RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SPIROMETRIC PERFORMANCES AND
OCCURRENCE AND SEVERITY OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN
BELGIAN BLUE CALVES
F. Bureau, L. Fiévez, J. Detilleux, Ch. Uystepruyst, J. Coghe, P.L. Leroy, and P.
Lekeux, Department of Physiology, and Department of Quantitative Genetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Belgium
Spirometric variables (SV) were measured in 1000 double-muscled Belgian Blue calves from 15 to 60 days of age. Afterwards, calves were followed for 6 months to determine whether they developed any respiratory disease, and whether they died of these disorders. The economical losses due to respiratory disease were also calculated for each calf. A three-stage process was used to analyze the relationship of each SV with respiratory disease occurrence and categories for financial losses, separately. In Stage 1, variables affecting each SV were identified with an univariate analysis of variance. Only herd and test dates, calf weight (linear effect), parity and interaction between weight and parity had significant effects on SV. Accordingly, these factors were used to pre-correct each SV. Stage 2 (unconditional Pearson and Mantel-Haenzel chi-square tests) and stage 3 (multiple logistic regression) were conducted to determine which variables among herd, test-date, sex, dams’ parity,
muscling score, vaccination status, calf’ weight and pre-corrected SV could be
considered as a relevant risk indicator for each financial losses category and for disease prevalence, separately. SV were the most important factors affecting occurrence and severity of respiratory disease. Low SV were associated with increased respiratory disease occurrence (p<.001) and severity (p<.001). This means (1) that spirometric performances not only affect overcoming but also development of pulmonary disorders and (2) that efforts directed towards improvement of calves’ SV could be associated with decreased occurrence and severity of respiratory disease.
GENETIC PARAMETERS ESTIMATION FOR SPIROMETRIC
PERFORMANCES IN BELGIAN BLUE CALVES
F. Bureau, L. Fiévez, C. Michaux, J. Coghe, Ch. Uystepruyst, P.L. Leroy, and
P. Lekeux, Department of Physiology, and Department of Quantitative Genetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Belgium
To estimate genetic parameters and environmental effects for spirometric variables (SV) in calves, 734 Belgian Blue calves (15 to 297 days of age), sired by 20 IA bulls, were investigated. For each calf, the following SV were measured: 1) the average ventilation recorded during the 15 seconds of maximal ventilatory changes induced by lobeline administration (0.25 mg/kg, iv) (15-s MV), 2) the vital capacity, and the maximal peak expiratory and L
inspiratory flows recorded after lobeline administration and 3) the ventilatory reserve (15-s MV - ventilation at rest). Analysis of environmental factors L
showed that age of calves, herd, sex and vaccination status had significant effects on SV. A sire model and a multiple trait derivative-free REML procedure were used to estimate genetic parameters for SV, body weight and muscling score. Heritabilities for SV ranged from .28 (； .11) to .44 (； .16).
Genetic correlations among SV varied from .76 to .98 and environmental correlations from .69 to .80. Genetic correlations of SV with body weight (.25 to .56) and with muscling score (.21 to .76) were positive, as were environmental correlations of SV with body weight (.44 to .70) and muscling score (.09 to .25). These results suggest that response to selection for improved SV is possible, without impairing traits of economical importance.
TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, NUCLEAR FACTOR-;B, ACTIVITY IN
BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OF RAO HORSES
F. Bureau, L. Fiévez, N. Kirschvink, and P. Lekeux, Department of Physiology
, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Belgium
Bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), through the expression of numerous inflammatory genes and the subsequent release of inflammatory mediators, play an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic respiratory diseases. Transcription factor, nuclear factor-;B (NF-;B), which is thought to control the
transcriptional initiation of inflammatory genes, has never been investigated in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). In the present report, BECs of healthy and RAO-affected horses were assessed for NF-;B activity. Small
amounts of active NF-;B were present in BECs of healthy horses, whereas
high levels of NF-;B activity was found during crisis in all RAO-affected horses. Three weeks after the crisis, the level of NF-;B activity found in BECs
of RAO-affected horses was highly correlated (p < 0.01) to the degree of residual lung dysfunction, demonstrating that the kinetics of NF-;B activity is
strongly related to the course of the disease and eliciting the relevance of NF-;B as a preponderant target in RAO therapy. Unexpectedly, active NF-;B
complexes found in BECs of RAO-affected horses were mainly p65
homodimers, rather than classical p65-p50 heterodimers. These uncommon NF-;B complexes could transactivate, in BECs, a subset of genes
characteristic of RAO.