By Nathan Wood,2014-06-28 01:17
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    Part I

    The Literature of Colonial America and Revolution

    (1607-end of the 18th century) ; American Puritanism

    ; Major Representative Literary Figures

    Jonathan Edwards (17031758)

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

    ; Other Representatives

     Philip Freneau (1752-1832)

     Most important poet of the 18th century America

    Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)

    First American woman poet; a Puritan poet; once called ―Tenth Muse‖

    Part II

    The Literature of Romanticism (1800-1865)

    ; Washington Irving

     First great prose stylist of American Romanticism

     The Sketch Book

     --- Rip Van Winkle

     --- The Legend of Sleepy Hollow ; James Fenimore Cooper

     First important American novelist; westward movement

     ―The Leather stocking Tales‖

     --- The Pioneers (1823)

     --- The Last of the Mohicans (1826)

     --- The Prairie (1827)

     --- The Pathfinder (1840)

     --- The Deer slayer (1841)


; “New England Transcendentalism” or “American Renaissance”:


    ; Ralph Waldo Emerson

     Bringing Transcendentalism to America in 1836

     Nature: Manifesto of American Transcendentalism

    ; Henry David Thoreau

     Putting many Emerson’s theory into practice Walden: Failure first, successful in the 20th century

    ; Nathaniel Hawthorne

     Famous for advancing the art of ―romance‖

     The Scarlet Letter

     General theme: evil and sin

     Hester, Dimmesdale, Chillingworth

    ; Twice-Told Tales (1837) (collection of short stories) ; Moses from an Old Manse (1846) (collection of short stories)

     ---"Young Goodman Brown" (1835)

     ---"Rappaccini's Daughter" (1844)

    ; The House of the Seven Gables (1851)

    ; Herman Melville

     Against the optimistic view of his time

     Moby Dick: little response, famous until the 20th century, an

    encyclopedia of everything

    ; Walt Whitman

     A transitional poet from Romanticism to Realism

    Leaves of Grass--- famous until the 5th edition

     --- Democratic thoughts

     Song of Myself‖ (most famous one)

     ―Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking‖

     ―When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d‖


     Influence on modern poetry: free verse ; Emily Dickinson

     Subject and theme: death and immortality

     My life closed twice before its close‖

     ―Because I could not stop for death‖

     ― I heard a Fly Buzz- When I died‖

     ―Death is a Dialogue between‖

    ; Writing style: full of fresh images, precursor to the Imagist


    ; Edgar Allen Poe

    Father of psychoanalytic criticism, father of detective story, great impact

    on European writers

    Poem (melancholy):

     ―The Raven,‖ ―To Helen,‖ ―Annabel Lee,‖

     ―Sonnet – To Science‖ (p.107-109)

    Short story (horror):

     The Fall of the House of the Usher‖

    Part III

    The Literature of Realism (1865-1918)

    ; Three most important realists

    1. William Dean Howells

     Powerful critical writing

     The Rise of Silas Lapham

    2. Mark Twain:

     Localism and colloquial style

     The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Slavery, quest for freedom

    Huck, Jim

    3. Henry James:


     Psychological realism

     International theme

     The Portrait of a Lady

     The Wings of the Dove

     The American

     Daisy Miller

    ; Naturalism: pessimistic, deterministic

    1. Stephen Crane:

     Maggie: A Girl of the Streets;

     The Red Badge Of Courage

    2. Frank Norris:


    The Octopus

    3. Jack London:

     Prolific American novelist and short story writer,

    Martin Eden

    4. Theodore Dreiser:

    Most famous naturalist

     Sister Carrie;

    An American Tragedy;

     Trilogy of Desire: Financier, Titan, Stoic

    Part IV

    The Literature of Modernism (1918-1945): Poetry

    ; Imagism:

    1. Ezra Pound

    Founder of the imagist movement

    Cantos; ―In a Station of the Metro‖

    2. T.S.Eliot


    The Waste Land; The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

    3. Robert Frost

     People and landscape of New England

     ―Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening‖;

     ―The Road not Taken‖

    4. Other poets

     Wallace Stevens

     Carl Sandburg

     E. E. Cummings

    Hart Crane

    Part IV

    The Literature of Modernism (1918-1945): Novel

    1. F. Scott Fitzgerald

     The spokesman of the 1920s

     The Great Gatsby

    2. Ernest Hemingway

     The representative of the Lost Generation;

     Nobel Prize in 1954

     1926 The Sun Also Rises

     1928 A Farewell to Arms

     1940 For Whom the Bell Tolls

     1952 The Old Man and the Sea

     Typical Hemingway’s hero: grace under pressure


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