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Reconstruction, 1865-1877

By Joanne Wallace,2014-04-12 21:53
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Reconstruction, 1865-1877

    HIST 261

    Fall 2010

    PowerPoint Slide Text

    Civil War & Reconstruction

    Dr. Ron Spiller

    119 Hendricks Hall

    732-2966

    RSPILLER@edinboro.edu

    The War of the Rebellion, 1861-1865 Operational Outline

Reasons for going to war

North

    ; Growing distaste for slavery.

    ; Distaste for "slave power."

    ; Conflict between capitalism and "slavism." ; Liberalism v. Conservatism

South

    ; Cultural isolation.

    ; Protection of the existing order. ; Conservatism v. Liberalism.

National Objectives

; North: Preservation of the Union

    ; South: Establishment of an independent state

    Centers of Gravity

North

    ; National will. ; the People

    ; Congress

    ; the Army

South

    ; the People

    ; the army

    ; National Strategy ; North

    ; ??

Strategy

North

    ; "Anaconda Plan"

    ; "On to Richmond!"

    ; Modified Anaconda Plan

South

    ; Fait accompli - a cordon defense

Resources . . . (force ratios) NORTH / SOUTH

    ; Population: 1.4 - 1 ; Land Area: 1.5 - 1

    ; Farms: 2 - 1

    ; Manufacturing: 4 - 1 ; Miles of Railroad: 2 - 1 ; Bank deposits: 3 - 1 ; Capital: 4 - 1

The Texas Crisis

27 December 1860 . . .

    Twiggs to Winfield Scott:

    "I respectfully ask instructions . . . as to the disposition of United States property, such as arms, ammunition, and transportation. It appears to me steps should be taken very soon."

2 January 1860 . . .

    "I respectfully ask instructions as to what disposition will be made of the troops in this department. There is no time to loose."

7 January 1861 . . .

    "I respectfully ask for instructions. The crisis is fast approaching, and ought to be looked in the face."

Twiggs asked to be relieved on 15 January. He was.

18 January 1861 . . .

    "Verily, military men should be cautious how they threaten the people. After secession I know not what will be done. I know one thing, and that is, I will never fire on American citizens."

20 January 1861 . . .

    Twiggs to COL Samuel Cooper, AG:

    " . . . I shall, after secession . . . direct the arms and other property be turned over to [agents of the State of Texas]."

19 February 1861 . . .

    COL Carlos Waite relieved Twiggs

1 March 1861 . . .

    War Department to Waite:

    "In the event of the secession of the State of Texas . . . put in march for Fort Leavenworth the entire military force of your department."

    Too late . . . BG David W. Twiggs had surrendered all Federal property in the Department of Texas to the State of Texas. Troops were ordered to the Gulf Coast for evacuation, with only their personal weapons and equipment.

Blockade . . .

    Declaring a blockade actually gives the Confederate government legitimacy. Confederates never develop a specific policy with regard to cotton exports.

Results of 1st Bull Run

    ; The war would not be short.

    ; Armies would be bigger.

Results of Henry and Donaldson Campaign

    ; Control of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers open up Tennessee.

Results of the Peninsula Campaign

    ; McClellan discredited

    o too slow

    o not focused on the enemy force as his operational objective.

    ; Lee assumes command of the Army of northern Virginia

Antietam Campaign

Purpose

    ; Maintain momentum

    ; "Take the war to the enemy"

    ; Win a victory on Union soil

    ; Influence the November Congressional elections

Copy of Lees order lost (Friction !!)

McClellan moves quickly for once

Results of Antietam

    ; Lee withdraws south across the Potomac

    ; McClellan does not pursue.

Lincoln

    ; Fires McClellan

    ; Claims Antietam as a "victory"

    ; Issues the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

    Destruction of slavery is now an objective.

Results of Shiloh

    ; Albert Sidney Johnston killed.

    ; Grant not fired.

Loss of New Orleans: Confederacy looses its financial capital.

Lincoln as Commander-in-Chief

    ; Always thought the enemy army was the proper objective.

    ; Could not communicate with his generals.

    ; Henry Halleck, "Chief of Staff"

    ; Saw Grant as a fighter.

Overland Campaign, May-June, 1864

    ; Mead retained command of the Army of the Potomac

    ; Grant "planted his flag" with Meade.

    ; Grant did not care about tactical defeat.

    ; Objective: Get hold of Lee and doesn’t let go.

    ; Ends with Lee under siege in Petersburg.

Atlanta Campaign, May-August, 1864

    ; Atlanta was a transportation hub.

    ; Joseph E. Johnston fought a delaying campaign as well as he could.

    ; Johnston replaced by John Bell Hood

    ; Hood was younger and more aggressive

    ; Hood wasted his army

    ; Sherman now in position to . . .

Red River Campaign, March-May, 1864

    ; Nathanial Banks a "political general"

    ; Understood the political reason for the campaign.

    ; Audience for the campaign: the French in Mexico.

Lee surrenders 9 April 1865

Last Confederate military force, CSS Shenandoah stands down 6 November 1865 in

    Liverpool.

Why did the North win ?

    ; Superiority of resources.

    ; Political and military focus.

Why did the South Loose ?

    ; Southerners did not want to be a separate country badly enough to see the South

    completely destroyed.

    But was the objective actually achieved ?

Who actually won the war ?

Objectives:

    ; Preserve the Union.

    ; Destroy slavery. (Implied task: re-structure Southern society.)

Civil War, Phase 1, 1861-1865

    ; South accepts re-unification with the North.

Civil War, Phase 2. 1865-1970s

    ; Objective: destroy slavery

    ; restructure Southern society

South wins Phase 2 until 1970s..

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