Notes about IPA

By Jeremy Ford,2014-11-14 08:58
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Notes about IPANotes,about,IPA,ipa,notes

Notes about IPA:

     The movement of “spelling reformers”

     IPA is short both for International Phonetic Alphabet and for International Phonetic


     In 1888, the first version of IPA was invented by Henry Sweet.

    Tones in Chinese:

     一声阴平;55 二声阳平;35

     三声上声;214 四声去声;51

     跑步 走路 我和你

    Broad and Narrow Transcription

    A broad transcription is one that only takes account of the sound differences that are important to

    distinguish words from each other in a language.

    A broad transcription is the transcription with letter-symbols only. A narrow transcription attempts to represent more or less accurately the way in which a particular

    speaker pronounces his words.

A narrow transcription is a transcription with letter symbols together with diacritics.

     The distinction between [ph] and [p=] does not make a difference between words in

    English. If we substitute [p=] for [ph] in [phin] we produce a peculiar pronunciation

    of pin but not a new word; But the substitution of p for t does make a difference of

    word: pin/pin/ and tin/tin/ are different words in English.

     To sum up the two transcription methods:

     Broad: letter symbols only; / /; for a type of sounds

     Narrow: letter symbols +diacritics; [ ]; for more precise description of sounds

     E.g. /p/ & [ph]



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