Emergency Centre for Locust Operations (ECLO)
Situation Report – No 6
13 November – 19 November 2004
1. Overview of the situation
; More swarms are likely to move north from the Sahel to northwest Africa.
; Substantial aerial and ground control operations against immature swarms continue in Algeria,
northern Morocco and in southern Mauritania.
; A few swarms may move through northern Senegal into south-western Mauritania as locusts
leave the summer breeding areas of the central Sahel.
; More swarms have moved from the Sahelian zone in Niger to the north of the country.
; Donor funding is required in order to assist North African countries as well as Mauritania in
their fight against the Desert Locust during the winter/spring season from November 2004 to June 2005.
1.2 On-going campaign in North Africa and in Mauritania
An important objective is to control the immature swarms in North Africa and Mauritania before they mature and lay eggs. Teams in North Africa have about three months before temperatures become high enough for locusts to mature. In Mauritania and Western Sahara, however, swarms may start to mature soon where rain fell recently and vegetation is starting to grow.
; Morocco: Extensive control operations (512 176 hectares have been treated in the past two weeks) are on-going to stop more swarms from reaching the agricultural areas in the Souss valley and beyond.
; Mauritania: Immature swarms are concentrated in the west of the country from the border with Senegal to that with Western Sahara. Although the swarms in general are moving northwards, in the past few days, young swarms that formed farther east in the Sahel have entered the Guidimaka region of southern Mauritania through neighbouring parts of Mali. At the request of the Mauritanian Government, the Malian authorities have allowed a Mauritanian aircraft to conduct spraying operations into the Malian territory at the border between the two countries. To date, Mauritania has sprayed 1.1 millions hectares since the beginning of the summer.
; Algeria: Immature swarms are moving northwards into Algeria and campaign management is rendered difficult by the vast areas within which the control teams must operate. Teams in southern and central Algeria, must be especially vigilant as should rains fall, they are dealing with a potential winter breeding area.
; Egypt: This week, the international press published spectacular photographs of a large, immature swarm that appeared in Cairo on 17 November 2004. It stayed for two hours and then moved east to the Gulf of Suez where it landed on the coast and was controlled. Smaller infestations were reported in Sinai. In both cases, the locusts had flown from the Nile Delta where there had been several swarms earlier this week. As of today, there have been no further reports of locusts in northern Egypt or north eastern Libya.
; Tunisia: Immature swarms have reached agricultural zones and are being controlled.
; Small control operations are in progress in western Libya. Swarms that were in the northeast
moved into and gradually along the northern coast of Egypt.
1.3 Area treated
Since the beginning of November 2004, Mauritania and Morocco have conducted massive control operations; the former has sprayed 182 168 hectares while the latter sprayed 521 176 hectares.
Table 1: Area treated in hectares by country, as of 19 November 2004*
Current month and/or latest Cumulative total
Country information available since July 2004
Algeria 131 745 (31 Oct.) 985 813
Burkina Faso 3 839 (20 Oct.) 16 286
Cape Verde 236 (Nov.) 1 249
Chad 2 000 (12 Oct.) 8 801
Egypt 60 (11 Nov.) 1 859
Libya 32 416 (18 Nov.) 41 496
Mali 106 582 (31 Oct.) 377 441
Mauritania 182 168 (10 Nov.) 1 193 312
Morocco 521 176 (16 Nov.) 3 840 186
Niger 1 000 (28 Oct.) 210 773
Senegal 35 797 (Nov.) 687 031
Tunisia 22 089 (10 Nov.) 22 089
Yemen 175 (5 Oct.) 175
TOTAL 161 147 7 386 511
* Most recent reports. Reporting delays and discrepancies may affect the accuracy of these figures.
; As swarms began to move away from the Nile Delta, the FAO Desert Locust Information Service issued an alert, warning that locusts could move south along the Red Sea coast to winter breeding areas in southern Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea, that some could cross the Red
Sea to Saudi Arabia, and that there was a moderate risk of others moving east into Israel and
3. Early Warning and Contingency Planning
3.1 Early Warning
; Most North African countries have impressive survey capability; greater use of helicopters
may be needed to ensure good coverage, especially in mountainous areas.
; The international community needs to pay particular attention to any reports in the spring of
extensive breeding in North Africa, as well as any indications that resources are insufficient to
cope with hopper band infestations, because of the danger that these may lead to a re-
invasion of the Sahel in June 2005.
3.2 Contingency Planning
; From now until the spring is an ideal opportunity for a well coordinated aerial control
programme to kill swarms before they mature and lay eggs thereby minimising the spring
hopper band campaign.
; Once hatching occurs in spring (March to June) the goal will be to reduce the number of
bands surviving to form swarms and emigrate to the Sahel.
; This is the phase that may necessitate extensive aerial applications of pesticides, and the
point at which newer products or application methods, especially barrier treatments, could be
of immense value.
; FAO has determined the needs which can be met with existing donor resources and will
continue to make further estimates of resources that are required as the locust situation
4. Funding situation
; As of 19 November 2004, FAO has received US$55.6 million
in cash, to which the Organization has added US$6 million of
its own funds.
; US$11.5 million has been pledged but not yet received.
; US$6.3 million is currently being negotiated with donors.
5. Extraordinary Session of the Desert Locust Control Committee (DLCC)
; Considering the serious Desert Locust situation due to the current upsurge in the Western Region, an Extraordinary Session of the Desert Locust Control Committee (DLCC) will be held
at FAO from 29 November to 2 December 2004.
; This Committee is constituted of 60 members involving countries affected by the Desert Locust, regional organizations and donor countries interested in these issues.
; The DLCC is the pre-eminent global forum at which Desert Locust management is discussed and coordinated. It normally meets every two years, but it often meets more frequently during Desert Locust emergencies, hence the decision to hold Extraordinary Session at the end of this year.
; The Extraordinary Session will provide the first opportunity to consider the lessons which have been learned from the actions taken since September/October 2003 and the improvements which could be made in the months ahead. It will specifically focus on:
A. 2004 Campaign
Situation from September 2003 to November 2004
Overview of actions taken by the affected countries, FAO and donors
Role played by the Western and Central Region FAO Commissions
Assessment of “lessons learned”
Crop and Food Supply Assessment mission results
B. 2005 Campaign: planning and medium-term management
Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES Programme): role during an upsurge
Preparation for the 2005 Spring and Summer campaigns
Report of the Pesticide Referee Group
Further donor assistance requirements for locust-affected countries
Pesticide issues/options for safer and more environmentally friendly control
; The intention is to carry out a rapid review of where/when problems occurred and consider
how they might be addressed in future, allowing the Extraordinary Session to make immediate
recommendations for improvements.
; For additional information, please refer to the following FAO web site:
http://www.fao.org/news/global/locusts/Locuhome.htm click on DLCC in the left hand corner.
6. FAO’s humanitarian response to the Desert Locust upsurge
Following the Crop and Food Supply Assessment missions’ (CFSAMs) findings, FAO is currently
addressing, in two ways, the agricultural and pastoral needs caused by a combination of drought and the Desert Locust infestation:
First: FAO has designed an emergency support vegetable production project (see project description below) and aims to mobilize resources immediately to ensure that the beginning of
the vegetable crop season in November-December is not missed.
Second: FAO is revising the inter-agency Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP) for West Africa to include agricultural rehabilitation projects for the main planting season of spring/summer 2005. This revised version will be issued in January 2005.
6.1 FAO’s Emergency support to the production of vegetables in the Sahel region
Project title Emergency support to the production of vegetables in
the Sahel region affected by the Desert Locust
Objective Improve the availability of sufficient quantities of nutritious food,
and generate income, by promoting vegetable production through
the distribution of seeds, fertilizers and hand tools.
Countries Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal
Targeted Households severely affected by damage caused by the desert
populations locust and unfavourable climatic conditions during 2004, in
particular women and extremely vulnerable groups (urban/peri-
Partners NGOs (World Vision, Oxfam, Catholic Relief Services) and
respective Ministries of Agriculture.
Total amount US$1 893 900
FAO Contribution US$200 000
; FAO will be able to initiate activities through a rapid response fund for seeds provided by Norway.
; FAO has established contacts with the most important NGOs to identify the vegetable growers and households whose vegetable production has been negatively affected.
; To obtain an overall picture of this Emergency support project, including a detailed budget, consult the FAO web page: http://www.fao.org/news/global/locusts/locuhome.htm
6.2 Consolidated Appeal Process 2005
; In the light of the information gathered during the CFSAMs in October 2004, FAO and its
humanitarian partners, WFP, UNICEF, Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
(OCHA), as well as some non-governmental organizations (NGOs), will now address the
overall humanitarian needs caused by the locust invasion through the inter-agency CAP.
; FAO’s revision of the inter-agency CAP will include new components, such as:
- vegetable production in the off-season;
- crop production for cow-peas, maize, sorghum and millet for the main planting season in
; In addition, FAO intends to include a pastoral component in the revised Appeal.
; A CAP for West Africa was launched on 11 November 2004. As the document was drafted
several months ago, it did not specifically address the damage caused by the Desert Locust in
the Sahel. It will now be revised to include assistance needed following the locust infestation.
; The inter-agency CAP document can be found at the following web address:
The latest information on the Desert Locust situation, operational activities
and donor funding can be found on FAO’s locust web site:
Hilde Niggemann Clive Elliott
Operations Officer Senior Officer
Emergency Operations and Locust and Other Migratory Pests Group
Rehabilitation Division Plant Production and Protection Division
FAO, Rome FAO, Rome
For further information, please contact these persons at the following email address: