with designing and using Unicode fonts.
7. The Quality of Overprint in the Light of New ISO Standards, Svitlana
Khadzhynova, Marek Kryczka, The Institute of Papermaking and Printing, the Technical University of Łódź
The authors emphasize the growing role of quality control in printing. The paper is focused on the quality analysis proofs used in the offset printing. The authors stress that to obtain required quality of printing production, the changes of reproduced information appearing in each stage of the production cycle have to be limited by a group of certain parameters. The standardization of the technological process serves this purpose. The paper presents the best known ISO standards with guidelines concerning print preparation and printing itself, specification of quality parameters for various printing techniques (ISO 12647, Part 1-7). Standards concerning quality in offset printing (ISO 12647-2) and digital printing (ISO 12647-7) are discussed in greater detail.
8. Evaluation of Packaging Conformity with Requirements of Environmental Protection Law, Hanna Żakowska, COBRO - Polish Packaging Research and
Development Center, Warsaw
The author outlines the requirements of Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste. The paper discusses issues concerning evaluation of packaging conformity with those requirements done within internal control carried out by an economic operator responsible for introduction of packaging or packaged goods to the market. It presents procedures for evaluation of conformity with requirements for material, packaging and packaging system. The paper also lists standards regulating the rules how to prepare the declaration of conformity. H. Żakowska also presents the
projects the COBRO works on in the field of conformity evaluation and voluntary certification in terms of packaging material and organic recyclability.
9. Application of Computer Aided System Supporting Process Management in Printing House, Jacek Kochanowski, Grupa KK, Radom
The author presents the profile of his company. He describes the computer system installed in the company, which combines the company management with the production management through the integration with the finance and accounting system. The author shows advantages of the system implementation – from production
planning and orders handling through calculations and contacts with customers to cost analyses and utilization of production capacities.
10. New Achievements in IML Labels Printing, Barbara Kozielska, Cezar Printing
The author describes the in-mould labeling system (IML). She lists technical requirements, which have to be met by the IML labels to maintain uninterrupted production. The author characterizes foils used in the manufacture of the IML labels and the effects resulting from their use. The paper presents various types of inks used for printing the IML labels (conventional, oil-based, uv, hybrid) and emphasizes the advantages of printing with uv inks (immediate fixing, low migration, environmental aspects). It also shows trends in development of the IML system – special effects
(metallization, gloss and matte finishes) and protection measures for packaged goods.
11. Polypropylene Films with Balanced Orientation Used for Labeling in IML System,
Andrzej Kornacki Innovia Films, Poznań
The author describes preferences of manufacturers (packing their goods in containers with the IML labels) as regards used films and obtained effects. He discusses differences between properties of films oriented with two technologies: stretching (orientation in horizontal direction) and blow-molding (balanced orientation) and shows advantages of films with balanced orientation and the labels made of this type of films.
12. Preparation of High Resolution Offset Forms for Lenticular and IML Printing,
Piotr Hinc, Grafix Centrum Poligrafii, Gdańsk
The author presents new software for 3D images treatment, based on two types of rasters – conventional and stochastic. He shows advantages of a new hybrid raster (no moiré effect, clear imaging of small, regular elements) and its possible application (e.g. pictures of buildings, textiles, machines; lenticular print, multi-colour IML; reproduction of raster images), image setters and plates allowing to achieve the best print results. He presents the product combining two different labels: personalized
IML and 3D labels and he discusses the manufacture process.
13. The Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Biodegradable Packaging Materials,
Hieronim Kubera, the Poznań University of Economics Department of
Commodity Sciences, the Warsaw University of Technology Faculty of
Production Engineering; Karolina Assman, the Warsaw University of
Technology Faculty of Production Engineering; Krzysztof Melski, the Warsaw University of Technology Faculty of Production Engineering
The authors discuss advantages of ionizing radiation as an alternative solution in relation to conventional methods for food preservation and packaging sterilization. Ionizing radiation causes required product changes, however it may be a reason for unwanted effects in packaging. During the analysis of usability of packaging materials for packing food products preserved with ionizing radiation it is necessary to define the interaction mechanism between packaging and product, maintain neutrality of packaging material against the product, barrier properties against micro-organisms, define conditions, in which the packaging is stored during and after radiation. The authors also discuss the types of negative changes in polymers exposed to ionizing radiation including biodegradable materials.
14. Migration of Printing Inks Components from Packaging to Food, Janina Leks-
Stępień, The Institute of Papermaking and Printing, the Technical University of Łódź
The author gives general characteristics of food contamination risks caused by printing inks coming from printed packaging. She quotes legal regulations in the area of food packaging safety such as Resolution ResAP(2005)2 on packaging inks applied to the
non-food contact surface of food packaging materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. In the paper, the author discusses migration of material components, foodstuff products or model liquids imitating foodstuffs, as well as definition of migration, its types, testing methods, mechanisms, determinants and results.
15. Aplication of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry for Testing Migration of Benzophenone and 4-Methylbenzophenone (Components of Printing Inks) from
Food Packaging, Karol Bal, Zbigniew Mielniczuk, Małgorzata Pawlicka, COBRO
- Polish Packaging Research and Development Center, Warsaw
The European institutions responsible for toxicological safety and food safety as well as the European associations of printing inks and board packaging manufacturers pay particular attention to the risk of migration of hazardous substances contained in printing inks such as benzophenone (BP) and 4-methylbenzophenone(4-MBP). The
authors present the method for determination of migration and content of BP and 4-MBP in food-simulating liquids using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The method was developed in the COBRO chromatographic laboratory. The paper contains the analyses of testing results obtained with this method.
16. Health Safety of Food Contact Packaging, Zofia Pogorzelska, COBRO - Polish
Packaging Research and Development Center,Warsaw
The author presents legally binding regulations on food contact materials.
17. Vocational Printing Education in Poland – Today’s Challenges, Bogdan Kostecki,
the Upper Secondary Schools in Nowa Ruda
The author presents the organizational, professional and geographical structure of printing teaching in Poland. He lists problems connected with training activities and preparation for external exams, educational basis, shortage of teaching staff and he stresses the need for adopting education programmes to the newest printing technologies.
18. Vocational Printing Education in Poland – Model Solution, Andrzej Januszkiewicz,
the Technical School for Printing and Bookselling, Krakow
The author presents the structure of the school, its achievements, co-operation with the industry, current modernization supported by the Regional Operational Programme and the teaching programme of the school.
19. Application of Computer Methods and Tools in Quality Control of Printing Processes, Jacek Hamerliński, COBRPP - Research & Development Centre for
the Graphic Arts, Warsaw
At the beginning the author presents the definition of the product and process quality and he refers to the standards which may form a foundation for establishing quality criteria. To maintain production quality at required level it is necessary to use information from the production process control to reduce defects. The author stresses the role of computer systems in printing production control. He presents industry standards designed to simplify information exchange between different applications and systems in and around the graphic arts industry (JDF – Job Definition Format ,
MIS – Management Information System).
20. The Impact of Raster Structure of Triad Reproduction on the Area of Reproducible Colours of Reproduction Process, Kondrad Blachowski, the Warsaw University of
Technology Institute of Mechanics and Printing
The author presents the results of testing the impact of raster structure on basic properties of multi-colour and multi-tone proof, which may change colour impression caused by the light reflected from the print with other fixed parameters of print production process. The author presents how different raster structures influence the basic properties of the areas of reproducible colours of selected printing process in different metrologic spaces connected with the colour.
21. Utilization of Nano-fillers in Modification of Food Packaging Properties, Józef
Richert, the Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials and Dies, Toruń
The author reviews the latest works on structures, types, properties and utilization of powder nano-fillers used for modification of packaging properties. He discusses the production methods of polymer based nano-composites with those nano-fillers. The paper shows available testing results for mechanical, structural, thermal and commercial properties of the nano-composites depending on the type and degree of filling polymer matrix, particularly in terms of gas permeability, biocidecity and antistaticity of packaging materials. The author determines requirements for the equipment used in the production of packaging products made from nano-composites. He outlines the key trends in application of products made from polymer based nano-composites depending on the nano-filler used and its converting method.
22. Physical Methods for Modification of Biodegradable Films Dedicated for Printing,
Marian Żenkiewicz, the Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
The author characterizes biodegradable polymers paying particular attention to polymers from renewable sources. He emphases the role of polymer films adhesion and substances applied during printing, gluing, laminating and decorating. The paper discusses basic methods for physical modification of a biodegradable film top layer, particularly the method of corona discharge or generated plasma in reduced pressure. The author also presents the results of his own tests of modification of polylactide films with corona discharge.
23. Results of Complex Verification of Adhesive Bindings Durability, Jerzy Petriaszwili,
The paper shows the research results aiming at determination of influence of various technological process parameters on durability of adhesive bindings and, based on that, preparation of the methods for evaluation of bindings durability which will allow to obtain objective and repeatable results. It also presents investigations on the tensions in spine adhesive layer during using and testing books with Pull Test. The paper also discusses the impact of mechanical treatment of binding spines and the influence of storing temperature on durability of adhesive bindings.
24. Testing Ink Transfer through Short-train Inking Unit, Krzysztof Stępień, The
Institute of Papermaking and Printing, the Technical University of Łódź
The author explains the construction of short-train inking units and and its effectiveness, technological and structural parameters influencing the amount of ink in the ink and printing unit. The paper contains results of testing the mathematical model for capacity of the ink-carrier and anilox using computer simulation based on MATLAB-Simulink.
25. Properties and Application of UV/EB Inks, Robert Kuczera, Michael Huber
The author describes both technologies, their applications and advantages in production of IML labels and food packaging (EB/UV low migration inks). He also shows barriers delaying popularization of those technologies.
26. Opportunities for Making Contemporary Electronic Systems with Printing Methods – Materials and Technologies, Joanna Wasilewska, COBRPP - Research &
Development Centre for the Graphic Arts, Warsaw
The author describes contemporary materials and technological solutions allowing to make organic electronic systems with printing methods. She also presents such solutions as RFID tags, solar batteries, OLED monitors and problems connected with their implementation.