Endocrine System - Randy Fillion

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Endocrine System - Randy Fillionrandy

    Anatomy & Physiology for Myomassologists

    Endocrine System

    Endocrine System

    Description: A group of glands that work in partnership with the

     nervous system and affect bodily activities by

     releasing chemical messengers (hormones) into the

     blood. These hormones can take several minutes or up

     to several hours to bring about their responses.


    ; Help control the internal environment by regulating the

     chemical composition of the body

    ; Helps the body respond to emergency situations and


    ; Assumes the roles for smooth & sequential growth and

     development of the body

    ; Contributes to the basic processes of reproduction

Endocrine Glands:

     Hypothalamus considered part of the nervous system, also

     produces and releases hormones, thus is

     considered and neuro-endocrine organ. It’s

     primary function is homeostasis, it’s primary

     influence is over the pituitary gland.

     Pituitary - ‘the master’ gland regulates numerous body

     activities, with the major one being growth

     Thyroid - controls metabolism in the body

     Parathyroid - promotes the release of calcium from bone

    Randy Fillion NCTMB 1

    Anatomy & Physiology for Myomassologists

    Endocrine System

     Adrenal - assists with metabolism during both normal AND

     emergency situations

     Pineal - promotes in the maturing of the reproductive


     Thymus - helps establish the immune system

    The Endocrine system can be related to the Eastern Chakra system, correlating energy centers with organ location, and autonomic nervous

    system plexus and functional aspects. Many Eastern healing traditions work

    form this perspective.

Structures That Contain Endocrine Tissue:

     Pancreas - the Islets of Langherhans insulin production

     Ovaries - produce estrogen & progesterone

     Testes - produce testosterone

     Kidney - calcium absorption

     Stomach - produce gastric juices

     Small Intestine - produce digestive enzymes

     Placenta - growth of off-spring

Effects of Massage on the Endocrine System

    ; Increase blood circulation

    ; increase lymph circulation

    Randy Fillion NCTMB 2

    Anatomy & Physiology for Myomassologists

    Endocrine System

    Label the following endocrine glands on the diagram below:

A. Thymus

    B. Adrenal

    C. Ovary

    D. Pancreas

    E. Teste

    F. Pineal

    G. Hypothalamus

    H. Pituitary

    I. Thyroid

    J. Parathyroid

    Randy Fillion NCTMB 3

    Anatomy & Physiology for Myomassologists

    Endocrine System

    Anterior Pituitary Hormones

    Growth Hormone (GH)

    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

    Adreno-coricotropic hormone (ACTH)

    Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    Lactogenic Hormone (PRL)

    Posterior Pituitary Hormones

    Anti-diuretic Hormone


Anterior Pituitary Hormones

    Growth Hormone

    Also called somatotropin; stimulates most body cells to increase in size and divide. Major target organs are bones and muscles.

    Release can be inhibited by emotional deprivation, insomnia, high blood sugar, and high blood fat levels.

    Growth hormone disturbances are associated with chronic pain disorders such as fibromyalgia.

    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

    A tropic hormone that maintains thyroid health, controls the release of thyroid hormones and produces TSH more often in responses to cold temperatures.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

    Promotes and maintains normal growth and development of the adrenal cortex, it stimulates the release of glucocorticoids and androgens.

    Stress, mild-to-moderate fevers, and hypoglycemia increase the amount of ACTH secreted.

    Glucocorticoids are known to suppress the immune system.

    Follicle-stimulating Hormones

    In both men and women, stimulates hormones related to the reproductive organs/system.

Luteinizing Hormone

    In women, causes ovulation and in men, stimulates the production and secretion of testosterone.


    Found in men and women, hormones combine in breast development, and are involved in milk production.

    Receptors in prolactin suggest immune system involvement.

    Randy Fillion NCTMB 4

    Anatomy & Physiology for Myomassologists

    Endocrine System

Posterior Pituitary Hormones

    Antidiuretic Hormone - also known as vasopressin.

    Massage, Stress and Hormones

    Stimulates kidneys to remove water from urine and release it into the bloodstream. Release of ADH is stimulated by pain, anxiety, nicotine, tranquilizers, and low BP. Release of ADH is inhibited by alcohol.

    Massage and bodywork reduces the perception of pain and anxiety.


    Stimulates smooth muscle contraction, especially in the uterus.

    Is released in great amounts prior to childbirth, stimulates milk letdown, and is found in men to suggest bonding and to enhance parental behavior.

Massage, Stress and Adrenal Function

    In a one hour massage, it is suggested that in the first 15 minutes to work using more vigorous methods to use up catecholamines and then transition into a more soothing method to enhance and support the relaxation response of the parasympathetic system over the remaining 45 minutes.

    As a general rule of thumb, for every 15 minutes of catecholamine-generated sympathetic activity the body needs 45 minutes of parasympathetic balancing time.

    In a healthy person, sympathetic activity account for 25% of daily actions followed by 25% of parasympathetic activity and the remaining 50% a combo of the two. It is proposed that today this rarely happens, and the body can’t keep up with life’s

    demands which further leads to imbalances, and dysfunction.

    Randy Fillion NCTMB 5

    Anatomy & Physiology for Myomassologists

    Endocrine System

    Endocrine 1

    Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

1. All cells are exposed to all hormones, working on a type of lock and key system

    with__________ acting as the lock, cells are able to only respond to the hormones

    that have the correct key.

    A) target cells

    B) receptors

    C) hormone ducts

    D) hormone sensors

2. The ________ gland regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual


    A) thyroid

    B) pineal

    C) hypothalamus

    D) pancreas

3. Exocrine glands secrete into ______, which in turn are connected to a variety of

    body functions.

    A) capillaries

    B) lymph vessels

    C) ducts

    D) veins

    4. Cells that have receptors for a particular hormone are known as: A) hormone sensory ducts

    B) target cells

    C) direct cells

    D) regulated cells

    5. The _______ is a small oval gland at the base of the skull, nestled in the bony recess

     called the sella turcica in the sphenoid bone.

    A) pineal

    B) hypothalamus

    C) pituitary

    D) pancreas

    6. ____________ is/are considered to be the body's natural painkillers. A) vasopressin

    B) oxytocin

    C) peptides

    D) morphine

    Randy Fillion NCTMB 6

    Anatomy & Physiology for Myomassologists

    Endocrine System

7. The hormone responsible for the contraction of the uterus during labor is known


    A) peptide

    B) vasopressin

    C) adrenaline

    D) oxytocin

    8. The butterfly-shaped gland located in the anterior aspect of the neck, inferior to

    the larynx is known as:

    A) pituitary

    B) thyroid

    C) pineal

    D) testis

9. The hormone thought to be responsible for seasonal defective disorder is known


    A) oxytocin

    B) serotonin

    C) calcitonin

    D) melatonin

10. The control of the hypothalamus over the pituitary is one example of regulation of

    the endocrine system by the nervous system known as:

    A) neuro-endocrine regulatory function

    B) hypothalamic regulation

    C) neuropathy

    D) endoregulatory function

    True or False

11. The main function of the endocrine system is to coordinate and regulate the

    activities of the cells.

12. The difference between endocrine and exocrine glands is one secretes hormones

    and the other absorbs them.

13. The levels of melatonin increase during the day and decrease during the night.

14. A decrease in the plasma level of glucose results in hypoglycemia.

    Randy Fillion NCTMB 7

    Anatomy & Physiology for Myomassologists

    Endocrine System

     Endocrine 2

Multiple Choice

    Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. What are the male sex hormones?

    a. Androgens

    b. Oxytocin

    c. Growth hormone

    d. Testosterone

____ 2. What is a glucocorticoid that is also known as hydrocortisone? (Levels of stress

    often are measured by these levels.)

    a. Insulin

    b. Cortisol

    c. Adrenaline

    d. Triglycerides

____ 3. A ductless gland that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream is which of

    the following?

    a. Exocrine gland

    b. Apocrine gland

    c. Endocrine gland

    d. Epocrine gland

____ 4. Which of the following peptide hormones work like morphine to suppress pain?

    (They influence mood, producing a mild euphoric feeling such as seen in runner’s


    a. Adrenaline

    b. Catecholamines

    c. Neurotransmitters

    d. Endorphins

____ 5. Which of the following is a gland (part of the endocrine system) that secretes

    hormones through ducts directly into specific areas?

    a. Exocrine gland

    b. Endocrine gland

    c. Eccrine gland

    d. Sebaceous gland

    ____ 6. What is the excessive release of a hormone called?

    a. Hyposecretion

    b. Hyperbolic

    c. Hypersecretion

    d. Prosecretion

    Randy Fillion NCTMB 8

    Anatomy & Physiology for Myomassologists

    Endocrine System

    ____ 7. What is the insufficient release of a hormone called?

    a. Hypersecretion

    b. Hypertonic

    c. Hypotonic

    d. Hyposecretion

    ____ 8. A control mechanism that provides a stimulus to decrease a function, such as a fire alarm, which causes a series of reactions that work to reduce the fire, is which of the following?

    a. Positive feedback system

    b. Negative feedback system

    c. Peripheral feedback loop

    d. Central reflex arc

    ____ 9. Endocrine functions are typically regulated by which of the following? a. Negative feedback systems

    b. Reflex arcs

    c. Sensory receptors

    d. Crossed extensor reflexes

    ____ 10. Which statement is most accurate?

    a. Neurotransmitters travel long distances in the body before reaching target


    b. Hormones are found in the bloodstream and act quickly on adjacent cells.

    c. The endocrine system acts slowly and helps to sustain a response.

    d. The nervous system acts quickly while using hormones to respond quickly.

    ____ 11. A family is concerned about their elderly father. Lately he has been lethargic and less responsive on the phone. The man lives alone in a house that he purchased after serving in the navy in World War II. He continues to care for himself. The family is wondering if a weekly massage may be beneficial. What would be the appropriate response to this question?

    a. Yes, because people need various types of sensory stimulation including touch

    for proper function of the hypothalamus

    b. Yes, but once a month would be sufficient because there are no specific

    outcome goals other than personal interaction

    c. Yes, but the methods used during the massage to support endocrine function

    are intense and require extensive adaptive capacity

    d. Yes, because this man likely has posttraumatic stress disorder from military


    Randy Fillion NCTMB 9

    Anatomy & Physiology for Myomassologists

    Endocrine System

    ____ 12. A new client has thin hair, slightly bulging eyes, and warm sweaty palms. This

    cluster of symptoms has prompted the massage therapist to refer the client to the

    physician for a diagnosis. What does the massage therapist suspect?

    a. Diabetes

    b. Hypothyroidism

    c. Hyperthyroidism

    d. Menopause

    ____ 13. A client has type 1 diabetes. Which of the following should the massage therapist

    monitor for the client as part of the general massage application?

    a. Bloat

    b. Tissue changes in the feet

    c. Bulging of the eyes

    d. Edema of the extremities

    ____ 14. The pineal gland is involved in sleep cycles. If a client were to ask for a chakra

    balance to support sleep, which of the following would be the location of this chakra?

    a. Root

    b. Brow

    c. Solar plexus

    d. Heart

    ____ 15. A massage therapist has been getting less restorative sleep. He goes to bed and gets

    up at the same time, so that does not seem to be the issue. Lately he has been reading

    in bed and falling asleep with the light on. Which of the following would explain

    why this could be the cause of the problem?

    a. The light reduces serotonin secretion from the thalamus

    b. The light stimulates melatonin production from the pancreas

    c. The light increase blood levels of erythropoietin

    d. The light interferes with melatonin function

    ____ 16. The chakra system is a mapping of energy centers with what correlation in Western

    medical terms?

    a. Nerve plexuses and endocrine gland functions

    b. The pathology of the endocrine system

    c. No recognizable anatomic relationship

    d. None of the above

    ____ 17. Endocrine functions are typically regulated by which of the following?

    a. Tissue hormones

    b. Negative feedback systems

    c. Positive feedback systems

    d. Target cells

    ____ 18. Hormones exert their effect on which of the following?

    Randy Fillion NCTMB 10

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