By Pauline Dixon,2014-07-05 11:41
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    ; Aerobic fitness An indication of the heart’s ability to recover from vigorous exercise.

    Aerobic fitness is a component of overall (physical) fitness and is sometimes called

    cardiovascular fitness.

    ; Aerobics A system of physical conditioning that involves aerobic exercise (e.g. running,

    walking, swimming).

    ; Resting heart rate A person’s heart rate at rest. A resting heart rate for women is

    considered “normal” if it is between about 70-80 beats per minute.

    *Resting heart rate is affected by:

    1. age

    2. sex (men are lower usually)

    3. physical fitness

    4. some drugs/medication

    5. genetics

    6. anxiety

; Heart rate recovery AKA “recovery heart rate” – The amount of time it takes the heart

    to return to a non-exercising heart rate. This is contingent on the heart’s ability to

    intake, transport and utilize oxygen efficiently, which is also a measure of aerobic fitness. ; Target heart rate - AKA “training heart rate,” is a desired range of heart rate reached

    during aerobic exercise which enables one's heart and lungs to receive the most benefit

    from a workout. This theoretical range varies based on one's physical condition, gender

    and previous training.

    ; Heart zone A target range of heart rates that approximate 70 to 85 percent of a

    person’s average maximum heart rate.

    ; Atrophy The partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. It is a loss of size or mass:

    usually refers to loss of muscle due to non-use. Can occur as soon as 48 hours of non-use. ; Calorie A basic measure of energy from food that is used by the body. One pound of fat

    equals 3500 calories.

    ; Interval training Alternating exercise period of heavy and light effort.

    Taking your pulse: Taking your pulse regularly during exercise helps to know how hard you are

    working. There are many locations on the human body where your pulse can be felt. Your pulse is the

    pressure wave of blood that is generated when your heart muscles contract. It reflects the rhythm, rate

    and strength of your heart's contractions. You can feel your pulse anywhere that an artery (a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart) crosses over a bone and is close to the skin's surface. Some of the most common places to easily find your pulse are listed below. To take your pulse use your two fingers, not thumb.

    1. Carotid Artery Your carotid artery runs vertically along both sides of your neck. To find

    your carotid pulse, place your fingers at the top of your neck, just under your jaw at

    about the mid-point between your earlobe and chin.

    2. Radial Artery The radial artery is the pulse point most commonly used to determine

    someone's heart rate. Face either hand palm up and use the fingers from your other

    hand to locate your pulse. Your radial artery is on the thumb's side (or outside) of your

    wrist when the palm of your hand is facing you. Place your fingers half way between the

    tendons that run down the center of your forearm and the edge of your arm, on the

    thumb side, right at your wrist. Make sure one finger is closer to your palm than the

    other, so they appear "stacked"; your fingers should be vertical on your wrist, not side-

    by-side. You should feel a strong pulse here.

    *The radial and the carotid arteries are the easiest and most accessible places to take your

    pulse. There are a couple other arteries that can be used: Brachial, Femoral and Dorsalis



Components of Physical Fitness

    1. Body composition A ratio used to describe the percentages of fat, bone and muscle in

    human bodies.

    2. Flexibility The ability to move a body part through a full range of motion.

    3. Muscular strength The amount of force a muscle can exert.

    4. Muscular endurance The ability of muscle to do difficult physical taks over a period of

    time without fatigue.

    5. Cardiovascular endurance *what we are doing in aerobics The ability of the heart,

    lungs and blood vessels to send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long

    periods of activity.

Two categories of cardio exercise

    1. Aerobic Literally, “living or occurring in the presence of oxygen.” Aerobic movement

    or exercise is an activity or a series of activities performed strenuously enough to

    increase heart rate and respiration but not so strenuously that it results in an oxygen

    debt (called anaerobic).

    2. Anaerobic A technical word which literally means without oxygen.

    F.I.T.T Principle Is an acronym for frequency, intensity, time and type. The F.I.T.T. principle is

    a basic philosophy of what is necessary to gain a training effect from an exercise program.

    1. Frequency The number of exercise or activity sessions, usually defined by the number

    per week.

    2. Intensity The amount of exercise completed in a specific period of time or how “hard”

    a person exercises.

    3. Time The duration or amount of time spent exercising, usually defined by the total

    time per session.

    4. Type - There are two types of exercises for muscle groups, main and assistance (minor).

    Basically, your main exercises involve the most muscle mass. They usually involve more

    than one muscle group when exercising and you can use the greatest weight resistance

    with these exercises. The assistance exercises isolate the muscle group by

    concentrating on the simple movement of that muscle group and eliminating or

    minimizing the involvement of other muscle groups. Have variety in your choice of

    exercises. Don't do the same exercises the same way every time you train. Variety will

    shock the body and won't allow it to get used to the same exercises.

    Benefits of Physical Fitness

1. Exercise reduces the risk of heart disease

    2. Exercise reduces the risk of diabetes (Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by high

    blood glucose levels. Chronic elevation of blood glucose is associated with increased incidence

    of heart disease, kidney disease, nerve dysfunction, and eye damage.)

    3. Exercise increases bone mass This becomes possible as your muscular force is applied during

    activity. Studies have found that this can prevent bone lose in the elderly. 4. Exercise maintains physical working capacity during aging -

    5. Exercise increases longevity lifespan

    6. Exercise improves psychological well-being

    There are 3 parts/stages to every workout:

    1. Warm-up The preparation of the body before a session of vigorous exercise. Getting the blood

    flowing, and it helps to prevent injures.

    2. Exercise/workout A bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall

    health. It is performed for many different reasons. These include: strengthening muscles and

    the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, and weight loss or maintenance. 3. Cool-down A short period of mild exercise after a session of vigorous activity. To return blood

    flow to normal.

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