； Special Reports
Development of automotive engines in China
I. Briefing of the development of China automotive engine
China’s automotive engine industry is growing up along with the development of China automotive industry. In 1956, FAW introduced automotive technology from the former Soviet Union, manufacturing CA10 trucks. The production of automotive engines in China was quite low -volume prior to the introduction of CA10. After the introduction and experiencing an annual growing production, however, the production of CA6102 gasoline engines for CA10 also was rising year on year. After the 1960’s, Nanjing Auto Works began to make 2.5t Yuejin trucks and 1.5t Yuejin off-roaders. Shanghai Auto Works’cars with the brand Shanghai, came into production (220 units made in 1966); Beijing Auto Works launched BJ212 jeeps (532 units made in 1966). Meanwhile, small batches of automotive gasoline engines, most of which came out by modeling on foreign products, were also produced to equip different types of automobiles. In 1970s, with Jinan Auto Works’ Huanghe, No. 2 Auto Works’EQ240 and EQ140 coming into production, the matching diesel engine 6130 and the gasoline engines EQ240 and EQ6100were produced in batches, and as a result, the scale of both engine production and engine manufacturers expanded moderately.
The 1980’s and 1990s’ witnessed an all-round development of Chinas’ auto industry. The upgraded auto product of FAW was CA141, and Dongfengs’ EQ140 grew rapidly in the market. New types of foreign automobiles were continuously introduced into China such as Iveco light trucks and buses, Steyr heavy vehicles, Santana cars, Cherokee, Daihatsu and Suzuki mini vehicles, etc.
In the 1980’s and 1990s’, the domestically produced gasoline engines, 492Q, 6102Q,
491Q and 6100Q, and diesel engines, 6105, 6108, 6114, 4102, 4100 and 6135, were already in mass production, which well met the domestic demands. In the meantime,
gasoline engines such as Suzuki 462/465, Daihatsu 370Q/376Q, Santana 1.8L, Citroen 1.4L/1.6L, Jetta 1.6L, and diesel engines such as Steyr WD615, Iveco Sofim 2.5L/2.8L, Isuzu 4JA1/4JB, were introduced to meet the need of various types of introduced automobiles.
From 1985 through 2002, the production of China automotive engines increased by 3.7
folds with an annual growth rate of 9.5%, and the growth rate of diesel engines was much
bigger than that of gasoline engines. During that period, the production of diesel engines rose by 13.2 folds with an annual growth rate of 16.9%, and the figures for gasoline
engines were 2.4 and 7.5%.
The top ten automotive engine makers in China include Dongfeng Motor, Harbin Dong’an Auto Engine Co., Ltd, Changan’ Auto Co., Ltd, FAW Group, Shanghai VW, FAW-VW, Liuzhou Isuzu Auto, Liuzhou Machinery Plant, Guangxi Yulin Diesel Engine Co., Ltd, Kunming Yunnei Auto Engine, and Tianjin Auto Industry (Group) Corp.
II. Technology import and technological progress of the
automotive engine industry
a. Main projects of technology introduction
With the localization of the introduced products and the digestion and absorption of the introduced technologies, China’s engine products made great progress in technology. Overseas advanced technologies have been applied to domestic-made engines, for example: multi-valve, turbocharging, diesel high-pressure injection, gasoline electronic fuel injection (EFI), three-way catalyst converter, EGR, etc. Since China carried out its reforms and opened up the market, the introduced engine types and their producers have been as follows (involving the engines imported along with the introduction of complete vehicles and the ones modeled on the foreign products)
FAW Group. The main engines include Cummins diesel engines of 4BT, 6BT and 6CT
introduced from Cummins, US.
Dongfeng Motor. The main engines include diesel engines of 4BT, 6BT and 6CT
introduced from Cummins, US.
Chongqing Cummins Engines Corp. The main engines cover H, K, L and M series of Cummins diesel engines introduced from Cummins, US.
Qingling Auto Group. The main engines include Isuzu 4JB1 and 4JA1 diesel engines,
and Isuzu 4ZE1 gasoline engines, introduced from Isuzu Motors (introduced together with
Isuzu’s NKR, NHR and Ascender)
Jiangling Auto Group. The main engines include Isuzu 4JA1 and 4JB1 diesel engines, introduced from Japan Isuzu Motors (introduced with Isuzu’s NKR and NHR)
Nanjing Iveco Auto. The main engines include Sofim 2.5L and 2.8L diesel engines
introduced from Iveco, Italy. (introduced together with Iveco light ve hicles)
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Hangzhou Automotive Engine Plant in Zhejiang Province and Weifang Diesel Engine Plant in Shandong Province. Their main engines consist of Steyr diesel engines of WD615, WD618, etc., introduced from Steyr, Austria (introduced together with Steyr heavy duty vehicles).
Xiamen Yangzhou Diesel Engine Co., Ltd. The main product is Toyota A15 gasoline
engine, introduced from Toyota Motor, Japan.
FAW-VW. The main engine products cover gasoline engines for Jetta and Bora,
introduced from VW Auto Corp. (introduced with Jetta and Bora cars)
Shanghai VW Auto Co., Ltd. The main engine types include gasoline engines for Santana, Passat and POLO, introduced from Germany’s VW Auto Corp. (introduced
together with Santana, Passat and POLO cars)
Dongfeng Honda Engine. The main engine types include gasoline engines of 2.0L/2.3L/3.0L for Honda Accord cars, introduced from Honda Motor (introduced together with Honda Accord cars)
Tianjin Toyota Motor. The main engine type is the Toyota 8A gasoline engine, introduced from To yota Auto Corp., Japan.
Tianjin-FAW Xiali Auto. The main engine types include gasoline engines of TJ370Q
and TJ376Q, introduced from Daihatsu Motor. (introduced with Huali and Xiali cars)
Perkins Engine (Tianjin) Co., Ltd. The main engines include Perkins diesel engines, introduced from Perkins Engines, UK.
SAIC-Chery Auto Corp. The main engine types include SQR480 gasoline engines,
introduced from Ford Motor, US.
Dongfeng Motor. The main product is EQ491Q gasoline engine, introduced from Ford
Shenyang Aerospace Mitsubishi Engine Co., Ltd. The main products include 4G63
and 4G64 gasoline engines, introduced from Mitsubishi Motors.
Harbin Dong’an Auto Engine Co., Ltd. The main engines include DA462Q and DA465Q gasoline engines, introduced from Suzuki Motor, Japan, and the 4G1 gasoline
engines introduced from Mitsubishi Motors, Japan.
Chang’an Auto Group. The main engines include gasoline engines of JL462Q,
JL465Q, JL472Q and JL368Q, introduced from Suzuki Motor, Japan (introduced together
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Suzuki mini vehicles)
Liuzhou Machinery Plant. The main engine types include LJ276Q, LJ462Q and LJ376Q, introduced from Suzuki Motor, Japan.
Shanxi Huaihai Machinery Plant. The main engine types include HH462Q, HH465Q
and HH368Q, introduced from Suzuki Motor, Japan.
Nanjing Nanya Auto Co., Ltd. The main engine types include 1.3L and 1.5L gasoline
engines introduced from Fiat, Italy (introduced together with Encore, Palio and Siena).
FAW-Daewoo Engine Corp. The main engine types include gasoline engines for Daewoo cars, introduced from Daewoo Motor, Korea. (exported to Korea)
Shanghai-GM Auto Co., Ltd. 2.5L/3.0L gasoline engines for Buick and 1.6L gasoline
engines for Sail are the main types, introduced from U.S. GM (introduced together with
Buick and Sail cars).
Hunan Huayu Engine Corp. (which has been merged into Forland.). Its main products include the Nissan 483Q diesel engines, introduced from Nissan Motor, Japan.
(introduced indirectly through Taiwan)
b. Upgrading automotive engine technical competence
The complete engines are introduced together with the manufacturing technology for a big number of parts introduced at the same time through technology import and joint ventures, for example, Shanghai Valeo’s automotive motors, Tianjin Aisans’ carburetor, Shanghai United ElectronicsEM’S and Wuxi Weifus’ high-pressure oil pump technology.
The domestic original engines have achieved significant improvement and
development prompted by the introduced technology, particularly in the following aspects: ？;Substituting the relatively advanced engines for the outdated ones. At present, the
new engine types, such as Toyota’s 4Y(491Q) gasoline engines and 4102 diesel
engines, and Mitsubishi 4G6 gasoline engines, have taken the place of 492Q gasoline
engines, which was ever the mains tream engine for light vehicles in China with an
annual production of hundreds of thousands of units in 1980’s. Currently, the 492Q
engines are on the verge of disappearing from the market.
？;Advanced testing technologies and facilities and technologies such as CAD, CAE,
CAM, etc. have been applied extensively in China engine industry.
Brand new technologies have arrived with the engines being introduced, which has ？;
resulted in an extensive application of diesel engine turbocharging, inter-cooling and
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gasoline engine turbocharging. Currently, Dalian Diesel Engine Corp., Shanghai
Diesel Engine Corp. and Yulin Diesel Engine Corp. produce turbocharging diesel engines, and Shanghai-VW produces 1.8T turbocharging gasoline engines for Passat.
？;Multi-valve engines h ave been mass -produced locally. The multi-valve engines feature big horsepower, high efficiency, excellent fuel economy and good performance so the technology has been applied to quite a few engines domestically, such as Tianjin Toyota’s 8A (4-valve), FAW-VWs’ Jetta (5-valve), Dongfeng Honda (4-valve) and Shanghai GM (4-valve)
China has also imported the technology of variable valve lift. Variable valve lift and ？;
timing system is the internationally advanced technique for automotive engines, which has been a dopted by Dongfeng Honda on its Honda Accord engines of 2.0, 2.3 and 3.0.
？;Electronic Fuel Injection, which is conducive to reducing pollution and to raising
engine power and efficiency, has been widely adopted in China. Currently, all domestic light and mini vehicles and cars have EFI devices and three -way catalytic converters to meet the standard of Euro ?and ?. Such joint ventures as Shanghai United Electronics Co., Ltd and Bejing Delphi Wanyuan Engine Management System Co., Ltd produce the EMS (Engine Management System) and EFI device to meet domestic demand as well as export needs. At present, China has many manufactures making three-way catalyst converters, for example, Dalian Walt Gillette Exhaust System Corp, Guizhou Honghu Machinery Plant, Shanghai Huake Exhaust System Corp., and Tianjin CATARC High-Tech Corp.
Fuel injection systems for diesel engines have made a modest progress in ？;
technology. Pumps with relatively high injection pressure have been developed in China in response to the urgent need tha t China’s present diesel engine technology must meet the standard of Euro ?, for example, Shanghai Dongwei’s P7, Wuxi Weifus PW,’ Bejing Tianweis’ PB, etc. Currently, all the pump manufacturers in China are targeting the development and production of P710 0 high-pressure pumps, which is able to reach the Euro ? standard.
？;Common Rail Injection Systems on diesel engines can help to meet the Euro ? and ? standard. Therefore, a certain number of companies in China have been engaged in research in this field. For example, in 1999, FAW - Wuxi Fuel Pump and Fuel Injector Research Institute had successfully conducted the Common Rail Injection
System test (the highest injection pressure is 120Mpa on CA6110 supercharged
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intercooling diesel engines, and developed the first prototype of common-rail diesels
and the prototype of Jiefang truck. Tianjin University developed the Medium Pressure
Common Rail Injection System for diesel engines named PAIRCUI.
？ Domestic turbochargers have achieved significant technical advances, and the
production of superchargers grows fast.
？ Currently, domestic enterprises have more or less applied most of the leading
automotive engine technologies in the world and made some progress, for example,
alternative fuel engines (methanol, LNG, CNG and LPG), dual-fuel engines, hybrid
electric vehicles, lean combustion, ceramic adiabat and the application of
III.Issues and development trend of China automotive engine
Despite the obvious improvement of China’s automotive engin e technologies, there remains a big gap compared to foreign ones. The gap is demonstrated by a nearly blank field for common-rail injection diesel engines, and by the fact that the core technology of advanced gasoline engines is still under the control of foreign companies, for example, the Toyota 8A, Honda Accord 2.0, 2.3 and 3.0, and the Mitsubishi 4G6; and China has not mastered the core technology of EMS and high-pressure fuel pumps; also Chinese enterprises are lacking in autonomous IPR and product development capabilities. In addition, the development capabilities for China’s medium-end engines are comparatively weak. In addition, there is a big gap between technology development funding of China’s engine enterprises and that of foreign engine enterprises. Foreign enterprises usually spend 3%-5% of their sales revenue in technology development, while only 1% will be used for the same purpose in China. It is a big challenge to Chinese engine manufacturers that foreign engine manufactures will be permitte d to establish stock-holding or
solely-owned plants in China as a result of China’s entry into WTO. Another risk from this situation is that the development and production rights for the engines of advanced models may well be under the control of foreign parties. Thus, it is suggested that both the government and businesses put more investment into engine research, actively introduce the talents and technologies, enhance the autonomous development capabilities, increase R&D funding and issue incentive policies. It is not only important but also urgent for China’s automotive engine industry to build upon its autonomous engine development power. And there is still a long way for China automotive engine industry to go.？;
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