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Nasal and sinonasal lesions

By Connie Hunt,2014-04-26 19:38
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Nasal and sinonasal lesions

    NASAL AND SINONASAL LESIONS NASAL AND SINONASAL LESIONS

; INFLAMMATORY, GRANULOMATOUS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES

     - are among the most 1.) Acute infections of upper respiratory tract

    common human diseases

    -common cold (acute rhinitis) -clinical symptoms include congestion of nasal mucosa accompanied by watery discharge, sore throat, mild increase in temperature

    pathogenesis: is usually caused by rhinoviruses, parainfluenza and influenza viruses, etc

    clinical course: the infection is self-limited, usually lasting for about a week -common complication include bacterial upper respiratory tract infection -in minority of cases- common cold may be complicated by

     -bacterial otitis media

     -or bacterial sinusitis

    - acute pharyngitis - manifests itself as sore throat

    -morphologic changes are mild-mucosal edema, hyperemia, exudate -more severe forms of pharyngitis are associated with tonsillitis or acute

     pharyngotonsillitis

    -marked hyperemia, larger amounts of exudate

    pathogenesis: most often caused by beta-hemolytic streptoccoci and adenovirous infections

    acute pharyngitis may be also a component of infectious mononucleosis (caused by EB-virus )

     -acute suppurative sinusitis- bacterial inflammatory disease characterized by mucosal edema, inflammatory infiltrate (with abundant eosinophilic leuko in allergic types), and hyperplasia of mucous producing glands

2.) Chronic infections of upper respiratory tract

    ; -chronic rhinitis- chronic inflammation of the nasal cavity- repeated nonspecific chronic bacterial infections may have a form of hyperplastic

    - possible obstruction of airways rhinitis

     or of atrophic chronic rhinitis-associated with strong odor from the respiratory tract (ozena)

    ; chronic paranasal sinusitis - infiltration of accessory air sinuses (maxillary, ethmoid, frontal)

    -common complication of acute and chronic rhinitis that results from the obstruction of the nasal openings caused by infiltration and edema of the nasal mucosa

-chronic inflammatory and allergic nasal polyps -repeated attacks of acute

    rhinitis may result in the development of inflammatory nasal polyps- pseudotumors composed of edematous stroma, abundant inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells, eosinophils are more numerous in allergic nasal polyps

     -nasal polyp may cause nasal obstruction-

    nasal polyps are soft, edematous, semitranslucent polypoid masses affecting nasal cavity, usually associated with acute and chronic rhinitis and sinusitis

     -antrochoanal polyps- between 3 to 6% of all patients with nasal

    inflammatory polyps have the antral-choanal variety

    -It is usually solitary, nasal obstruction and epistaxis are the major symptoms

    Choanal polyps are defined as paranasal sinus polyps that pass through sinus ostia and protrude into the boundary between nasal cavity and nasopharynx, called choana

    -rare inflammatory polyps arising in the mucosa of maxillary sinus (antrum Highmori), it protrudes into posterior nasal cavity, can easily become traumatized- ulceration, bleeding, neovascularization- may mimic hemangioma, hemangiopericytoma, juvenile angiofibroma, etc.

    ; Most choanal polyps originate in the maxillary sinus. With enlargement the

    antrochoanal polyp protrudes through the middle meatus into the nasal

    cavity between middle turbinate and lateral wall of the nasal cavity. Even

    posterior extension moves polyp into the nasopharynx, very large polyps

    may present as oropharyngeal mass.

    ; Sphenochoanal polyp develops in the sphenoid sinus and protrudes through

    sphenoid ostium into the nasal cavity

    ; rhinoscleroma- is an uncommon chronic infection of ther upper respiratory tract- endemic in eastern Europe (Poland), the Middle East, Central Africa, and Latin America

    -it its caused by Klepsiella rhinoscleromatis

    morphology: rhinoscleroma affects the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity and later may extend to nasopharynx and larynx, it presents with polypoid mucosal lesions caused by accumulation of foamy macrophages (Miculizc cells) filled with bacteria and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in nasal mucosa- result in formation of polypoid masses and ulcerations-

    -the overlaying epithelium may be intact, or squamous metaplasia and pseudopitheliomatous hyperplasia is seen

    ; fungal sinusitis- noninvasive fungal sinusitis exists in the form of

    mycetoma- most commonly caused by aspergillus- these organisms

    normally occur on the mucosal surfaces of nasal cavity and paranasal

    sinuses but rarely cause disease

    -in patients with chronic sinusitis and poor drainage of paranasal sinuses- aspergilli may proliferate and produce aspergilloma

     affects immunosupressed or immunocompromized -invasive fungal sinusitis-

    patients, those with severe debilityting metabolic and neoplastic diseases

; Wegener?s granulomatosis is a rare disease that affects respiratory tract, -

    lungs and kidneys

    -the clinical presentation is characterized by large sinonasal mucosal non-healing ulcerations, and extensive necroses

    -septal perforation, and edema, with mucosal swelling can be seen -these clinical features have been reffered to as lethal midline granuloma

     -lesions of the nasal and paranasal mucosa are the most common and the most characteristic of the disease

     -in upper respiratory tract- there are lesions characterized by necrotizing destructive granulomas- associated with severe vasculitis pathogenesis: is a form of necrotizing allergic vasculitis

    -in most patients (85-95%) have a positive test for ANCA antibodies (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies)

TUMORS OF NASAL CAVITY AND PARANANASAL SINUSES

    -introduction- carcinomas of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses account for 0.2 to 0.8% of all malignant neoplasms and aprox. 3% of tumors of head and neck etiology: occupational exposure to wood dust is known as a risk factor

Benign tumors:

    - scheiderian papilloma-

    -the most common benign tumor of the mucosa of nasal and paranasal cavities (schneiderian membrane)

    -histologically composed of exyphytic papillary protrusions made up of fibrovascular stromal papillae covered by benign stratified squamous epithelium

    -common manifestation - is epistaxis (bleeding from the nasal mucosa) and/or

    obstruction- removed surgically

    -inverted papilloma -is a variant of schneiderian papilloma in which the epitheliumprolifeates into the underlaying stroma- endophytic growth pattern -has slightly more common local recurrences

    ; malignant tumors

    rare, they include a wide spectrum of tumors with variable clinical outcomes more common include squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma and plasmocytoma

    ; squamous cell carcinoma- located in nasal vestibule or at mucocutaneus

    junction of the septum

    clinical symptoms- nasal fullness, obstruction, epistaxis, pain, paresthesia, persistent and non-healing mucosal ulceration, etc.

    -clinical course is indolent, lymph node meta occur in less than 10% SCC of paranasal sinuses more aggressive (the most common- maxillary sinus)

    - SCC is classified to keratinizing, nonkeratinizing, papillary and

    verrucous types- warty, papillary subtype with better clinical

    outcome- no metastases, rarely recur

    ; Sinonasal adenocarcinoma- these are glandular malignancies arising from

    the glands of respiratory mucosa

    - Two main categories include intestinal type adenocarcinoma -similar

    to colorectal adenocarcinoma histologically, causal relationship of

    wood dust with development of ca has been demonstrated,

    aggressive tumor with frequent local recurrence (50%), less

    commonly LN meta, distant meta are rare

    - Non-intestinal type adenocarcinoma-low grade and high grade

    lesions

    ; Lymphoepithelial carcinoma- is a poorly differentiated SCC or

    undifferentiated ca accompanied by heavy lymphoid infiltrate, strong

    associatiation with EBV infection

    ; Small cell carcinoma- histologically similar to pulmory ca, common mitoses

    and necroses, poor prognosis

    Most carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are locally aggressive, they grow readily to adjacent structures

    ; Olphactory neuroblastoma- malignant neuroectodermal tumor that

    originates from olphactory membrane of the sinonasal tract Treatment- safe surgical margins

    ; Extranodal T/NK lymphoma of nasal type- is characterized by diffuse

    lymphoid infitrate causing destruction of mucosa, poor prognosis Lethal midline granuloma

    -this term was originally applied to a group of diseases characterized by severe destructive ulcerations in the middle of the face including the nasal cavity -most of the cases of LMG (if Wegener and rare fungal infections were excluded)

     represents sinonasal T-cell lymphoma of type

    microscopically: characterized by diffuse infiltration composed of atypical lymphoid tumor cells accompanied by extensive tissue necroses and ulcerations of the surface of the mucosa (caused by angiodestructive growth of this type of lymphoma)

; Extramedullary plasmocytoma- is slowly growing mass lesion composed of

mature IgG producing neoplastic plasma cells

Prognosis is good, only 20% develop multiple myeloma

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