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Introduction to Minitab

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Introduction to Minitab

Introduction to Minitab

    (Student Version 12 and Professional Version 13)

    OVERVIEW

    In this lab, you will become familiar with the general features of Minitab (Student Version 12

    and Professional Version 13) statistical analysis software, as well as some specialized features for conducting introductory statistical analysis and graphing.

OBJECTIVES

    By the end of the laboratory, you will be able to

    ; Enter data in Minitab.

    ; Save both Projects and Worksheets.

    ; Use Minitab’s pull down menus and the submenus.

    ; Calculate with columns of data.

    ; Use Minitab to calculate descriptive statistics.

    ; Draw histograms, boxplots, and scatterplots.

EQUIPMENT

    ; PC with Minitab

    ; Computer diskette to save files

    BACKGROUND MATERIAL

    Minitab is statistical analysis software. It can be used for learning about statistics as well as

    statistical research. Statistical analysis computer applications have the advantage of being

    accurate, reliable, and generally faster than computing statistics and drawing graphs by hand.

    Minitab is relatively easy to use once you know a few fundamentals.

    Note: The computer icon, , indicates you will need to complete the procedure on the computer. The book icon, , indicates that you will need to read the information.

    Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph. D. and Megan Duffey, 2002 - 2004

OPENING MINITAB IN WINDOWS 95, 98, NT, OR XP

    Open Minitab following the steps below.

    ; Click the Start button in the bottom left hand corner of the screen.

    ; Select Programs >Minitab for Windows>Minitab (or Minitab 12 Student).

    Or

    ; Double click the Minitab icon on the desktop.

    ; Minitab will open.

GENERAL LAYOUT

    When you first open Minitab, you will see two windows, a Session window and a

    Worksheet window.

    ; Session Window: The area that displays the statistical results of your data

    analysis and can also be used to enter commands.

    ; Worksheet Window: A grid of rows and columns used to enter and manipulate

    the data. Note: This area looks like a spreadsheet but will not automatically

    update the columns when entries are changed.

Other windows include

    ; Graph Window: When you generate graphs, each graph is opened in its own

    window.

    ; Report Window: Version 13 has a report manager that helps you organize your

    results in a report.

    ; Other Windows: History and Project Manager are other windows. See Minitab

    help for more information on these if needed.

DATA TYPES

    ;;

    ; Numerical: Numerical data is the only type Minitab will use for statistical

    calculations. Numerical data is aligned on the right side of the column. Minitab

    will not recognize numbers with commas as numbers but will consider them text.

    ; Text: Text cannot be used for computations. Though “text” generally means

    words or characters, numbers can be classified as text. If column 1 has text in it,

    the column label will change from C1 to C1-T. Data types can be changed. See

    the details in the Manipulating Data section.

    Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph. D. and Megan Duffey, MTSU 2004

    ; Date/Time: Minitab recognizes 3/5/00 as a date and 4:30 as a time but will store

    these internally as a number so you can manipulate them. The column label will

    indicate a date or time value by putting a D after the column name (for example

    C1-D).

ENTERING DATA

    You can enter your data going down or across. In the top left corner of the Worksheet window, there is a cell with an arrow in it. Click this cell to change the action of the Enter key.

    ; If the arrow is pointing down, then the cursor will go down the column when you

    press Enter.

    ; If the arrow is pointing to the right, then the cursor will go across the row, to the

    next column when you press Enter.

Enter the data from the scenario below.

    Scenario

    An individual took measurements of the temperature and the amount of water s/he consumed during a three-hour period outside. The data, shown below, was collected for seven randomly selected days during the summer.

    Water

    Temperature Consumption

    (F) (ounces)

    75 16

    83 20

    85 25

    85 27

    92 32

    97 48

    99 48

    Entering data is really two steps: entering column headings and entering data.

    1. Enter the column headings. Column headings must be entered above Row 1.

    ; Enter “Temperature (F)” in the first cell in Column 1. (Note: The first cell is

    above Row 1.)

    ; Enter “Water Consumption (ounces)” in first cell in Column 2.

    2. Enter the data. Enter the corresponding temperatures and water consumption in

    the appropriate column as shown. Do not change the order of the items. Make

    sure the items were entered as numbers, not text.

    Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph. D. and Megan Duffey, MTSU 2004

    Usually, it is best to take time to think about how you will be analyzing the data before you enter it. That can save trouble later. However, if your data is not entered in the best format the first time, you can manipulate it and may not have to re-enter it.

MANIPULATING DATA

    Minitab can change data types within limits. You cannot make a simple switch of people’s names to numeric values, but if you have a column of numbers that was

    accidentally entered as text, then you can change those numbers to numeric values. Minitab makes the following types of transformations.

To make these changes in Minitab, from the main menu select MANIP > CHANGE

    DATA TYPE. Then, select the option that you want and fill in the dialog box.

    Check to make sure that the temperature/water data has been entered as numbers. If not, change the data to numeric using the MANIP> CHANGE DATA

    TYPE menu.

    Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph. D. and Megan Duffey, MTSU 2004

CALCULATING WITH DATA

    You can add columns together, calculate the sum of a column or row, or convert a column’s values to their Z-scores. These and other calculations can be completed under the main menu item of CALC.

    Assume that the data collector for the temperature/water example learned that the thermometer that was used gave incorrect readings. For example, let’s say the

    thermometer read the temperature ten degrees too low. Therefore, we want to create a column called “Temp plus 10” and have Minitab add ten degrees to the temperature in column C1.

1. Label column 3 as “Temp plus 10.”

    2. Select CALC > CALCULATOR.

    3. In the "Store result in variable:" box, select C3 (Temp plus 10).

    4. In the "Expression" box, we want to put the expression that tells Minitab to add ten

    to the contents in the temperature column. To do that, select C1 (Temperature), then

    click on "+" (the plus sign) found next to the number 9 on the Calculator, then enter

    the number "10." The result in the expression box should look approximately like

    'Temperature (F)' + 10.

    5. Click OK.

    6. Look in the worksheet window. Column C3 should contain seven temperatures that

    are each ten degrees higher than the corresponding temperatures in column C1.

SAVING DATA

     In Minitab, you can save data in two different formats. You can save the worksheet by itself or the entire project. Saving the worksheet as a separate file is a good habit. Then you will always have access to the data, even if the project you are working with becomes corrupted. To save the data in a worksheet by itself

    1. Select FILE > SAVE CURRENT WORKSHEET AS.

    2. Use the arrow beside the Save in: field to select the 3? Floppy (A:) or the

    location of your diskette or USB device.

    3. In the File Name field, type the name of the worksheet. Minitab will

    automatically add the extension MTW for Minitab worksheet.

    4. Click Save.

    You have saved only the worksheet with the data.

    Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph. D. and Megan Duffey, MTSU 2004

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Minitab will conduct a variety of statistical calculations. These are found under the main menu option of STAT. Each category also has subcategories. In this introductory lesson, we are interested in the Basic Statistics. A menu of the statistics

    categories and the subcategories for Basic Statistics from Student Version 12 are shown

    below. (Note: Professional Version 13 has additional options.)

For the temperature/water data, find the mean and standard deviation.

    You should have the temperature in column C1 and the water consumption in column C2.

    For this exercise, we will ignore the values in C3.

1. Select STAT > BASIC STATISTICS > DISPLAY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS.

    2. In the Variables box, select C1 (Temperature).

    3. Click OK.

    4. Look in the Session window. You should see the following display:

Descriptive Statistics: Temperature (F)

    Variable N Mean Median TrMean StDev SE Mean Temperat 7 88.00 85.00 88.00 8.47 3.20

Variable Minimum Maximum Q1 Q3

    Temperat 75.00 99.00 83.00 97.00

Terms in the output and some definitions

    ; N = number of data items in the sample

    ; N* = number of items in the sample that have missing values (N* does not show up

    when all the items in the sample have values, as in our example.) ; Mean = average th; Median = 50 percentile

    Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph. D. and Megan Duffey, MTSU 2004

; TrMean= the 5% trimmed mean

    ; StDev = standard deviation

    ; SE Mean = standard error of the mean = standard deviation divided by the square

    root of the sample size

    ; Minimum = smallest data value

    ; Maximum = largest data value th; Q1 = 25 percentile = first quartile th; Q3 = 75 percentile = third quartile

GENERATING GRAPHS

    For this example, we will draw a histogram and boxplot of the temperature data and

    a scatterplot of the water consumption versus the temperature.

    31. To draw a histogram, select GRAPH > HISTOGRAM.

    2. In the Graph Variables box, select C1 (Temperature).

    23. Click OK.

    4. Compare your answer with the resulting histogram

    1Frequencyshown on the right. (Note: You can change the settings

    for the width of the bars in the histogram by clicking

    0Options on the histogram dialog box and making the

    7580859095100desired changes.) Temperature

     1005. To draw a boxplot, select GRAPH > BOXPLOT.

    6. In the Graph Variables box under the Y, select C1

    (Temperature). (Note: The X column is for

    90categories. For example if you were graphing GPA by

    Gender, you would get two box plots, one for each

    gender. Our data is not broken down into categories, Temperature80so this option is not relevant for this example.)

    7. Click OK.

    8. Compare your answer with the resulting boxplot

    shown on the right.

    50

    9. To graph a scatterplot for the water consumption

    40based on the temperature, select GRAPH > PLOT.

    10. In the Graph Variables box, under the Y, select

    C2 (Water Consumption) and under the X, select 30

    C1 (Temperature).

    Water Consumption11. Click OK. 20

    12. Compare your graph with the graph shown on the

    8090100right. Temperature

    Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph. D. and Megan Duffey, MTSU 2004

SAVING THE DATA, THE ANALYSIS, AND THE

    GRAPHS (SAVING THE PROJECT)

    Save the project, including graphs on your diskette with the filename thirstydata.

; Select FILE > SAVE PROJECT AS.

    ; Use the arrow beside the Save in: field to select the 3? Floppy (A:) or the location of

    your diskette or USB device.

    ; In the File Name field type “Thirsty Data. Minitab will automatically add the

    extension MPJ for Minitab project.

    ; Click SAVE.

    Hand-in Assignment

    1) Find the mean and standard deviation using Minitab for the "water consumed" sample

    data given in this worksheet.

    2) Draw a histogram and boxplot of the water consumption data.

    3) Draw a scatterplot of the temperature based on the water consumption. (i.e. Let

    temperature be the y variable and water consumption be the x variable.) Compare this

    scatterplot with the one that you created earlier in the tutorial. What do you notice?

    Which scatterplot is more representative of the original scenario? Why?

    4) Print the results and graphs from this Hand-in Assignment section only. Write your

    response to the questions in this section directly on the scatterplot printout. Put your

    name on these pages and hand in ONLY these pages.

    Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph. D. and Megan Duffey, MTSU 2004

Introduction to Minitab

    (Student and Professional Versions 14)

    OVERVIEW

    In this lab, you will become familiar with the general features of Minitab statistical analysis

    software, as well as some specialized features for conducting introductory statistical analysis and graphing.

OBJECTIVES

    By the end of the laboratory, you will be able to

    ; Enter data in Minitab.

    ; Save both Projects and Worksheets.

    ; Use Minitab’s pull down menus and the submenus.

    ; Calculate with columns of data.

    ; Use Minitab to calculate descriptive statistics.

    ; Draw histograms, boxplots, and scatterplots.

EQUIPMENT

    ; PC with Minitab

    ; Computer diskette to save files

    BACKGROUND MATERIAL

    Minitab is statistical analysis software. It can be used for learning about statistics as well as statistical research. Statistical analysis computer applications have the advantage of being accurate, reliable, and generally faster than computing statistics and drawing graphs by hand. Minitab is relatively easy to use once you know a few fundamentals.

    Note: The computer icon, , indicates you will need to complete the procedure on the computer. The book icon, , indicates that you will need to read the information.

    Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph. D. and Megan Duffey, MTSU 2004

    10

OPENING MINITAB IN WINDOWS 95, 98, NT, OR XP

    Open Minitab following the steps below.

    ; Click the Start button in the bottom left hand corner of the screen.

    ; Select Programs >Minitab 14>Minitab 14.

    Or

    ; Double click the Minitab icon on the desktop.

    ; Minitab will open.

GENERAL LAYOUT

    When you first open Minitab, you will see two windows, a Session window and a

    Worksheet window.

    ; Session Window: The area that displays the statistical results of your data analysis.

    (Also used to enter commands and macros.)

    ; Worksheet Window: A grid of rows and columns used to enter and manipulate the data.

    Note: This area looks like a spreadsheet but will not automatically update the columns

    when entries are changed.

    Other windows include

    ; Project Manager: Allows you to navigate, view, and manipulate various parts of your

    project such as session window output, graphs, worksheets, and related project areas.

    Note: This window is minimized at startup.

    ; Report Window: Found in the Project Manager for creating, arranging, and editing,

    reports of your work.

    ; Graph Window: When you generate graphs, each graph is opened in its own window.

DATA TYPES

    

    ; Numerical: Numerical data is the only type Minitab will use for statistical calculations.

    Numerical data is aligned on the right side of the column. Minitab will not recognize

    numbers with commas as numbers but will consider them text.

    ; Text: Text cannot be used for computations. Though “text” generally means words or

    characters, numbers can be classified as text. If column 1 has text in it, the column label

    will change from C1 to C1-T. Data types can be changed. See the details in the

    Manipulating Data section.

    Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph. D. and Megan Duffey, MTSU 2004

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