Exam 2 Review
Chapter 5 The Working Cell
1. Describe the fluid mosaic structure of cell membranes.
2. Describe the diverse functions of membrane proteins.
3. Relate the structure of phospholipid molecules to the structure and properties of cell
4. Define diffusion and describe the process of passive transport.
5. Explain how osmosis can be defined as the diffusion of water across a membrane. 6. Distinguish between hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions. 7. Explain how transport proteins facilitate diffusion.
8. Distinguish between exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-
9. Define and compare kinetic energy, potential energy, chemical energy, and heat. 10. Define the two laws of thermodynamics and explain how they relate to biological
11. Define and compare endergonic and exergonic reactions.
12. Explain how cells use cellular respiration and energy coupling to survive. 13. Explain how ATP functions as an energy shuttle.
14. Explain how enzymes speed up chemical reactions.
15. Explain how competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors alter an enzyme’s activity.
16. Explain how certain drugs, pesticides, and poisons can affect enzymes.
Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy
1. Compare the processes and locations of cellular respiration and photosynthesis. 2. Explain how breathing and cellular respiration are related.
3. Provide the overall chemical equation for cellular respiration.
4. Explain how the energy in a glucose molecule is released during cellular respiration. 5. Explain how redox reactions are used in cellular respiration.
6. Describe the general roles of dehydrogenase, NADH, and the electron transport chain in
7. Compare the reactants, products, and energy yield of the three stages of cellular
8. Explain how rotenone, cyanide, carbon monoxide, oligomycin, and uncouplers interrupt
critical events in cellular respiration.
9. Compare the reactants, products, and energy yield of alcohol and lactic acid fermentation. 10. Distinguish between strict anaerobes and facultative anaerobes.
11. Explain how carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are used as fuel for cellular respiration.
Chapter 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food
1. Define autotrophs, heterotrophs, producers, and photoautotrophs.
2. Describe the structure of chloroplasts and their location in a leaf. 3. Explain how plants produce oxygen.
4. Describe the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
5. Compare the reactants and products of the light reactions and the Calvin cycle. 6. Describe the properties and functions of the different photosynthetic pigments. 7. Explain how photosystems capture solar energy.
8. Explain how the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis generate ATP, NADPH, and
oxygen in the light reactions.
9. Compare photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation.
10. Describe the reactants and products of the Calvin cycle.
11. Compare the mechanisms that C, C, and CAM plants use to obtain and use carbon 34
12. Review the overall process of the light reactions and the Calvin cycle, noting the products,
reactants, and locations of every major step.
Chapter 8 The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance
1. Compare the parent-offspring relationship in asexual and sexual reproduction. 2. Explain why cell division is essential for prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. 3. Explain how daughter prokaryotic chromosomes are separated from each other during
4. Compare the structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes.
5. Describe the stages of the cell cycle.
6. List the phases of mitosis and describe the events characteristic of each phase. 7. Compare cytokinesis in animal and plant cells.
8. Explain how anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors control cell division. 9. Explain how cancerous cells are different from healthy cells.
10. Describe the functions of mitosis.
11. Explain how chromosomes are paired.
12. Distinguish between somatic cells and gametes and between diploid cells and haploid
13. Explain why sexual reproduction requires meiosis.
14. List the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II and describe the events characteristic of each
15. Compare mitosis and meiosis noting similarities and differences.
16. Explain how genetic variation is produced in sexually reproducing organisms. 17. Explain how and why karyotyping is performed.
18. Describe the causes and symptoms of Down syndrome.
19. Describe the consequences of abnormal numbers of sex chromosomes. 20. Define nondisjunction, explain how it can occur, and describe what can result. 21. Explain how new species form from errors in cell division.
22. Describe the main types of chromosomal changes. Explain why cancer is not usually