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# TPO17

By Thomas Lawrence,2014-09-09 20:17
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TPO17

TPO17 Listening

Narrator

LISTENING Part 1

Listen to part of a lecture in a business class.

Professor

OK, uh let’s um, let’s start. Uh, tonight we’re gonna talk about one approach

to structuring decision-making on a specific topic, sort of um…oh when you’re in a

decision-making process in a business situation, and you’ve got all the participants there sort of voicing opinions and negotiating, and there are lots

of different factors to consider in your decision…uh, the technique we’re

gonna talk about is uh, it’s a way to sort of structure that decision and arrive at a better decision. It’s called AHP, or Analytic, um, Analytic Hierarchy Process.

Now, the first step is to develop, a hierarchy by breaking the problem down into its components, and then prioritizing the components, as you’ll see. Now there’s some AHP software out there that lets you do the math, but I’m not gonna get into that level of detail now. The important thing that I want to talk about is not the mathematics of it so much as the concept. I, I want you to understand the logic behind Analytic Hierarchy Process and the basic approach.

OK…so uh, let’s say, if I was trying to buy a house, a house is actually a

pretty good example. It’s not a good example for a business class, necessarily, but it’ll certainly do for today.

You, you start with your main goal. An’ then you break it down into smaller parts. All right…so uh, taking our example of, of buying a house…I would have to determine the goal for the

house-hunting effort, uh choose the house that would be uh,…most, well, the best fit for my family. What would be your goal in trying to find a house? Well, uh let’s just say, make the best choice in, in buying a new house. Now, now that’s the goal.

So now that you’ve established a goal, you establish your criteria. And um, under criteria I would list for me what were the important factors that will influence the decision. And…they would be things like uh, like the cost. And, uh what else? Uh, location. Location, I think, would typically be one in most of our models, and maybe one more. How about floor plan?The layout of the

rooms. So, so we have cost, location, floor plan…those might be our key criteria for choosing a house.

Then you get down to the subcriteria under each of these three criteria. So, so let’s say, under

floor plan, the subcriteria are, you want a big kitchen, 3 bedrooms, a basement. And after you’ve determined all the criteria and subcriteria, um then you go back and you start making pairwise comparisons between them…uh, judgments about two of these things at a time.

Of the houses you’re considering, uh, is cost more important than location or, say, one has a big kitchen but only two bedrooms. Is that OK?

You move through the hierarchy making judgments about 1 pair of choices at a time. You see, it, it it’s designed to reflect the way people actually think…humans are much more,…capable of making relative rather than absolute judgments. Basically, we’ve reduced a rather complex

decision into a series of one-on-one comparisons.

Um, so what AHP does is it requires me to develop a schematic model of what I’m looking for. So, so, right off the bat I have to articulate and think about and identify these factors, these criteria.

And when I start comparing the criteria, these factors, um, it enables me to come up with the relative importance of each factor at a given level in the model. So, in other words, what the model does is it helps us set our priorities, and it forces us to make our priorities explicit. It, it not, not only helps make

the best decision, we’re also a lot clearer on why we made the decision. And understanding why we made the decision makes it easier to convince the boss or the shareholders that it’s a good

decision.

1. What is the talk mainly about?

A comparison of two approaches to decision-making

A formula for evaluating business plans

A process for improving decision-making

A method for gaining consensus within groups

2. In the lecture, the professor describes the steps in AHP. Indicate whether each of the following is a step in the process. Click in the correct box for each phrase.

Yes

No

Establish the goal

List alternative courses of action

Select key criteria and subcriteria

Make pairwise comparisons

Revise the goal based on choices

3. Why does the professor mention the floor plan of a house?

To give an example of a factor that would influence a decision To give a personal example of a time he found AHP to be useful To show that AHP can be applied to the design of houses

To name some criteria that are not important in decision- making

4. According to the professor, what is one important result of using AHP?

People can make decisions more quickly.

People are provided with several different outcomes. People can take advantage of the latest

technology. People can better understand the decisions they make.

5. What does the professor mean when he says this:

[Thistext wi lonlybe heard.]

Professor

Now there’s some AHP software out there that lets you do the math, but I’m not gonna get into

that level of detail now. The important thing that I want to talk about is not the mathematics of it

so much as the concept.

He wants the students to use the AHP software for an assignment. He does not think the AHP software is useful.

He wants to give only a general explanation of AHP.

He thinks the students can understand the mathematics without his help.

Narrator

Listen again to part of the lecture. Then answer the question.

Professor

Of the houses you’re considering, uh, is cost more important than location or, say, one has a big

kitchen but only two bedrooms. Is that OK?

6. Why does the professor say this:

[Thistext wi lonlybe heard.]

Professor

Is that OK?

To express uncertainty about the process To indicate an example of a decision to be made To check the students’ understanding of the process

To find out what the students prefer

Narrator

Listen to part of a conversation between a student and a professor.

Student

Hi, Professor Johnson.

Professor

Hi, Anna. What can I do for you?

Student

[upspeak]

Remember, I e-mailed you about getting the handouts from the class I missed the other day, and

you said I could stop by and pick them up today.

Professor

Oh, that’s right. [friendly, butseeking an explanation]

You know, that’s the fourth class you’ve missed this semester, and that’s not doing your grade any

good.

I assume you had a good reason for being out...

Student

[apologetica ly]

I know, I really hated to miss another class, but I had the flu, and I could hardly get out of bed.

That’ll be the last class I miss, though. I promise.

Professor

[accepting herpromise]

Okay...

[sincerely]

So how are you feeling noware you all recovered?

Student

Well, I’m still not quite a hundred per cent, but I’m feeling much better than I

did a few days ago.

Professor

Well, that’s good. Okay, uh… [regainingtrainof thought]

oh yes, the handouts. There were three of them, and I’ll get those for you in just a minute. They’re pretty self-explanatory, but if you have any questions, just send me an e-mail.

But...

Student [interrupting] Okay, thank you.

Professor

Sure. Uh, but we also watched a video, and we’ll be having an essay question about it on the next exam, so,

[searchingforasolution]

uh… [thinking]

Hmmm…Do you have a VCR at home?

Student

Actually, I don’t, but I do have access to one.

Professor

Okay…Well I can lend it you, but the only thing is, you’d have to watch it tonight and get it back to

me early tomorrow, because I’m going to be showing it in the other section of that class tomorrow afternoon.

Student

That’d be great.

Professor

But you really have to get it back to me tomorrow before my class.

Student

No problem. I can drop it off first thing in the morning if you’d like.

Professor Okay... [changinghismind]

You know what? How about if we do it this way. I’ll keep it for now and show it in my class tomorrow, and uh then you can drop by here and pick it up on Friday morning and keep it for the

whole weekend, and just bring it with you when you come to class next week. How does that sound? Uh then you’ll

have a couple of days to watch it, and you won’t have to worry about getting it back here tomorrow.

Student [checkingherschedulein her mind] Let’s see, Friday morning...

[turninghappywhenshe realizes shecan doit]

Yeah, that’ll work.

Professor

Excellent. I’ll be here from about ten to eleven thirty.

Student

[leaving]

Great. I’ll see you then.

Professor

Uh, just a second. Let me get you those handouts.

Student

Oh, yeah. Thank you.

Narrator

Now get ready to answer the questions. You may use your notes to help you answer.

7. Why does the woman go to see her professor?

To get materials for a class she missed

To discuss an assignment she is working on

To ask a question about a video her class recently watched

To inform the professor of changes in her schedule

8. Why does the professor change his mind about when he will lend the woman the video?

He remembers that he does not have the video in his office. He realizes that the woman does not have a VCR.

He is worried that he will not have the video back in time for his class. He realizes that he will not need the video until the following week.

9. Why will the woman stop by the professor’s office on Friday morning?

To return the video to the professor

To get the video from the professor

To hand in an assignment to the professor

To discuss the handouts with the professor

Narrator

Listen again to part of the conversation. Then answer the question.

Professor

You know, that’s the fourth class you’ve missed this semester, and that’s not doing your grade any

good.

I assume you had a good reason for being out...

10. Why does the professor say this:

[Thistext wi lonlybe heard.]

Professor

I assume you had a good reason for being out...

To indicate that he is not concerned about the woman’s absence

To assure the woman that her absence will not affect her grade To indicate that he has finished discussing the woman’s absence

To encourage the woman to explain why she was absent

Narrator

Listen again to part of the conversation. Then answer the question.

Professor Okay, uh... [regainingtrainof thought]

oh yes, the handouts. There were three of them, and I’ll get those for you in just a minute. They’re pretty self-explanatory, but if you have any questions, just send me an e-mail.

11. What can be inferred about the professor?

He is not planning to talk about the handouts now.

He expects the woman to respond to questions in the handouts. He is concerned that the handouts may be difficult to understand. He is not sure if he has the handouts the woman needs.

Narrator

Listen to part of a talk in a history class.

Professor

Okay, uh, so last time we were talking about the expansion of the railroad in the nineteenth centurywhy it was so important in the development of the southwestern United States. Uh, we talked about a couple of things: the railroad brought about land speculation, and development of lands for timber and farming andwell, and this is what I want to talk about todaythe railroads

brought tourists. They traveled by train, viewing the landscape, and uh, came to get a taste of what the “Wild West” was like. In the past 100 years, a whole tourism industry has grown up

around this idea. And uh, just like…ranching, or gold mining, it helped to integrate the Southwest into the economy of the rest of the country…uh, tourism helped integrate the “culture” or life in the Southwest into…well, well kind of into the minds of the rest of the country. And large-scale tourism couldn’t have happened without the

expansion of the railroad.

So, the railroad brought tourists, and tourists brought some changes that I think are really interesting. Uh, the thing about tourism that you should know first, and this has been determined by sociologists…sociologists say that tourists look for the familiar. Most tourists don’t go someplace looking for new things. They go looking for things they already know something about. Tourists will have some sense of the culture of a placemaybe based on a stereotype or a

generalization—but but that’s what they expect to see. And places that—deal with tourism,

create things knowing thisthey create what

tourists are looking for. Take the Grand Canyon Railway…any of you been on it? Well, this is a train that takes tourists to the Grand Canyon, and while you’re on the train, you see fake shootouts and gunfights. Now, the railroad running to the Grand Canyon was never actually robbed. But tourists have

this idea that this was what things were like in the “Wild West,” you know, gunfights and train robberies, and the tourist railway wants to make them happy. There’s a great term for this…it’s called staged authenticity.

In other words, people go to the Grand Canyon to see this fantastic natural landscape but they also want to get a sense of what it was like there during the real “Wild West.” Well, the railway knows this, so they try to re-create

some of that cultural history. And, oh, and we also see this at the Grand Canyon with the creation of Hopi House. Have any of you visited Hopi House?

Student A

I went there last year.

Professor

Could you tell the class what it was like?

Student A

Yeah…it’s kind of a, a big gift shop…where they sell traditional crafts—jewelry, pottery... stuff like

that. And supposedly it’s really made by Hopi people, the people who live there.

Professor

Anything else? What about the architecture?

Student A

Oh, right. It’s an unusual building…it’s supposed to look like a real Hopi building, I think.

Professor

Good, I noticed the same things. Now I’m not saying Hopi House is a fraud—the stuff they sell

really is made by Hopi artists--but it’s still an example of staged authenticity. Something I bet you

didn’t know…the Hopis never actually lived in, or even near, the Grand Canyon. There was another Native American people who lived in the Canyon, known as the Havasupi [hah-va- SOOP-ee]. But the tourist company that ran the placeit was called the Harvey

Companydecided to hire the Hopi instead of the Havasupi. Can anyone guess why?

Student B

Were the Hopi better artists? I mean, did they make better things?

Professor

Not really. The way I understand it, the people at the Harvey Company were very good at making money, and they figured that the Hopi people and the Hopi crafts would sell better to the tourists. So they built Hopi House, and

hired the Hopi people to work there and uh, one of those people, uh, a famous Hopi potter, was hired by the Harvey Company and she worked to rebuild, or

or kind of restructure, the Hopi pottery. It’s not sure whether this was her own doing or whether she was instructed to do this but… archaeologists working at ancient sites in the Southwest uncovered pottery and she started copying the same style.

And, well there’s some debate about that/…whether it was her idea or whether she was told to

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