By Derrick Clark,2014-06-15 06:04
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    Part I Writing (30 minutes) Directions For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Certificate Craze. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below: 1. 现在许多人热衷于各类证书考试

    2. 其目的各不相同

    3. 在我看来

    Certificate Craze

Part II Reading ComprehensionSkimming and Scanning( 15 minutes(

    Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A~, B~, C~ and D~. For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the

    information given in the passage.

    Minority Report

    American universities are accepting more minorities than ever. Graduating them is another matter. Barry Mills, the president of Bowdoin College, was justifiably proud of Bowdoins efforts to

    recruit minority students. Since 2003 the small, elite liberal arts school in Brunswick, Maine, has boosted the proportion of so-called under-represented minority students in entering freshman classes from 8% to 13%.“It is our responsibility to reach out and attract students to come to our kinds of places,” he told a NEWSWEEK reporter. But Bowdoin has not done quite as well when it

    comes to actually graduating minorities. While 9 out of 10 white students routinely get their diplomas within six years, only 7 out of 10 black students made it to graduation day in several recent classes.

    If you look at who enters college, it now looks like America,” says Hilary Pennington, director of postsecondary programs for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which has closely studied enrollment patterns in higher education. “But if you look at who walks across the stage for a

    diploma, its still largely the white, upper-income population.

    The United States once had the highest graduation rate of any nation. Now it stands 10th. For the first time in American history, there is the risk that the rising generation will be less well educated than the previous one. The graduation rate among 25- to 34-year-olds is no better than the rate for the 55- to 64-year-olds who were going to college more than 30 years ago. Studies show that more and more poor and non-white students want to graduate from collegebut their graduation rates

    fall far short of their dreams. The graduation rates for blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans lag far behind the graduation rates for whites and Asians. As the minority population grows in the United States, low college graduation rates become a threat to national prosperity. The problem is pronounced at public universities. In 2007 the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    one of the top five or so prestigious public universitiesgraduated 81% of its white students

    within six years, but only 56% of its blacks. At less-selective state schools, the numbers get worse. During the same time frame, the University of Northern Iowa graduated 67% of its white students, but only 39% of its blacks. Community colleges have low graduation rates generallybut

    rock-bottom rates for minorities. A recent review of California community colleges found that

    while a third of the Asian students picked up their degrees, only 15% of African-Americans did so as well.

    Private colleges and universities generally do better, partly because they offer smaller classes and more personal attention. But when it comes to a significant graduation gap, Bowdoin has company. Nearby Colby College logged an 18-point difference between white and black graduates in 2007 and 25 points in 2006. Middlebury College in Vermont, another top school, had a 19-point gap in 2007 and a 22-point gap in 2006. The most selective private schoolsHarvard, Yale, and

    Princetonshow almost no gap between black and white graduation rates. But that may have more to do with their ability to select the best students. According to data gathered by Harvard Law School professor Lani Guinier, the most selective schools are more likely to choose blacks who have at least one immigrant parent from Africa or the Caribbean than black students who are descendants of American slaves.

    Higher education has been able to duck this issue for years, particularly the more selective schools, by saying the responsibility is on the individual student, says Pennington of the Gates

    Foundation. If they fail, its their fault. Some critics blame affirmative actionstudents

    admitted with lower test scores and grades from shaky high schools often struggle at elite schools. But a bigger problem may be that poor high schools often send their students to colleges for which they are “undermatched”: they could get into more elite, richer schools, but instead go to

    community colleges and low-rated state schools that lack the resources to help them. Some schools out for profit cynically increase tuitions and count on student loans and federal aid to foot the billknowing full well that the students wont make it.The school keeps the money, but the

    kid leaves with loads of debt and no degree and no ability to get a better job. Colleges are not holding up their end, says Amy Wilkins of the Education Trust.

    A college education is getting ever more expensive. Since 1982 tuitions have been rising at roughly twice the rate of inflation. In 2008 the net cost of attending a four-year public university

    after financial aidequaled 28% of median ,中间的( family income, while a four-year private

    university cost 76% of median family income. More and more scholarships are based on merit, not need. Poorer students are not always the best-informed consumers. Often they wind up deeply in debt or simply unable to pay after a year or two and must drop out.

    There once was a time when universities took pride in their dropout rates. Professors would begin the year by saying, “Look to the right and look to the left. One of you is not going to be here by the end of the year.” But such a Darwinian spirit is beginning to give way as at least a few colleges

    face up to the graduation gap. At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the gap has been roughly halved over the last three years. The university has poured resources into peer counseling to help students from inner-city schools adjust to the rigor,严格要求( and faster pace of a university

    classroomand also to help minority students overcome the stereotype that they are less qualified. Wisconsin has a laserlike focus on building up student skills in the first three months,

    according to vice provost ,教务长( Damon Williams.

    State and federal governments could sharpen that focus everywhere by broadly publishing minority graduation rates. For years private colleges such as Princeton and MIT have had success bringing minorities onto campus in the summer before freshman year to give them some preparatory courses. The newer trend is to start recruiting poor and non-white students as early as the seventh grade, using innovative tools to identify kids with sophisticated verbal skills. Such programs can be expensive, of course, but cheap compared with the millions already invested in

    scholarships and grants for kids who have little chance to graduate without special support. With effort and money, the graduation gap can be closed. Washington and Lee is a small, selective school in Lexington, Va. Its student body is less than 5% black and less than 2% Latino. While the school usually graduated about 90% of its whites, the graduation rate of its blacks and Latinos had dipped to 63% by 2007.We went through a dramatic shift, says Dawn Watkins, the vice

    president for student affairs. The school aggressively pushed mentoring ,辅导( of minorities by

    other students andpartnering with parents at a special pre-enrollment session. The school had its first-ever black homecoming. Last spring the school graduated the same proportion of minorities as it did whites. If the United States wants to keep up in the global economic race, it will have to pay systematic attention to graduating minorities, not just enrolling them. 注意,此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答: 8-10题在答题卡1上。

    1. What is the authors main concern about American higher education?

     A~ The small proportion of minority students. C~ The growing conflicts among

    ethnic groups.

     B~ The low graduation rates of minority students. D~ The poor academic

    performance of students.

    2. What was the pride of President Barry Mills of Bowdoin College?

     A~ The prestige of its liberal arts programs. C~ The high graduation rates of its


     B~ Its ranking among universities in Maine. D~ Its increased enrollment of minority


    3. What is the risk facing America?

     A~ Its schools will be overwhelmed by the growing number of illegal immigrants.

     B~ The rising generation will be less well educated than the previous one.

     C~ More poor and non-white students will be denied access to college.

     D~ It is going to lose its competitive edge in higher education.

    4. How many African-American students earned their degrees in California community colleges according to a recent review?

     A~ Fifty-six percent. C~ Fifteen percent.

     B~ Thirty-nine percent. D~ Sixty-seven percent.

    5. Harvard, Yale, and Princeton show almost no gap between black and white graduation rates mainly because ______.

     A~ their students work harder C~ their classes are generally smaller

     B~ they recruit the best students D~ they give students more attention

    6. How does Amy Wilkins of the Education Trust view minority students failure to get a


     A~ Universities are to blame. C~ The government fails to provide the necessary


     B~ Students dont work hard. D~ Affirmative action should be held responsible.

    7. Why do some students drop out after a year or two according to the author?

     A~ They have lost confidence in themselves. C~ They cannot adapt to the rigor

    of the school.

     B~ They cannot afford the high tuition. D~ They fail to develop interest in their


    8. To tackle the problem of graduation gap, the University of Wisconsin-Madison helps minority students get over the stereotype that ________________________________. 9. For years, private colleges such as Princeton and MIT have provided minority students with ________________________ during the summer before freshman year.

    10. Washington and Lee University is cited as an example to show that the gap of graduation rates between whites and minorities can __________________________________.

Part III Listening Comprehension 35 minutes(

    Section A

    Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A~, B~, C~ and D~, and

    decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

    注意, 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

    11. A~ She will give him the receipt later. C~ She has not got the mans copies ready.

     B~ The man should make his own copies. D~ The man forgot to make the copies

    for her.

    12. A~ She phoned Fred about the book. C~ She ran into Fred on her way here.

     B~ She was late for the appointment. D~ She often keeps other people waiting.

    13. A~ Mark is not fit to take charge of the Student Union. C~ It wont be easy for Mark

    to win the election.

     B~ Mark is the best candidate for the post of chairman. D~ Females are more

    competitive than males in elections.

    14. A~ It failed to arrive at its destination in time. C~ It got lost at the airport in Paris.

     B~ It got seriously damaged on the way. D~ It was left behind in the hotel.

    15. A~ Just make use of whatever information is available. C~ Find more relevant

    information for their work.

     B~ Put more effort into preparing for the presentation. D~ Simply raise the issue in

    their presentation.

    16. A~ The man has decided to choose Language Studies as his major.

     B~ The woman isnt interested in the psychology of language.

     C~ The man is still trying to sign up for the course he is interested in.

     D~ The woman isnt qualified to take the course the man mentioned.

    17. A~ They are both to blame. C~ They can manage to get along.

     B~ They are both easy to please. D~ They will make peace in time.

    18. A~ They are in desperate need of financial assistance. C~ They want to borrow a

    huge sum from the bank.

     B~ They hope to do miracles with limited resources. D~ They plan to buy out their

    business partners.

    Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 19. A~ We simply cannot help reacting instinctively that way.

     B~ We wish to hide our indifference to their misfortune.

     C~ We derive some humorous satisfaction from their misfortune.

     D~ We think it serves them right for being mean to other people. 20. A~ They want to show their genuine sympathy. C~ They dont know how to cope

    with the situation.

     B~ They have had similar personal experiences. D~ They dont want to reveal their own frustration.

    21. A~ They themselves would like to do it but dont dare to. C~ Its a rare chance for

    them to see the boss lose face.

     B~ Its an opportunity for relieving their tension. D~ They have seen this many times in old films.

    22. A~ To irritate them. C~ To relieve her feelings.

     B~ To teach them a lesson. D~ To show her courage.

    Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 23. A~ Smuggling drugs into Hong Kong. C~ Stealing a fellow passengers bag.

     B~ Having committed armed robbery. D~ Bringing a handgun into Hong Kong. 24. A~ He said not a single word during the entire flight.

     B~ He took away Kumars baggage while he was asleep.

     C~ He was travelling on a scholarship from Delhi University.

     D~ He is suspected of having slipped something in Kumars bag.

    25. A~ Give him a lift. C~ Check the passenger list.

     B~ Find Alfred Foster. D~ Search all suspicious cars.

Section B

    Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will

    hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear

    a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A~, B~, C~

    and D~. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the


    注意, 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

    Passage One

    Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. A~ They think travel has become a trend. C~ They find many of the banks untrustworthy.

     B~ They think travel gives them their moneys worth. D~ They lack the expertise to make capital investments.

    27. A~ Lower their prices to attract more customers. C~ Design programs targeted at retired couples.

     B~ Introduce travel packages for young travelers. D~ Launch a new program of adventure trips.

    28. A~ The role of travel agents. C~ The number of last-minute bookings.

     B~ The way people travel. D~ The prices of polar expeditions. Passage Two

    Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard. 29. A~ The old stereotypes about men and women. C~ The division of labor between

men and women.

     B~ The changing roles played by men and women. D~ The widespread prejudice

    against women.

    30. A~ Offer more creative and practical ideas than men. C~ Speak loudly enough to

    attract attention.

     B~ Ask questions that often lead to controversy. D~ Raise issues on behalf of


    31. A~ To prove that she could earn her living as a gardener.

     B~ To show that women are more hardworking than men.

     C~ To show that women are capable of doing what men do.

     D~ To prove that she was really irritated with her husband.

    Passage Three

    Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

    32. A~ Covering major events of the day in the city. C~ Hunting news for the daily


     B~ Reporting criminal offenses in Greenville. D~ Writing articles on family


    33. A~ It is a much safer place than it used to be. C~ Assaults often happen on

    school campuses.

     B~ Rapes rarely occur in the downtown areas. D~ It has fewer violent crimes than

    big cities.

    34. A~ There are a wide range of cases. C~ There has been a rise in such crimes.

     B~ They are very destructive. D~ They have aroused fear among the residents.

    35. A~ Write about something pleasant. C~ Offer help to crime victims.

     B~ Do some research on local politics. D~ Work as a newspaper editor.

Section C

    Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the

    first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second

    time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information.

    For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.


    In America, people are faced with more and more decisions every day, whether its picking one of

    31 ice cream 36( ______________ or deciding whether and when to get married. That sounds like a great thing. But as a recent study has shown, too many choices can make us 37(

    ______________, unhappyeven paralyzed with indecision.

    Thats 38( ______________ true when it comes to the workplace, says Barry Schwartz, an author of six books about human 39( ______________. Students are graduating with a 40(

    ______________ of skills and interests, but often find themselves 41( ______________ when

    it comes to choosing an ultimate career goal.

    In a study, Schwartz observed decision-making among college students during their 42(

______________ year. Based on answers to questions regarding their job-hunting 43(

    ______________ and career decisions, he divided the students into two groups: maximizers”

    who consider every possible option, and “satisficers” who look until they find an option that is good enough.

    You might expect that the students 44(

    _________________________________________________________. But it turns out thats not

    true. Schwartz found that while maximizers ended up with better paying jobs than satisficers on average, they werent as happy with their decision.

    The reason 45( __________________________________________________________. When

    you look at every possible option, you tend to focus more on what was given up than what was gained. After surveying every option, 46(


Part IV Reading Comprehension Reading in Depth( 25 minutes(

    Section A

    Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.

    Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.

    How good are you at sayingno? For many, its surprisingly difficult. This is especially true of

    editors, who by nature tend to be eager and engaged participants in everything they do. Consider these scenarios:

    Its late in the day. That front-page package youve been working on is nearly complete; one last

    edit and its finished. Enter the executive editor, who makes a suggestion requiring a more-than-modest rearrangement of the design and the addition of an information box. You want to scream: No! Its done! What do you do?

    The first rule of saying no to the boss is dont say no. She probably has something in mind when

    she makes suggestions, and its up to you to find out what. The second rule is dont raise the stakes

    by challenging her authority. That issue is already decided. The third rule is to be ready to cite options and consequences. The bosss suggestions might be appropriate, but there are always

    consequences. She might not know about the pages backing up that need attention, or about the designer who had to go home sick. Tell her she can have what she wants, but explain the consequences. Understand what shes trying to accomplish and propose a Plan B that will make it happen without destroying what youve done so far.

    Heres another case. Your least-favorite reporter suggests a dumb story idea. This one should be easy, but its not. If you say no, even politely, you risk inhibiting further ideas, not just from that reporter, but from others who heard that you turned down the idea. This scenario is common in newsrooms that lack a systematic way to filter story suggestions.

    Two steps are necessary. First, you need a system for how stories are proposed and reviewed. Reporters can tolerate rejection of their ideas if they believe they were given a fair hearing. Your gut reaction,本能反应( and dismissive rejection, even of a worthless idea, might not qualify as systematic or fair.

    Second, the people you work with need to negotiate a “What if ...?” agreement covering “What if

my idea is turned down?” How are people expected to react? Is there an appeal process? Can they

    refine the idea and resubmit it? By anticipating “What if...?” situations before they happen, you can reach understanding that will help ease you out of confrontations.

    注意, 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

    47. Instead of directly saying no to your boss, you should find out _______________________. 48. The authors second warning is that we should avoid running a greater risk by


    49. One way of responding to your bosss suggestion is to explain the _____________ to her and

    offer an alternative solution.

    50. To ensure fairness to reporters, it is important to set up a system for stories to ________________________.

    51. People who learn to anticipate “What if...?” situations will be able to reach understanding and avoid ________________.

    Section B

    Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A~, B~, C~ and

    D~. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

    Passage One

    Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.

    At the heart of the debate over illegal immigration lies one key question: are immigrants good or bad for the economy? The American public overwhelmingly thinks theyre bad. Yet the consensus

    among most economists is that immigration, both legal and illegal, provides a small net boost to the economy. Immigrants provide cheap labor, lower the prices of everything from farm produce to new homes, and leave consumers with a little more money in their pockets. So why is there such a discrepancy between the perception of immigrants impact on the economy and the reality?

    There are a number of familiar theories. Some argue that people are anxious and feel threatened by an inflow of new workers. Others highlight the strain that undocumented immigrants place on public services, like schools, hospitals, and jails. Still others emphasize the role of race, arguing that foreigners add to the nations fears and insecurities. Theres some truth to all these

    explanations, but they arent quite sufficient.

    To get a better understanding of whats going on, consider the way immigrations impact is felt.

    Though its overall effect may be positive, its costs and benefits are distributed unevenly. David Card, an economist at UC Berkeley, notes that the ones who profit most directly from immigrants

    low-cost labor are businesses and employersmeatpacking plants in Nebraska, for instance, or

    agricultural businesses in California. Granted, these producers savings probably translate into

    lower prices at the grocery store, but how many consumers make that mental connection at the checkout counter? As for the drawbacks of illegal immigration, these, too, are concentrated. Native low-skilled workers suffer most from the competition of foreign labor. According to a study by George Borjas, a Harvard economist, immigration reduced the wages of American high-school dropouts by 9% between 1980-2000.

    Among high-skilled, better-educated employees, however, opposition was strongest in states with both high numbers of immigrants and relatively generous social services. What worried them most, in other words, was the fiscal ,财政的( burden of immigration. That conclusion was reinforced

    by another finding: that their opposition appeared to soften when that fiscal burden decreased, as occurred with welfare reform in the 1990s, which curbed immigrants access to certain benefits.

    The irony is that for all the overexcited debate, the net effect of immigration is minimal. Even for those most acutely affectedsay, low-skilled workers, or California residentsthe impact isnt all

    that dramatic.The unpleasant voices have tended to dominate our perceptions,” says Daniel

    Tichenor, a political science professor at the University of Oregon, “But when all those factors are put together and the economists calculate the numbers, it ends up being a net positive, but a small one.” Too bad most people dont realize it.

    注意, 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

    52. What can we learn from the first paragraph?

     A~ Whether immigrants are good or bad for the economy has been puzzling economists.

     B~ The American economy used to thrive on immigration but now its a different story.

     C~ The consensus among economists is that immigration should not be encouraged.

     D~ The general public thinks differently from most economists on the impact of immigration.

    53. In what way does the author think ordinary Americans benefit from immigration?

     A~ They can access all kinds of public services. C~ They can mix with people of

    different cultures.

     B~ They can get consumer goods at lower prices. D~ They can avoid doing much of

    the manual labor.

    54. Why do native low-skilled workers suffer most from illegal immigration?

     A~ They have greater difficulty getting welfare support.

     B~ They are more likely to encounter interracial conflicts.

     C~ They have a harder time getting a job with decent pay.

     D~ They are no match for illegal immigrants in labor skills.

    55. What is the chief concern of native high-skilled, better-educated employees about the inflow of immigrants?

     A~ It may change the existing social structure. C~ It may lead to social instability

    in the country.

     B~ It may pose a threat to their economic status. D~ It may place a great strain on

    the state budget.

    56. What is the irony about the debate over immigration?

     A~ Even economists cant reach a consensus about its impact.

     B~ Those who are opposed to it turn out to benefit most from it.

     C~ People are making too big a fuss about something of small impact.

     D~ There is no essential difference between seemingly opposite opinions.

    Passage Two

    Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

    Picture a typical MBA lecture theatre twenty years ago. In it the majority of students will have conformed to the standard model of the time: male, middle class and Western. Walk into a class today, however, and youll get a completely different impression. For a start, you will now see plenty more womenthe University of Pennsylvanias Wharton School, for example, boasts that

    40% of its new enrolment is female. You will also see a wide range of ethnic groups and nationals of practically every country.

    It might be tempting, therefore, to think that the old barriers have been broken down and equal opportunity achieved. But, increasingly, this apparent diversity is becoming a mask for a new type of conformity. Behind the differences in sex, skin tones and mother tongues, there are common attitudes, expectations and ambitions which risk creating a set of clones among the business leaders of the future.

    Diversity, it seems, has not helped to address fundamental weaknesses in business leadership. So what can be done to create more effective managers of the commercial world? According to Valerie Gauthier, associate dean at HEC Paris, the key lies in the process by which MBA programmes recruit their students. At the moment candidates are selected on a fairly narrow set of criteria such as prior academic and career performance, and analytical and problem solving abilities. This is then coupled to a schools picture of what a diverse class should look like, with

    the result that passport, ethnic origin and sex can all become influencing factors. But schools rarely dig down to find out what really makes an applicant succeed, to create a class which also contains diversity of attitude and approacharguably the only diversity that, in a business context,

    really matters.

    Professor Gauthier believes schools should not just be selecting candidates from traditional sectors such as banking, consultancy and industry. They should also be seeking individuals who have backgrounds in areas such as political science, the creative arts, history or philosophy, which will allow them to put business decisions into a wider context.

    Indeed, there does seem to be a demand for the more rounded leaders such diversity might create. A study by Mannaz, a leadership development company, suggests that, while the bully-boy chief executive of old may not have been eradicated completely, there is a definite shift in emphasis towards less tough styles of managementat least in America and Europe. Perhaps most

    significant, according to Mannaz, is the increasing interest large companies have in more collaborative management models, such as those prevalent in Scandinavia, which seek to integrate the hard and soft aspects of leadership and encourage delegated responsibility and accountability. 注意, 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

    57. What characterises the business school student population of today?

     A~ Greater diversity. C~ Exceptional diligence.

     B~ Intellectual maturity. D~ Higher ambition.

    58. What is the authors concern about current business school education?

     A~ It will arouse students unrealistic expectations. C~ It focuses on theory rather

    than on practical skills.

     B~ It will produce business leaders of a uniform style. D~ It stresses competition

    rather than cooperation.

    59. What aspect of diversity does Valerie Gauthier think is most important?

     A~ Age and educational background. C~ Attitude and approach to business.

     B~ Social and professional experience. D~ Ethnic origin and gender.

    60. What applicants does the author think MBA programmes should consider recruiting?

     A~ Applicants with prior experience in business companies.

     B~ Applicants with sound knowledge in math and statistics.

     C~ Applicants from outside the traditional sectors.

     D~ Applicants from less developed regions and areas.

    61. What does Mannaz say about the current management style?

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