Reduction of Adv Clauses To Modifying Phrases Condition: Reducing adverb clauses to phrases is possible when the subject of adv clause
and the subject of main clause are one and the same. A. Time adv clause reduction:
I didn‟t speak English very often before I came to the United States.
While Steven was doing his homework, Steven fell asleep at his desk.
Since Mary came to this country, she has made many friends.
After he had finishes his homework, he went to bed.
B. Expressing the idea of “During The Same Time” in modifying phrases
While I was walking down the street, I ran into an old friend.
While we were hiking though the woods yesterday, we saw a bear.
While he was pointing to the sentence on the board, the teacher explained the meaning of
C. Cause and effect relationship in modifying phrases: Because she needed some money to buy a book, Sue cashed a check.
Because he lacked the necessary quality, he was not considered for the job.
Because I have seen that movie before, I don‟t want to go again.
Because she was unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle.
D. Upon + -ing in modifying phrases
When I reached the age of 21, I received my inheritance. Upon ……………………………………………………….
Reduce adv clause if possible
While I was falling asleep1. , I was counting sheep.
, I was counting sheep.
Before I left the house2. , my roommate handed me my car keys.
, my roommate handed me my car keys.
Before I left3. the house, I think about what I was supposed to study.
Before my classmates arrive4. in the room , I catch up with my homework
After the class finishes5. , I always feel like I should go home and get busy studying.
After I get out of class6. , I always feel like I should go home and get busy studying.
Since I came to this country7. , my English abilities have kept me from expressing myself.
8. to speak a second language, I'm also learning more about my native language.
when they struggle 9. I am more compassionate with others with English.
(note that no punctuation is necessary when the adverb is between the clauses)
after I leave 10. I will carry this experience with me long this country.
Reduce the following adverb clauses, if possible.
1. Before the famous author received the prize, he gave short speech.
2. Since the fall quarter began, the students have been very busy.
3. Because I remembered a few words in Spanish, I tried to speak to a Mexican tourist.
4. Because Hiro forgot to bring a pencil to the final exam, he borrowed one from Michi.
5. The Jones family had a huge yard sale before they moved to another city.
6. After the students finished the exam, the teacher graded the tests.
7. Before George W. Bush became president, he was the governor of Texas.
8. While we were driving to our grandparents‟ house, we listened to a book on tape.
9. Because Thomas was feeling sick, he left class early.
10. Because he is very religious, Lyle goes to church every Sunday.
Using the given information, make sentences with upon + V-ing
When Tom saw his wife and child get off the airplane, he broke into a big smile. Upon seeing his wife and child get off the airplane, Tom broke into a big smile.
1. When Tina crosses the marathon finish line, she fell in exhaustion.
2. When I looked in my wallet, I discovered I didn‟t have enough money to pay my
3. I bowed my head when I met the king.
4. When Sam re-read the figures, he found that he made a mistake.
5. When I got an appraisal of my coin collection, I was surprise how it had increased
6. Mrs. Alexander nearly fainted when she learned that she had won the lottery.
7. When you finish the examination, bring your paper to the front of the room.
8. When the police found the thief, they also found the stolen merchandise.
9. When I was elected a member of the club, I found that the dues were more than I
Please read the sentences and use: as soon as / as long as / after /
before / until / when / while
1. We will stay here . . . you come.
2. I'll come and see you . . . I have time.
3. We shall be ready . . . you are.
4. . . you come tomorrow, I'll give you some chocolate.
5. . . they show me their homework, I will correct it.
6. We shall go . . . he is ready.
7. She will speak to you . . . you come in.
Which sentences can reduce?
EXERCISE Reduce each italicized clause to the word group indicated in parentheses. Cross out the unnecessary words and add the words you need to make the change. Refer to the examples on the preceding page for help. (Add 10 points for each correct sentence.)
ellip. = elliptical clause
part. = participial phrase
infi = infinitive phrase
A. I got the idea for this story while (I was) peeling potatoes. (ellip.)
B. Approaching (As he approached) the curve, the driver slowed down. (part.)
C. We need a sign that will attract attention. (inf.) to attract attention
1. If it is properly trained, a dog will not chase cars. (ellip.)
2. Jeanne Sauvé is very serious when she is discussing politics. (ellip.)
3. I lost my balance while I was climbing the ladder. (ellip.)
4. Because she knew that I liked animals, Jenny gave me a puppy for my birthday. (part.)
5. Mrs. Barry served us corn that was raised in her own garden. (part.)
6. The player who holds the highest card plays first. (part.)
7. I said nothing that could hurt his feelings. (inf.)
8. The words to „O Canada‟ which were written by Stanley Weir in 1908 are not the
official English version of the anthem. (part.)
9. Calixa Lavellée wrote the music in 1880 while he was working to establish a conservatory of music in Montreal. (ellip.)
10. The original French words which were written by Adolphe Routhier pre-date the
English version by over twenty years. (part.)
Other Types of Reduction
1. Here are some examples showing how clauses can sometimes be reduced to prepositional phrases and to single words:
Adjective Clause: I like a book that has an interesting plot. Prepositional Phrase: I like a book with an Interesting plot
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: The plane carries a raft that is made of rubber. ADJECTIVE: The plane carries a rubber raft.
2. Often we can reduce an adjective clause to an appositive, making a neater, more
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: I felt sorry for Paul, who was the only child on the block.
Appositive: I felt sorry for Paul, the only child on the block.
3. A prepositional phrase with a gerund as the object of the preposition can often pinch-hit for an adverb clause.
Adverb Clause: If you take your time, you will do better work.
Prepositional Phrase: You will do better work by taking your time.
4. We can sometimes gain a word or two by using an adjective or an adverb in place of a prepositional phrase.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: The road to Danville is temporarily closed.
ADJECTIVE: The Danville road is temporarily closed.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: We play this game in a different way.
ADVERB: We play this game differently.
EXERCISE Reduce each italicized phrase or clause to the construction indicated in parentheses. Cross out the words and insert with a caret (^) any words you need. If the
new expression should be placed at a different point in the sentence, draw an arrow from it to the place where it belongs. Refer to the examples above whenever you feel puzzled. (Add 5 points for each correct sentence.)
prep. prepositional phrase app. = appositive prep. ger. = prepositional phrase adj. adjective
with gerund as object adv. = adverb
1. A girl whose voice was very good sang several songs. (prep.)
2. Even the people who were in the last row heard very well. (prep.)
3. I wouldn‟t care to live in a neighbourhood that doesn‟t have any trees. (prep.)
4. We were stuck for an hour on a road that was muddy. (adj.)
5. Dorothy Livesay depicts all her characters with care. (adv.)
6. There are telephones for the public in the hotel lobby. (adj.) 7. You can‟t do the job in a satisfactory way in ten minutes. (adv.)
8. One should not tell gloomy and depressing stories to people when they are sick. (adj.) 9. The Red Cross immediately sent help to the disaster area that was in the Southwest. (prep.)
10. Barton, who was our star goalie, had sprained his wrist in the previous game. (app.)
2.11. San Marino, which is the world‟s smallest republic, covers an area of 40km (app.)
12. Galileo, who was an Italian astronomer, offered proof that the earth revolves around the sun. (app.)
13. The city zoo, which is the delight of all children, is always crowded on Sundays. (app.)
14. The committee suggested a new plan that will reduce air pollution. (prep. ger.) 15. I believe that accidents should be prevented before they happen. (prep. ger.) 16. The entertainer faces a fine and prison sentence because he evaded his income tax. (prep. ger.)
17. The family l always been irresponsible in financial matters. (adu.) 18. Elba always agrees with the speaker that is rational. (a4i.)
19. The superintendent stated no reason why she resigned (prep. ger.)
20. After we had combed the neighbourhood for our dog. we put an ad in the local paper. (prep. ger.)
Building Better Sentences
EXERCISE Combine each group of clauses into a single complex sentence, using the sentence printed in regular type for your independent clause. Subordinate all the other ideas by putting them in the constructions indicated in parentheses. You will find that you can fit the ideas into the independent clause in the same order in which they are printed. (Add 5 points for each lettered item handled correctly.)
A. (a) The paint is still wet. (adverb clause)
(b) Ground glass is sprinkled on the highway lines.
(c) This reflects light at night. (infinitive phrase)
1. Judge Elizabeth Fry sentenced a man to jail.
(b) She was a strict jurist. (appositive)
(c) He had continued to drive his car. (adjective clause)
(d) His licence had been revoked (adverb clause)
2. (a) Patricia Gould rescued l57 people in 11 years. (prepositional phrase with gerund) (b) She is a lifeguard at Cedar Beach. (appositive)
(c) She received her first thank-you note.
(d) It expressed gratitude for the rescue. (participial phrase) Sentence Blueprints
Combine each group of ideas into a single, well-organized sentence around the independent clause, which is printed in regular type. Subordinate the italicized ideas by putting them in the constructions indicated in parentheses. You will find that you can generally arrange the ideas in the order in which they are printed. (Add 5 points for each italicized item handled correctly.)
1. (a) Pemmican is a type of pounded meat.
(b) It is sewn into skin bags. (adjective clause)
(c) It has been mixed with animal fat and berries (adverb clause)
2. (a) A blaze broke out in the back of his truck. (adverb clause) (b) Frank drove to a nearby fire station.
(c) Fire fighters put out the blaze. (adjective clause with where) (d) They used fire extinguishers. (prepositional phrase)
3. (a) Arthur Meighen was minister of the interior. (adverb clause) (b) He formulated the terms of the Military Service Act of 1917. (c) The Act was controversial. (adjective—one word)
(d) The Act embodied a srslem of conscription. (adjective clause)
4. (a) Many Canadian hotels used to have “sample rooms.”
(b) A “sample room” was an area set aside for salesmen. (appositive)
(c) These salesmen might wish to display their goods. (adjective clause) (d) The purpose would he to entice prospective customers. (infinitive phrase)
5. (a) George Moore had a cat.
(b) He was an Irish novelist. (appositive)
(c) It forced him to pay attention to it. (adjective clause)
(d) It jumped on his desk and took his pen from his hand. (prepositional phrase with two
6. (a) This happened in the eighteenth century. (prepositional phrase) (b) A Dutchman invented roller skates.
(c) He attached wheels to his ice skates. (prepos. phrase with gerund) (d) He could skate in warm weather. (adverb clause)
7. (a) The first airplane flight from a ship took place in 1910. (b) Eugene Ely flew a land plane from a temporary wooden runway. (adverb clause) (c) He was an early American flyer. (appositive)
(d) The runway was constructed on the deck of the U.S.S. Birmingham. (participle)