By Dean Ramirez,2014-06-19 06:56
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    Colorado Department of Transportation

    ITS Branch

    January 2005


    Overview Page 4

    Introduction Page 4

    Intelligent Transportation Systems Major Systems at CDOT Page 5

    Traffic Management Systems Page 5

     Traveler Information Systems Page 5

     Incident Management Systems Page 5

     ITS Maintenance Page 5

     ITS Planning and Project Prioritization Page 5

     ITS Funding Page 5

    Intelligent Transportation System Guidelines Page 6

     ITS Assessment Page 6

     Variable Message Signs (VMS) Page 7

     Closed Circuit Television Cameras (CCTV) (Traffic Surveillance) Page 8

     Ramp Metering Systems Page 8

     Advanced Traffic Signal Control Systems Page 9

    Vehicle Detectors Page 10

    Highway Advisory Radio Page 10

     Call Boxes Page 11

    Fiber Optic Cable and Conduit Page 11

    Remote Weather Information System (RWIS) Page 12

     Weigh in Motion and Automatic Vehicle Identification Page 12

     Weigh in Motion for Solution Packages Page 13

    Work Zone Safety Page 14

    ITS Solutions Systems Page 15


    Intelligent Transportation System Benefits and Costs Update 2003 Page 16

     Freeway Management Systems Page 16

     Arterial Management Systems Page 16

     Traveler Information Systems Page 17

     Incident Management Systems Page 17

     Solutions Packaging Truck Descending Speed Warning System Page 17

     Highway Advisory Radios Page 18



    The purpose of these guidelines is to assist traffic engineers and designers in selecting the appropriate Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) elements so that they may be included in the planning of transportation projects.


    Today, highway corridors are reaching and exceeding their design capacity in many areas throughout the state. Current budget restraints mean that there are insufficient funds to increase the capacity in many congested corridors and many bottlenecks still exist. As a result, travelers are facing decreased mobility and inconveniences when using the highways. How can engineers deal with the public demand for serviceable highways without increasing the capacity of the system? By utilizing Intelligent Transportation Systems. Recent projects have proven that by utilizing ITS solutions, engineers are able to manage incidents, maximize the existing capacity, provide greater travel speeds, and reduce accidents in highly congested corridors. Another benefit of ITS, is it’s ability to provide travelers with information about highway conditions ahead. The information helps travelers prepare for adverse travel conditions caused by weather related events or other incidences. It also provides travelers with the opportunity to use alternate routes. Highway maintenance forces utilize various ITS solutions to improve highway safety. In pavement sensors send information to maintenance crews about highway surface conditions in remote areas and enable maintenance forces to apply the correct surface treatments at beneficial times. Commercial vehicle operations have been improved with weigh in motion truck scales and automatic vehicle identification systems. These systems help to reduce truck queue overflow at the Port of Entry.

    Colorado Department of Transportation is very active in utilizing modern technology to provide better Traveler Information Systems, Traffic Management Systems, Incident Management Systems, Commercial Vehicle Operations, and Highway Maintenance Operations. Traffic engineers, designers, and maintenance forces are encouraged to use new technologies using these guidelines.

    How is the congestion pie sliced?

Total Delay: about 4 billion hours per year.

    (Chart from the US DOT ITS website)



(Originates from the CDOT ITS Strategic Plan Draft 2001

    - included in the CDOT Statewide Transportation Plan 2030)

    Traveler Information The primary objective of traveler information is to improve the mobility of the travelers using the transportation system. This is accomplished by collecting data on traffic conditions and disseminating the information to transportation users both before and during their trips. Several programs and activities are in development or underway to collect and report information to the public, including travel times on roadside electronic signs, CDOT website, CoTrip web site, 511, cell phones etc.

Traffic Management Involves the management of highway traffic flow to ensure the

    highest utilization of the transportation infrastructure, during both normal (congested/non-congested) and unusual (incidents, weather) conditions. The primary objective of managing the traffic flow is to improve mobility. For example, installing ramp meters is one way to control the number of vehicles entering the freeway over a set time.

Incident Management Relates to the management of incidents and highway traffic in

    response to an incident. Like traveler information and freeway management, mobility is the primary objective of incident management; however safety is an extremely important aspect as well. The goal of incident management is to reduce the response times for incidents and clear roads of obstructions, keep traffic moving and minimize related secondary incidents.

    ITS Maintenance This refers to the Inventory devices, development of a software and database to track performance and repairs. It also requires establishing criteria for devices, equipment/systems regarding mean-time failure and life cycle cost projections and institutionalizing a capital replacement program.

ITS Planning and Project Prioritization - Refers to those support functions that enable

    the delivery of CDOT’s ITS programs and services. The goal of this program area is to ensure that ITS planning is institutionalized into the statewide transportation planning process, and to perform comprehensive cost/benefit analytical planning for the deployment of ITS devices/systems. A related goal of ITS planning is to incorporate ITS into the project level design process.

ITS Funding -Maintenance, Operation and Capital Replacement

    The ITS Program is designated as a Transportation Commission Priority Program. In the Transportation Commission’s Resource Allocation FY 2005 – 2030, the ITS Program is

    allocated to receive about $3.5 million dollars (indexed) a year. These funds can only be used for maintenance and operations. The funds are not available to be programmed for projects.

    The ITS Branch is working with the Regions to develop an effective ITS Management System that will incorporate maintenance protocols, levels of service and life-cycle costs for devices in


    order to maintain the infrastructure. Based on initial data that the ITS Branch presented the Transportation Commission (TC), the TC allocated limited additional funds in FY 04 and FY 06 for replacement of ITS infrastructure statewide. The ITS Branch is working to ensure that this allocation will be continued on an ongoing basis.

Capital Investment

    Following are examples of major sources of funding that have been used to develop and deliver ITS systems, wither as part of construction projects, or as stand-alone projects:

    ; ITS Discretionary Earmarks

    The purpose of the funds is to accelerate the integration and interoperability of system-

    wide ITS and provide assistance to state transportation departments for specific ITS

    activities and maximize their involvement and other project participants in the ITS

    program. The funds require a matching contribution from the grantee and are

    administered by the FHWA.

    ; State Funds and Other Regional Priority Funds

    The Regions, Division of Transportation Development and the ITS Branch have all used

    state funds to deploy ITS infrastructure/devices at one time or another when the funds

    were available. These funds however, are usually very limited, if available at all.

    ; Congestion Relief Program

    In October 2003 the Transportation Commission (TC) passed a resolution that created the

    Congestion Relief Program. The TC established the Program to address congestion

    issues on the state highway system. The Commission’s objective regarding the program

    funds is to show measurable improvement on congested state highways at or above

    Volume/Capacity (V/C) ratio of .85.

    ; Public/Private Partnerships

    The TC gave approval for CDOT to enter into public/private partnerships in order to

    implement ITS initiatives requiring advanced telecommunications networks provided by

    the private sector. CDOT’s interest in telecommunications is strictly limited to

    enhancing transportation system operation through the exchange of information on traffic

    conditions, hazardous conditions, road closures, incident management, transit, route

    planning, etc.

Federal Funding Requirements for ITS Projects:

    The FHWA “Final Rule on Architecture and Standards Conformity” was issued in April

    2001. This was a TEA-21 implemented requirement, section 5206(e), that ITS deployments conform with the National ITS Architecture and applicable ITS Standards. The Final Rule/Policy requires States and metropolitan areas to develop a regional ITS architecture by April 2005 if there is intent to spend Federal-aid dollars on ITS deployment. In general, jurisdictions not covered by a regional ITS architecture by this date will not be permitted to spend Federal-aid funds on ITS deployment projects until a regional ITS architecture is in place.

    The Final Rule does not apply to other federal, state, local, or private funding sources that are not Federal-aid funds. It is strongly recommended that a project deploying ITS using non Federalaid funds follow the regional architecture and updates made to the ITS architecture if necessary.



    ITS Assessment This is planning done on a statewide, regional, local, or project basis so that applicable ITS elements can be identified and effectively programmed and be included in transportation projects. Federal requirements, appropriate planning, technical documents must be considered in conducting the assessment.

Resources and References:

    ; CDOT Statewide ITS Strategic Plan (available on the web)

    ; Regional ITS Strategic Plans (available on the web)(applicable to all ITS devices)

    o DRCOG ITS Strategic Plan and Architecture (includes CDOT Region 6)

    o CDOT Region 4 ITS Strategic Plan and Architecture

    o CDOT Regions 1 and 2 Combined ITS Strategic Plan and Architecture

    o CDOT Regions 3 and 5 Combined ITS Strategic Plan and Architecture

    ; Incident Management Plans (available on the web)

    ; ITS Standards and Specifications

    ; ITS Devices and Solutions

    ; ITS Funding

    Guideline The above references should be consulted in order to include ITS elements to transportation projects in the development phase.

    Variable Message Signs (VMS) Variable message signs are electronic signs that may be remotely controlled from a traffic operations/management center. They are used to provide the information to the traveling public about roadway conditions that may change due to incidents, sporting events, or weather. They may also be used to provide public information announcements such as Amber Alerts for child abduction.

    General Cost: Variable message signs come in a variety of sizes. CDOT is typically using two different configurations; Overhead and Ground Mounted. A standard Overhead version has an average cost near $150,000 and a standard Ground Mounted version averages near $120,000. These average costs represent “complete in place” installations. For design purposes, the VMS, VMS support structures, the caissons, and the surveying, are bid as separate items.

Typical applications and placement:

    ; For traveler information and incident management purposes, VMS should be placed prior

    to major interchanges. VMS should be installed at other locations if warranted by the

    need for information dissemination. VMS are also used as a component of traffic

    management or other intelligent transportation systems solutions.

    ; VMS may be permanently installed in Overhead or Ground Mounted configurations.

    Project special provisions are available for both configurations. In addition, portable

    VMS are used for temporary applications such as work zones or temporary traffic control.

    Resources: (See the resources and references under ITS Assessment and the following)

    ; CDOT Variable Message Sign Usage Policy.

    ; CDOT Guidelines for Variable Message Signs.

    ; Project special provisions are available for both configurations.

    ; Project Standard S-614-50 is available to support the Overhead VMS.


    ; Project Standard S-614-51 is in development for a Ground Mounted Support and is

    available for CDOT projects.

Power supply and communication:

    ; VMS require power supplies and telecommunication systems such as fiber optic cable or

    telephone to provide data to the traffic operations centers.

Closed Circuit Television Camera (CCTV) Closed circuit television cameras are

    used to provide visual information to the traffic operations/management centers. They are an integral part of the incident and traffic management system. The closed circuit television cameras are operated by local or regional traffic operations/management centers and have pan, tilt, and zoom capabilities. They give viewers real time color pictures of critical portions of the interstate and national highway system.

    General Cost: CCTVs have installation costs that range from $3000 - $30,000. The average cost for a CCTV site is near $7000.

    The variables in the cost are due to a variety of factors including a variety of video data transmission methods and how the CCTV is mounted. The mounting costs depend on whether an existing structure is used or a new light standard structure is installed.

Typical applications and placement:

    ; Closed circuit television cameras help the traffic management centers identify and verify

    incidents and observe traffic volumes.

    ; Closed circuit television cameras should be used to view high incident areas and

    recurring hazardous weather areas.

    ; The visual images from closed circuit televisions are used to provide traffic information

    to the public via the news media.

    ; Alternate uses for closed circuit cameras include observing traffic movements within

    signalized intersections to observe the effectiveness of signal timing designs.

    ; They should be mounted on high viewing points such as traffic signal poles, located at

    major structures, such as tunnels and bridges, major intersections, and to verify

    operational status of variable message signs, highway closure gates, then, every five

    miles along a major interstate corridor.

    Resources: (See the resources and references under ITS Assessment and the following)

    ; CDOT ITS Branch ITS Standards and Specifications

Power supply and communication:

    ; Closed circuit, pan, tilt, zoom, television cameras require power supplies and

    telecommunication systems such as fiber optic cable or telephone to provide data and

    control for the traffic operations centers.

Ramp Metering Systems - Ramp metering systems increase mainline throughput while

    reducing travel time, queuing, and frequency of crashes. The system is comprised of vehicle loop detectors, traffic controllers, and traffic signals with red/green lamps arrangements.

    General Cost: Ramp metering stations typically have installed costs near $100,000.00 for each entrance ramp.

Typical applications and placement:


    ; A ramp metering system may be warranted at major interchanges along the urban

    interstate corridors or, where interstate congestion mitigation is required.

    ; Ramp metering systems are effective in maintaining the traffic flow along the urban

    interstate corridors by limiting the number of vehicles entering the interstate to merge

    with interstate traffic.

    ; Vehicle detectors are placed in the mainline and on the ramps to measure speed,

    occupancy, volume, and regulate the operations of the entrance ramp signals.

    ; The designer should consult the “Methodology” section in the Ramp Metering Feasibility


Resources: See the resources and references under ITS Assessment and the following

    ; Methodology as used by Region 6 for ramp metering feasibility studies.

Power supply and communication:

    ; Ramp metering systems require power supplies and telecommunication systems such as

    fiber optic cable or telephone to provide links to the traffic operations centers and the

    signal controllers.

Advanced Traffic Signal Control Systems Advanced traffic signal control systems

    give traffic engineers the capability to remotely program or synchronize a series of traffic signals to optimize traffic flows. The system also allows for the adjustment of a single signal. Adaptive Traffic Signal Control Systems automatically adjust themselves to optimize traffic flows.

    General Cost: Typical costs for traffic signal interconnection projects vary depending on locations and equipment modifications. In the Denver metro area, the costs for a recent project was close to $35,000 for each signal based on a project consisting of 12 signals with approx. 1000 ft. spacing. Near Evergreen, a set of 9 signals was interconnected for about $15,000 a signal.

Typical applications and placement:

    ; These systems can be used to adjust traffic signal timing to accommodate the morning

    and afternoon traffic flows or, re-synchronize the signals as traffic conditions require it,

    such as for special events.

    ; These systems can be used in conjunction with ramp-metering systems to adjust the

    signal timing on adjacent arterial roadways when ramps become congested.

    ; Advanced traffic signal control systems should be used where remote programming

    capabilities are beneficial to the traffic engineers and where traffic signals are spaced no

    farther than ? mile apart.

    ; Designers should work with CDOT and local entity traffic engineering to determine if

    their project may benefit from Advanced Traffic Control Systems technology.

Resources: (See the resources and references under ITS Assessment and the following)

    ; Regional Traffic Engineer

    ; DRCOG

    ; USDOT Intelligent Transportation Systems Benefits and Costs 2003 Update

Power supply and communication:


    ; Advanced traffic signals systems require power supplies and telecommunication systems

    such as fiber optic cable or telephone to the traffic operations centers and the traffic

    signal controllers.

Vehicle Detectors Vehicle detectors are one of the major components to most ITS

    solutions. Traffic management systems depend on vehicle detection to operate traffic signal systems and perform various functions for the major Interstate corridors.

    General Cost: Vehicle Detectors can vary in cost due to the various types and mounting requirements. A pair of loop detectors is required to provide data for one lane typically costs near $1500.00 for the loop wire and detector amplifier combination. The controller and cabinet is not included in the price.

Typical applications and placement:

    ; Vehicle detectors may be used to provide information about traffic flows including

    vehicle presence, speed, count, occupancy, type, length, and travel time.

    ; There are several types of vehicle detectors including, ultrasonic, microwave doppler,

    microwave true presence, passive (receive only) infrared, active (receive and transmit)

    infrared, and video detectors.

    ; Some current applications for vehicle detectors are, ramp metering systems, truck-

    overturning systems, traffic speed maps for the Denver metro-area, and providing vehicle

    counts along I-70.

    ; Designers should consider the type of traffic information that needs to be collected then,

    select type of vehicle detector that is best suited for the specific site and ITS solution.

    ; The designer should be aware that specific software is required to interpret the data

    stream from the detectors and must be integrated into the ITS solution.

Resources: (See the resources and references under ITS Assessment and the following)

    ; Regional Traffic Engineer

Power supply and communication:

    ; Vehicle detectors require power supplies and telecommunication systems such as fiber

    optic cable, telephone, or wireless to provide data to the traffic operations centers.

Highway Advisory Radio Highway advisory radio (HAR) is short-range radio used to

    provide highway traffic information to the public.

    General Cost: Highway Advisory Radios vary in cost based on their antenna and the ground plane configuration. The standard HAR typically cost near $45,000.00.

Typical applications and placement:

    ; Highway advisory radio should be installed along major routes where variable message

    signs are unavailable to disseminate roadway information to the traveler.

    ; Highway advisory radio may be used to supplement the VMS when the current

    information is too lengthy to be disseminated on the VMS.

    ; Highway advisory radio is useful in large construction projects where the traveler is

    subject to long time delays and alternate routes are available. (i.e. TREX)

    ; FCC licenses are required and may require waiting up to a one-year to obtain.

    ; A frequency and overlap study should be conducted prior to installing HAR


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