Notes about IPA:
• The movement of “spelling reformers”
• IPA is short both for International Phonetic Alphabet and for International Phonetic
• In 1888, the first version of IPA was invented by Henry Sweet. •
Tones in Chinese:
– 一声阴平;55； 二声阳平;35；
– 三声上声;214； 四声去声;51；
– 跑步 走路 我和你
Broad and Narrow Transcription
A broad transcription is one that only takes account of the sound differences that are important to
distinguish words from each other in a language.
A broad transcription is the transcription with letter-symbols only. A narrow transcription attempts to represent more or less accurately the way in which a particular
speaker pronounces his words.
A narrow transcription is a transcription with letter symbols together with diacritics.
• The distinction between [ph] and [p=] does not make a difference between words in
English. If we substitute [p=] for [ph] in [phin] we produce a peculiar pronunciation
of pin but not a new word; But the substitution of p for t does make a difference of
word: pin/pin/ and tin/tin/ are different words in English. •
• To sum up the two transcription methods:
• Broad: letter symbols only; / /; for a type of sounds
• Narrow: letter symbols +diacritics; [ ]; for more precise description of sounds •
• E.g. /p/ & [ph]