Tasmania, Lessons from Down Under

By Larry Elliott,2014-05-01 14:50
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Tasmania, Lessons from Down Under

    Winter Ecology Mammalian Adaptations to Winter

    Study Guide

    Sheryn Olson, University of Colorado, Mountain Research Station

    1. Concepts

    ; Energy Balance: Purpose is maintenance of ________________: Metabolism and Thermal

    Conductance must be adjusted as temperatures decrease. HOW? Using

    M , , P and B


    ; Survival Mechanisms in winter (after Feldhammer, et. al, 2004, Table 8.1, p.117):

    A : give two examples each (There are Nine!)



    a. C (voles, squirrels, raccoons)

    b. Construction, maintenance of ,

    c. F :

    R :

    3. Increase thermogenic capacity. HOW? by increasing HOW?

    Increased & (weasels).

    S (all mammals), NST accomplished

    with BAT - an interscapular patch in bats, shrews.

; Countercurrent heat exchange (peripheral heterothermy) and rete mirabile:

    - example: Beaver’s tail.

    ; Bergmann’s Rule:

    - example: deer

    ; Allen’s Rule:

    - example: foxes ears (arctic, desert kit)

    ; Gloger’s Rule:

    - example: caribou

    ; Rapoport's Rule:

    2. Terminology







     Regional heterothermy

     & Temporal heterothermy Set Point


Interscapular brown adipose tissue produces called N .

Thermoneutral Zone

    Lower critical temperatures

    Upper critical temperatures



Winter lethargy





Thermal Conduction

     Expressed as formula:


Heimal threshold

    3. Review Questions

    1. Define and explain the differences between: homeothermy, ectothermy, poikiothermy, and


    2. Label the arrows in the diagram with appropriate radiation (thermal, reflected), conduction,

    convection, and evaporation.

    3. What factors do mammals use to maintain their body temperature around a set point?

    a. I

    b. A l ( , )

    c. B examples:

    d. M and m choices


4. Why is there debate about Bergmann’s, Gloger’s and Allen’s rules?

    There are notable to the rules. Examples:

    S.Olson, 2/08

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