References and citation procedures in anthropology

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References and citation procedures in anthropology

    References and citation procedures in anthropology

    Anthropology Department, Sept. 2003

Notes: this guide is based on the style guide for American Anthropologist, a leading journal.

    Other journals may have different requirements and formats. See for the complete document.

This style guide uses The Chicago Manual of Style (14th edition, 1993) and Merriam-Webster‟s

    Collegiate Dictionary (10th edition, 2000).

Proper citation practices and plagiarism:

     Citing your sources is a way to show your participation in a community of scholarship, not a cunning strategy for professors to give students more work. In academic writing, citing sources is a mark of engagement with other people‟s ideas, and is a source of pride. The issue of academic honesty has become particularly important now that computer technology has made it easy to „cut and paste‟ text from a web page or to purchase papers. Those that do this cheat

    themselves and demean the value of a UVM education for everyone. It is all too easy to take „lazy notes‟ by cutting, pasting, and forgetting your sources. To avoid the unpleasantness of an Academic Judicial Board hearing, be scrupulous in your citation procedures. A good rule of

    thumb is that any time you use an entire phrase or sentence of 10 or more words, you should cite the original work. Paraphrasing (restatement of another person‟s idea with slightly altered language) without citation also counts as plagiarism. If you feel you have no choice but to paraphrase to express an idea well, that‟s your brain‟s signal that it‟s time to quote and cite.

Selected style topics of importance for student writing:

     Notes: Standard anthropological practice uses endnotes, not footnotes. These endnotes

    usually function to explain a point in more detail rather than to provide a reference. Put

    references in the text.

     Quotations: All published quotations must be cited with year and page number(s):

     “Vermont is a state in crisis,” as Jones noted (1992:7-8).

     Or “Vermont is a state in crisis” (Jones 2002:124) -- not (Jones 2002, p. 124)

Format for block quotes:

     If extract takes more than four manuscript lines, make it a single-spaced block quote

     Use brackets for citation at the end of a block; put sentence period before citation

    … made a remarkable contribution to anthropology. [Jones 2002:124]

Avoid biased and pejorative language

     Try to use the proper nouns that social groups use to identify themselves.

    ; African-American or Black (not „Negro‟ or „Afro-American‟ in current usage)

    ; The Sambia people of New Guinea (avoid the term „tribe‟ unless in your source).

    ; „Gay men‟ and „lesbians‟ are now preferred over the term „homosexuals.‟ Avoid

    categories that define what is „normal‟ or „abnormal.‟

     Do not use „s/he‟, „him/her‟, or „his/her‟ when you can use „they‟, „him or her‟, etc.

     Note that „gender‟ refers to culture, while „sex‟ refers to biology.

     Text Citations and References Cited: All references must be cited in author-date form; all author-date citations must be referenced.

     Alphabetization: References with the same author and date should be placed in

    alphabetical order, by title

     Citations: Place text citations as near the author‟s name as possible, except place

    quotation citations after the quote

    ; Use colon, no space, between year and page number (exception to Chicago):

    ; Waterman 1990:3-7

    ; Use „et al.‟in text citations of three or more authors, but spell out all names in

    references cited

    ; Use full first names where possible for authors and editors (but do not force if author

    goes by initials)

    ; Do not use ibid. for repeated references

     Notes: Where citing a note or notes, use:

    ; (Boulifa 1990:10 n. 12)

     Reprinted material: Where citing reprinted material, use the publication date from the

    work used in text citations and insert all dates in the references cited list:

    ; Text citations: (Webber 1994)

    ; References cited: Webber 1994[1849]

     States (Chicago 14.17):

    ; Spell out state names in text

    ; Do not use state name with city of publication in references unless the city is obscure

    or there are several with the same name

    ; Where state name is used in notes, references cited, tables, or addresses, use two-

    letter postal code abbreviations (e.g., AL, TX)

     Reference Examples:

Single-Author Book

    Castles, Stephen

    1990 Here for Good. London: Pluto Press.

Coauthored Book

    Bonacich, Edna, and John Modell

    1975 The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity. New York: Basic Books.

Author, with Others (cite first author in text citations)

    Bonacich, Edna, with Mark Smith and Kathy Hunt

    1999 Economics and Community among Japanese Americans. Berkeley: University of

    California Press.

Multiple References in the Same Year (alphabetize by title)

    Gallimore, Ronald

    1983a A Christmas Feast. New York: Oxford University Press.

    1983b Holiday Gatherings in the Northwest. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Work Accepted for Publication

    Spindler, George

    In press In Pursuit of a Dream: The Experience of Central Americans Recently

    Arrived in the United States. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Materials in Archives

    Egmont Manuscripts

    N.d. Phillips Collection. University of Georgia Library, Athens.

Ambasamudram Taluk

    1879 Settlement Register, Tirunleveli District. Archived material, Madras Archives,

    Chennai (Madras), Tamilnadu, India.

Chapter in Book with Editor(s):

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    1993 Education: Policies and Prospects. In Koreans in Japan: Ethnic Conflicts and

    Accommodation. Cameron Lee and George De Vos, eds. Pp. 182-222. Berkeley:

    University of California Press.

Editor as Author

    Diskin, Martin, ed.

    1970 Trouble in Our Backyard: Central America in the Eighties. New York: Pantheon


Article in Journal

    Moll, Luis C.

    2000 Writing as Communication: Creating Strategic Learning Environments for

    Students. Theory into Practice 25(3):202-208.

Ph.D. Dissertation or M.A. Thesis

    D‟Amato, John

    1989 „We Cool, Tha‟s Why‟: A Study of Personhood and Place in a Class of Hawai‟ian

    Second Graders. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Education, University of Hawai‟i.

Article in a Newspaper or Popular Magazine

    Reinhold, Robert

    2000 Illegal Aliens Hoping to Claim Their Dreams. New York Times, November 3: A1,



    1992 Washington Post, February 14: B2.

    Letter to the Editor

    1994 Newsweek, August 27: 4, 11.

     Personal Communication (including e-mail, listserv, and newsgroup messages)

    Should be cited in text citations, with specific date, but not in references cited:

     Horace Smith claims (letter to author, July 12, 1993) that he did not…

Lecture notes

    You have some discretion here. You can cite a college lecture when you quote or

    paraphrase material presented in lecture, but your usage of keywords, concepts, and

    analyses is, after all, the whole point of attending lectures. Cite a lecture if you feel that

    you have relied on the material extensively enough that the ideas are not yours. Do this

    as seldom as possible. A possible format is:

    Jones, Matthew

     2002 Cultural evolution (lecture notes), UVM ANTH 021 class, Sept 3.

Internet Document

    Use this format for public Internet documents with URLs.

    Rheingold, Howard

    2000 A Slice of Life in My Virtual Community. Electronic document,, accessed July 5.

American Anthropological Association

    2000[1992] Planning for the Future: Current Long-Range Plan for the AAA.

    Electronic document,, accessed

    January 18, 2001.

Film, Video, Television, and Music Recordings (Chicago 7.148 [titles], 15:418)

    Carvajal, Carmela, and David C. Kim, dirs.

    1998 High School Parody (videorecording). 120 min. Paramount Pictures. Hollywood.

Bush, George, Jr.

    2000 Interview by Jim Lehrer. The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. PBS, May 18.

Shakur, Tupac

    1997 I Wonder If Heaven Got A Ghetto. From R U Still Down? New York:

    Interscope Records.

    The AAA style guide ( shows a variety of more

    specialized reference formats, such as books in a series, one volume of a multivolume work,

    book reviews, privately held reports, etc.

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