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STATUTORYSUPPLEMENT

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STATUTORYSUPPLEMENT

    Employment Discrimination Statutory Supplement

Table of Contents

    AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT OF 1990 (WITH AMENDMENTS FROM 2008

    ADA AMENDMENTS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 42 U.S.C. ? 1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    42 U.S.C. ? 1981 (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 CONGRESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 EQUAL PAY ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

    FAIR LABOR STANDARD ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 FEDERAL ARBITRATION ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 GENETIC INFORMATION NONDISCRIMINATION ACT OF 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

    IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183

    AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT

    TITLE 29. LABOR

    CHAPTER 14. AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT

? 621. Congressional statement of findings and purpose

(a) The Congress hereby finds and declares that--

     (1) in the face of rising productivity and affluence, older workers find themselves disadvantaged in their efforts to retain employment, and especially to regain employment when displaced from jobs;

     (2) the setting of arbitrary age limits regardless of potential for job performance has become a common practice, and certain otherwise desirable practices may work to the disadvantage of older persons;

     (3) the incidence of unemployment, especially long-term unemployment with resultant deterioration of skill, morale, and employer acceptability is, relative to the younger ages, high among older workers; their numbers are great and growing; and their employment problems grave;

     (4) the existence in industries affecting commerce, of arbitrary discrimination in employment because of age, burdens commerce and the free flow of goods in commerce.

(b) It is therefore the purpose of this Act [29 USCS ?? 621 et seq.;] to promote employment of

    older persons based on their ability rather than age; to prohibit arbitrary age discrimination in employment; to help employers and workers find ways of meeting problems arising from the impact of age on employment.

? 622. Education and research program; recommendation to Congress

    (a) The Secretary of Labor shall undertake studies and provide information to labor unions, management, and the general public concerning the needs and abilities of older workers, and their potentials for continued employment and contribution to the economy. In order to achieve the purposes of this Act, the Secretary of Labor shall carry on a continuing program of education and information, under which he may, among other measures--

     (1) undertake research, and promote research, with a view to reducing barriers to the employment of older persons, and the promotion of measures for utilizing their skills;

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     (2) publish and otherwise make available to employers, professional societies, the various media of communication, and other interested persons the findings of studies and other materials for the promotion of employment;

     (3) foster through the public employment service system and through cooperative effort the development of facilities of public and private agencies for expanding the opportunities and potentials of older persons;

     (4) sponsor and assist State and community informational and educational programs.

    (b) Not later than six months after the effective date of this Act, the Secretary shall recommend to the Congress any measures he may deem desirable to change the lower or upper age limits set forth in section 12 [29 USCS ? 631].

? 623. Prohibition of age discrimination

(a) Employer practices. It shall be unlawful for an employer--

     (1) to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's age;

     (2) to limit, segregate, or classify his employees in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of such individual's age; or

     (3) to reduce the wage rate of any employee in order to comply with this Act.

    (b) Employment agency practices. It shall be unlawful for an employment agency to fail or refuse to refer for employment, or otherwise to discriminate against, any individual because of such individual's age, or to classify or refer for employment any individual on the basis of such individual's age.

    (c) Labor organization practices. It shall be unlawful for a labor organization--

     (1) to exclude or to expel from its membership, or otherwise to discriminate against, any individual because of his age;

     (2) to limit, segregate, or classify its membership, or to classify or fail or refuse to refer for employment any individual, in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities, or would limit such employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee or as an applicant for employment, because of such individual's age;

     (3) to cause or attempt to cause an employer to discriminate against an individual in violation of this section.

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    (d) Opposition to unlawful practices; participation in investigations, proceedings, or litigation. It shall be unlawful for an employer to discriminate against any of his employees or applicants for employment, for an employment agency to discriminate against any individual, or for a labor organization to discriminate against any member thereof or applicant for membership, because such individual, member or applicant for membership has opposed any practice made unlawful by this section, or because such individual, member or applicant for membership has made a charge, testified, assisted, or participated in any manner in an investigation, proceeding, or litigation under this Act.

    (e) Printing or publication of notice or advertisement indicating preference, limitation, etc. It shall be unlawful for an employer, labor organization, or employment agency to print or publish, or cause to be printed or published, any notice or advertisement relating to employment by such an employer or membership in or any classification or referral for employment by such a labor organization, or relating to any classification or referral for employment by such an employment agency, indicating any preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination, based on age.

    (f) Lawful practices; age an occupational qualification; other reasonable factors; seniority system; employee benefit plans; discharge or discipline for good cause. It shall not be unlawful for an employer, employment agency, or labor organization--

     (1) to take any action otherwise prohibited under subsections (a), (b), (c), or (e) of this section where age is a bona fide occupational qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation of the particular business, or where the differentiation is based on reasonable factors other than age, or where such practices involve an employee in a workplace in a foreign country, and compliance with such subsections would cause such employer, or a corporation controlled by such employer, to violate the laws of the country in which such workplace is located;

     (2) to take any action otherwise prohibited under subsection (a), (b), (c), or (e) of this section--

     (A) to observe the terms of a bona fide seniority system that is not intended to evade the purposes of this Act, except that no such seniority system shall require or permit the involuntary retirement of any individual specified by section 12(a) [29 USCS ? 631(a)] because of the age of

    such individual; or

     (B) to observe the terms of a bona fide employee benefit plan--

     (i) where, for each benefit or benefit package, the actual amount of payment made or cost incurred on behalf of an older worker is no less than that made or incurred on behalf of a younger worker, as permissible under section 1625.10, title 29, Code of Federal Regulations (as

    in effect on June 22, 1989); or

     (ii) that is a voluntary early retirement incentive plan consistent with the relevant purpose or purposes of this Act.

     Notwithstanding clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (B), no such employee benefit plan or voluntary early retirement incentive plan shall excuse the failure to hire any individual, and no such employee benefit plan shall require or permit the involuntary retirement of any individual

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specified by section 12(a) [29 USCS ? 631(a)], because of the age of such individual. An

    employer, employment agency, or labor organization acting under subparagraph (A), or under clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (B), shall have the burden of proving that such actions are lawful in any civil enforcement proceeding brought under this Act; or

     (3) to discharge or otherwise discipline an individual for good cause.

(g) [Deleted]

(h) Foreign practices.

     (1) If an employer controls a corporation whose place of incorporation is in a foreign country, any practice by such corporation prohibited under this section shall be presumed to be such practice by such employer.

     (2) The prohibitions of this section shall not apply where the employer is a foreign person not controlled by an American employer.

     (3) For the purpose of this subsection the determination of whether an employer controls a corporation shall be based upon the--

     (A) interrelation of operations,

     (B) common management,

     (C) centralized control of labor relations, and

     (D) common ownership or financial control, of the employer and the corporation.

    (i) Employee pension benefit plans; cessation or reduction of benefit accrual or of allocation to employee account; distribution of benefits after attainment of normal retirement age; compliance; highly compensated employees.

     (1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, it shall be unlawful for an employer, an employment agency, a labor organization, or any combination thereof to establish or maintain an employee pension benefit plan which requires or permits--

     (A) in the case of a defined benefit plan, the cessation of an employee's benefit accrual, or the reduction of the rate of an employee's benefit accrual, because of age, or

     (B) in the case of a defined contribution plan, the cessation of allocations to an employee's account, or the reduction of the rate at which amounts are allocated to an employee's account, because of age.

     (2) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit an employer, employment agency, or labor organization from observing any provision of an employee pension benefit plan to the extent that such provision imposes (without regard to age) a limitation on the amount of benefits that the plan provides or a limitation on the number of years of service or years or participation which are taken into account for purposes of determining benefit accrual under the plan.

     (3) In the case of any employee who, as of the end of any plan year under a defined benefit plan, has attained normal retirement age under such plan--

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     (A) if distribution of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee has commenced as of the end of such plan year, then any requirement of this subsection for continued accrual of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee during such plan year shall be treated as satisfied to the extent of the actuarial equivalent of in-service distribution of benefits, and

     (B) if distribution of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee has not commenced as of the end of such year in accordance with section 206(a)(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 USCS ? 1056(a)(3)] and section 401(a)(14)(C) of

    the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS ? 401(a)(14)(C)], and the payment of benefits

    under such plan with respect to such employee is not suspended during such plan year pursuant to section 203(a)(3)(B) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 USCS ?

    1053(a)(3)(B)] or section 411(a)(3)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS ?

    411(a)(3)(B)], then any requirement of this subsection for continued accrual of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee during such plan year shall be treated as satisfied to the extent of any adjustment in the benefit payable under the plan during such plan year attributable to the delay in the distribution of benefits after the attainment of normal retirement age.

     The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in accordance with regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury. Such regulations shall provide for the application of the preceding provisions of this paragraph to all employee pension benefit plans subject to this subsection and may provide for the application of such provisions, in the case of any such employee, with respect to any period of time within a plan year.

     (4) Compliance with the requirements of this subsection with respect to an employee pension benefit plan shall constitute compliance with the requirements of this section relating to benefit accrual under such plan.

     (5) Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to any employee who is a highly compensated employee (within the meaning of section 414(q) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS

    ? 414(q)]) to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury for purposes of precluding discrimination in favor of highly compensated employees within the meaning of subchapter D of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS ?? 401 et

    seq.].

     (6) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) solely because the subsidized portion of any early retirement benefit is disregarded in determining benefit accruals or it is a plan permitted by subsection (m).[.]

     (7) Any regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to clause (v) of section 411(b)(1)(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS ? 411(b)(1)(H)(v)] and

    subparagraphs (C) and (D) of section 411(b)(2) of such Code shall apply with respect to the requirements of this subsection in the same manner and to the same extent as such regulations apply with respect to the requirements of such sections 411(b)(1)(H) and 411(b)(2).

     (8) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this section solely because such plan provides a normal retirement age described in section 3(24)(B) of the Employee

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Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 USCS ? 1002(24)(B)] and section 411(a)(8)(B) of

    the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS ? 411(a)(8)(B)].

     (9) For purposes of this subsection--

     (A) The terms "employee pension benefit plan", "defined benefit plan", "defined contribution plan", and "normal retirement age" have the meanings provided such terms in section 3 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1002).

     (B) The term "compensation" has the meaning provided by section 414(s) of the Internal

    Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS ? 414(s)].

     (10) Special rules relating to age.

     (A) Comparison to similarly situated younger individual.

     (i) In general. A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) if a participant's accrued benefit, as determined as of any date under the terms of the plan, would be equal to or greater than that of any similarly situated, younger individual who is or could be a participant.

     (ii) Similarly situated. For purposes of this subparagraph, a participant is similarly situated to any other individual if such participant is identical to such other individual in every respect (including period of service, compensation, position, date of hire, work history, and any other respect) except for age.

     (iii) Disregard of subsidized early retirement benefits. In determining the accrued benefit as of any date for purposes of this clause, the subsidized portion of any early retirement benefit or retirement-type subsidy shall be disregarded.

     (iv) Accrued benefit. For purposes of this subparagraph, the accrued benefit may, under the terms of the plan, be expressed as an annuity payable at normal retirement age, the balance of a hypothetical account, or the current value of the accumulated percentage of the employee's final average compensation.

     (B) Applicable defined benefit plans.

     (i) Interest credits.

     (I) In general. An applicable defined benefit plan shall be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) unless the terms of the plan provide that any interest credit (or an equivalent amount) for any plan year shall be at a rate which is not greater than a market rate of return. A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this subclause merely because the plan provides for a reasonable minimum guaranteed rate of return or for a rate of return that is equal to the greater of a fixed or variable rate of return.

     (II) Preservation of capital. An interest credit (or an equivalent amount) of less than zero shall in no event result in the account balance or similar amount being less than the aggregate amount of contributions credited to the account.

     (III) Market rate of return. The Secretary of the Treasury may provide by regulation for rules governing the calculation of a market rate of return for purposes of subclause (I) and for permissible methods of crediting interest to the account (including fixed or variable interest rates) resulting in effective rates of return meeting the requirements of subclause (I). In the case of a

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governmental plan (as defined in the first sentence of section 414(d) of the Internal Revenue

    Code of 1986 [26 USCS ? 414(d)]), a rate of return or a method of crediting interest established

    pursuant to any provision of Federal, State, or local law (including any administrative rule or policy adopted in accordance with any such law) shall be treated as a market rate of return for purposes of subclause (I) and a permissible method of crediting interest for purposes of meeting the requirements of subclause (I), except that this sentence shall only apply to a rate of return or method of crediting interest if such rate or method does not violate any other requirement of this Act.

     (ii) Special rule for plan conversions. If, after June 29, 2005, an applicable plan amendment is adopted, the plan shall be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(H) unless the requirements of clause (iii) are met with respect to each individual who was a participant in the plan immediately before the adoption of the amendment.

     (iii) Rate of benefit accrual. Subject to clause (iv), the requirements of this clause are met with respect to any participant if the accrued benefit of the participant under the terms of the plan as in effect after the amendment is not less than the sum of--

     (I) the participant's accrued benefit for years of service before the effective date of the amendment, determined under the terms of the plan as in effect before the amendment, plus

     (II) the participant's accrued benefit for years of service after the effective date of the amendment, determined under the terms of the plan as in effect after the amendment.

     (iv) Special rules for early retirement subsidies. For purposes of clause (iii)(I), the plan shall credit the accumulation account or similar amount with the amount of any early retirement benefit or retirement-type subsidy for the plan year in which the participant retires if, as of such time, the participant has met the age, years of service, and other requirements under the plan for entitlement to such benefit or subsidy.

     (v) Applicable plan amendment. For purposes of this subparagraph--

     (I) In general. The term "applicable plan amendment" means an amendment to a defined benefit plan which has the effect of converting the plan to an applicable defined benefit plan.

     (II) Special rule for coordinated benefits. If the benefits of 2 or more defined benefit plans established or maintained by an employer are coordinated in such a manner as to have the effect of the adoption of an amendment described in subclause (I), the sponsor of the defined benefit plan or plans providing for such coordination shall be treated as having adopted such a plan amendment as of the date such coordination begins.

     (III) Multiple amendments. The Secretary of the Treasury shall issue regulations to prevent the avoidance of the purposes of this subparagraph through the use of 2 or more plan amendments rather than a single amendment.

     (IV) Applicable defined benefit plan. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "applicable defined benefit plan" has the meaning given such term by section 203(f)(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 USCS ? 1053(f)(3)].

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     (vi) Termination requirements. An applicable defined benefit plan shall not be treated as meeting the requirements of clause (i) unless the plan provides that, upon the termination of the plan--

     (I) if the interest credit rate (or an equivalent amount) under the plan is a variable rate, the rate of interest used to determine accrued benefits under the plan shall be equal to the average of the rates of interest used under the plan during the 5-year period ending on the termination date, and

     (II) the interest rate and mortality table used to determine the amount of any benefit under the plan payable in the form of an annuity payable at normal retirement age shall be the rate and table specified under the plan for such purpose as of the termination date, except that if such interest rate is a variable rate, the interest rate shall be determined under the rules of subclause (I).

     (C) Certain offsets permitted. A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) solely because the plan provides offsets against benefits under the plan to the extent such offsets are allowable in applying the requirements of section 401(a) of the Internal

    Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS ? 401(a)].

     (D) Permitted disparities in plan contributions or benefits. A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) solely because the plan provides a disparity in contributions or benefits with respect to which the requirements of section 401(l) of the Internal

    Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USCS ? 401(l)] are met.

     (E) Indexing permitted.

     (i) In general. A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) solely because the plan provides for indexing of accrued benefits under the plan.

     (ii) Protection against loss. Except in the case of any benefit provided in the form of a variable annuity, clause (i) shall not apply with respect to any indexing which results in an accrued benefit less than the accrued benefit determined without regard to such indexing.

     (iii) Indexing. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "indexing" means, in connection with an accrued benefit, the periodic adjustment of the accrued benefit by means of the application of a recognized investment index or methodology.

     (F) Early retirement benefit or retirement-type subsidy. For purposes of this paragraph, the terms "early retirement benefit" and "retirement-type subsidy" have the meaning given such terms in section 203(g)(2)(A) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29

    USCS ? 1053(g)(2)(A)].

     (G) Benefit accrued to date. For purposes of this paragraph, any reference to the accrued benefit shall be a reference to such benefit accrued to date.

    (j) Employment as firefighter or law enforcement officer. It shall not be unlawful for an employer which is a State, a political subdivision of a State, an agency or instrumentality of a State or a political subdivision of a State, or an interstate agency to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual because of such individual's age if such action is taken--

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     (1) with respect to the employment of an individual as a firefighter or as a law enforcement officer, the employer has complied with section 3(d)(2) of the Age Discrimination in Employment Amendments of 1996 if the individual was discharged after the date described in such section, and the individual has attained--

     (A) the age of hiring or retirement, respectively, in effect under applicable State or local law on March 3, 1983; or

     (B) (i) if the individual was not hired, the age of hiring in effect on the date of such failure or refusal to hire under applicable State or local law enacted after the date of enactment of the Age Discrimination in Employment Amendments of 1996 [enacted Sept. 30, 1996]; or

     (ii) if applicable State or local law was enacted after the date of enactment of the Age Discrimination in Employment Amendments of 1996 [enacted Sept. 30, 1996] and the individual was discharged, the higher of--

     (I) the age of retirement in effect on the date of such discharge under such law; and

     (II) age 55; and

     (2) pursuant to a bona fide hiring or retirement plan that is not a subterfuge to evade the purposes of this Act.

    (k) Seniority system or employee benefit plan; compliance. A seniority system or employee benefit plan shall comply with this Act regardless of the date of adoption of such system or plan.

    (l) Lawful practices; minimum age as condition of eligibility for retirement benefits; deduction from severance pay; reduction of long-term disability benefits. Notwithstanding clause (i) or (ii) of subsection (f)(2)(B)--

     (1) (A) It shall not be a violation of subsection (a), (b), (c), or (e) solely because--

     (i) an employee pension benefit plan (as defined in section 3(2) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1002(2))) provides for the attainment of a

    minimum age as a condition of eligibility for normal or early retirement benefits; or

     (ii) a defined benefit plan (as defined in section 3(35) of such Act [29 USCS ? 1002(35)]

    provides for--

     (I) payments that constitute the subsidized portion of an early retirement benefit; or

     (II) social security supplements for plan participants that commence before the age and terminate at the age (specified by the plan) when participants are eligible to receive reduced or unreduced old-age insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et

    seq.), and that do not exceed such old-age insurance benefits.

     (B) A voluntary early retirement incentive plan that--

     (i) is maintained by--

     (I) a local educational agency (as defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801), or

     (II) an education association which principally represents employees of 1 or more agencies described in subclause (I) and which is described in section 501(c) (5) or (6) of the

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