Economics 201

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Economics 201

    Economics 211

    Local and Community Development Economics

Instructor: S. Dodaro Winter 2012

    Office: Immaculata Hall 401

    Telephone: 867 - 3945


Office Hours

    Monday ………………………….. 1:15 pm – 3:15 pm

    Wednesday ……………………… 12:30 pm – 3:15 pm

    Thursday ………………………... 11:15 am – 12:30 pm.

    At other times by appointment

Course Objectives

    The Objectives of the course are threefold. Firstly, to apply basic economic principles to analyze the local and community environment. Secondly, to provide students with some of the tools and techniques required to identify local needs and resources. Thirdly to provide students with the basic tools to begin to understand how local and community development can be brought about.

Course Evaluation (tentative to be finalized as the course proceeds)

    Term Test …………………………………………….. 20%

    Short Quizzes …………………………………………….. 10%

    Project .………………………………………………... ... 30%

    Final Exam ………………………………………………….40%

Additional Requirements:

    The nature of the course requires regular attendance by all students as class participation and discussion are critical components. Moreover, the material covered in class and the readings that are assigned tend to be complementary.


    Blair, John P. and Michael C. Carroll, Local Economic Development: Analysis, Practices and Economic ndDevelopment 2 Edition (Sage, 2008)

Supplementary Texts: (On Reserve in the Library)

    ; Blakely, Edward J. and Nancey Green Leigh, Planning Local Economic Development: Theory and

    Practice Fourth Edition (Sage, 2010)

    ; Dwyer, Augusta, Broke but Unbroken: Grassroots Social Movements and Their Radical Solutions to

    Poverty (Fernwood, 2011)

    ; Loxley, John, Jim Silver and Kathleen Sexsmith (eds), Doing Community Economic Development

    (Fernwood, 2007)

    ; Loxley, John (ed), Transforming or Reforming Capitalism: Towards a Theory of Community

    Economic Development (Fernwood, 2007)

    ; McMurtry, J. J. (ed), Living Economics: Canadian Perspectives on the Social Economy, Co-


    operatives, and Community Economic Development (Emond Montgomery Publications, 2010)

    ; Shaffer, Ron, Steve Deller and Dave Mrcouiller, Community Economics: Linking Theory and ndPractice 2 Edition (Blackwell, 2004)

Additional Supplementary Texts: (Some also available on Reserve in the library):

    ; Bingham, Richard D. and Robert Mier (eds). Dilemmas of Urban Economic Development: Issues in

    Theory and Practice (Sage Publications, 1997)

    ; Bingham, Richard D. and Robert Mier (eds). Theories of Local Economic Development: Perspectives

    from Across the Disciplines (Sage Publications, 1993)

    ; Blakely, Edward J, and Ted K. Bradshaw. Planning Local Economic Development: Theory and rdPractice 3 Edition (Sage, 2002)

    ; Douglas, David J. A. Community Economic Development in Canada vols. 1 & 2 (McGraw-Hill

    Ryerson, 1994)

    ; Green, Gary Paul and Anna Haines. Asset Building and Economic Development (Sage, 2002)

    ; Hustedde, Ronald J., Ron Shaffer and Glen Pulver, Community Economic Analysis: A How to

    Manual (Iowa State University, 1993) Coady Library 307.112 H968c

    ; Lotz, Jim and Gertrude Anne MacIntyre, Sustainable People: A New Approach to Community

    Development (Cape Breton University Press, 2003)

    ; Maki, Wilbur R. and Richard W. Lichty. Urban Regional Economics: Concepts, Tools, Applications

    (Iowa State University Press, 2000)

    ; Pike, Andy, Andres Rodriguez-Pose and John Tomaney (eds), Handbook of Local and Regional

    Development (Routledge, 2011)

    ; Shragge, Eric and Michael Toye (eds), Community Economic Development: Building for Social

    Change (Cape Breton University Press, 2006)

Other Texts: (from which additional Readings may be assigned)

    ; Barnes, William R. and Larry C. Ledebur. The New Regional Economics: The U.S. Common Market

    and the Global Economy (Sage Publications, 1997)

    ; Barton, H (ed). Sustainable Communities: The Potential for Eco-Neighbourhoods (Earthscan

    Publications , 2000)

    ; Batten, T. R. Communities and their Development

    ; Besley, Timothy and Torsten Persson, Pillars of Prosperity: The Political Economics of Development

    Clusters (Princeton Univ. Press, 2011)

    ; Blair, John P. and Laura A. Reese (eds). Approaches to Economic Development (Sage, 1999)

    ; Blair, John P. Local Economic Development: Analysis and Practice (Sage Publications, 1995)

    ; Blakely, Edward J. Planning Local Economic Development: Theory and Practice Second Edition

     (Sage Publications, 1994)

    ; Blakely, Edward James. Community Development Research (Human Services Press, 1979) st; Brown, David L. and Kai A. Schafft, Rural People and Communities in the 21 Century: Resilience

    and Transformation (Polity Press, 2011) HN 59.2 B77

    ; Bruyn, Severyn T. Communities in Action ( )

    ; Canadian Institute for Research on Regional Development. The Economic Region of North Eastern

    Nova Scotia (CIRRD, 1997)

    ; Campfens, Hubert. Community Development Around the World: Practice, Theory, Research,

    Training (University of Toronto Press, 1997).

    ; Carleton University History Collaborative. Urban and Community Development in Atlantic Canada

    1867-1991 (Canadian Museum of Civilization, 1993)

    ; Cary, L. J. Community Development as a Process (University of Missouri Press, 1970)


    ; Coyle, Stephen J., Sustainable and Resilient Communities: A Comprehensive Action Plan for Towns,

    Cities and Regions (Wiley, 2011) HT 166 S9125

    ; Cunningham, Gordon and Alison Mathie (eds), From Clients to Citizens: Communities Changing the

    Course of their Own Development (Fernwood, 2009)

    ; De Benedetti, George and Rodolphe. H. Lamarche (eds). Shock Waves: The Maritime Urban System

    in the New Economy (The Canadian Institute For Research on Regional Development, 1994) ; Desmarais, Annette Aurelie, Nettie Weibe and Hannah Wittman (eds), Food Sovereignty:

    Reconnecting Food, Nature and Community (Brunswick Press, 2010) HD 9000.5 F67

    ; Economic Council of Canada. From the Bottom Up: The Community Economic Development

    Approach (Economic Council of Canada, 1990)

    ; Economic Council of Canada. Working Papers on Local Development (various years)

    ; Employment and Immigration Canada. Community Economic Development in Rural Canada:

    Handbook for Practitioners (Indian and Northern Affairs, 1981)

    ; Galaway, Burt and Joe Hudson (eds). Community Economic Development: Perspectives on research

    and Policy (Thompson Educational Publications, 1994)

    ; Gunn, Christopher and Hazel Dayton Gunn. Reclaiming Capital: Democratic Initiatives and

    Community Development (Cornell University Press, 1991)

    ; Harnston, Floyd K. The Community as an Economic System (Iowa University Press, 1983)

    ; Hobbs, Avaneda D. Community Economic Development: Challenges and Opportunities for

    Communities in Transition (Training Research and Development, 1996)

    ; Hsughton, Graham. Community Economic Development (London Kingsley, Jessica Publishers, 2000) ; Jackson, E. J. Community Economic Self-Help and Small Scale Fisheries (Dept. of Fisheries and


    ; Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of Cities (Random House, 1969)

    ; Jacobs, Jane. Cities and the Wealth of Nations: Principles of Economic Life (Random House, 1985)

    ; Jacobs, Jane. Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics

    (Random House, 1992)

    ; Karlsson, Charlie (ed), Handbook on Research on Cluster Theory (Edward Elgar, 2010) HC 79 D5


    ; Karlsson, Charlie (ed), Handbook on Research on Innovation and Clusters (Edward Elgar, 2010)

    HC 79 D5 H35

    ; Losch, August. The Economics of Location (Yale University Press, 1964)

    ; Lotz, Jim. The Lichen Factor: The Quest for Community Economic Development in Canada (UCCB

    Press, 1998)

    ; Loxley, John, Aboriginal, Northern, and Community Economic Development: Papers and

    Retrospectives (Arbeiter Ring Pub., 2010)

    ; Loxley, John and Dan Simpson, Government Policies Towards Community Economic Development

    and the Social Economy in Quebec and Manitoba (Centre for the Study of Cooperatives, 2007)

    ; Luttrell, William L. Transforming Communities (Fernwood, 1997)

    ; MacIntyre, Gertrude Anne (ed). Perspectives on Communities: A Community Economic

    Development Roundtable (UCCB Press, 1998)

    ; MacLeod, Greg. From Mondragon to America: Experiments in Community Economic Development

    (UCCB Press, 1997).

    ; Moulaert, Frank, Eric Swyngedouw, Flavia Martinelli and Sera Conzalez (eds), Can Neighbourhoods

    Save the City: Community Development and Social Innovation (Routledge, 2010) Stfx ebook

    ; Moulaert, Frank et al, Globalization and Integrated Area Development in European Cities (Oxford

    Univ. Press, 2000) Stfx ebook


    ; Neil, Cecily and Markku Tykklainen (eds), Local Economic Development: A Geographical

    Comparison of Rural Community Structuring (United Nations University Press, 1998) HN 49 C6 L63 ; N.S. Voluntary Planning Board. Community Economic development: Principles and Proposals

    ; Newman, Lynda Henry. Community Economic Development: An Approach for Urban Based

    Economics (Winnipeg, Institute of Urban Studies, 1986)

    ; Ohmae, Kenichi. The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies (Free Press, 1995)

    ; Ostrum, Elinor. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action

    (Cambridge University Press, 1990)

    ; Peterman, William. Neighborhood Planning and Community Based Development (Sage, 2000)

    ; Pierce, John and Ann Dale (eds). Communities, Development and Sustainability Across Canada (UBC

    Press, 2000)

    ; Pierce, Neil R. and Carol F. Steinbach. Enterprising Communities: Community Based Development in

    America (Council for Community Based Development, 1989)

    ; Porter, Michael E. The Competitive Advantage of Nations (Free Press, 1990)

    ; Putman, Robert D. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton University

    Press, 1993)

    ; Roseland, Mark. Toward Sustainable Communities (National Roundtable on the Environment and on

    the Economy, 1998)

    ; Ross, David and Peter Usher. From the Roots Up: Economic Development as if Community

    Mattered (Lorimer, 1986)

    ; Sackville N.B. Rural and Small Town Programme 1994. Community Economic Development in the

    Maritimes: Issues Relating to Native and Non-Native Collaboration

    ; Savoie, Donald J. Rethinking Canada's Regional Development Policy: An Atlantic Perspective

    (Canadian Institute for Research on Regional Development, 1997) HC 117 A8 S38 ; Savoie, Donald J. Community Economic Development in Atlantic Canada: False Hope or Panacea?

    (N.B. Institute for Research on Regional Development, 2000)

    ; Shaffer, Ron. Community Economics: Economic Structure and Change in Smaller Communities

    (Iowa State University, 1989)

    ; Shragge, Eric. Community Economic Development: In Search of Empowerment (black Rose Books,


    ; Shragge, Eric. Community Economic Development: In Search of Empowerment and Alternatives

    (Black Rose Books, 1993)

    ; Tiebout, Charles M. The Community Economic Base Study (Committee for Economic Development,


    ; Tweeten, Luther G. and George L. Brinkman. Micropolitan Development: Theory and Practice of

    greater-Rural Economic Development (Iowa State University Press, 1976)

    ; Welzer, Norman. Local Economic Development: Incentives and International Trends (Westview

    Press, 1995)

    ; Wien, Fred C. Rebuilding the Economic Base of Indian Communities: The Micmac in Nova Scotia

    (Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1986)

    ; Wilkinson, Paul and Jack Quarter. Building a Community-Controlled Economy (University of

    Toronto Press, 1996)

    ; Wolff, Tom, The Power of Collaborative Solutions: Six Principles and Tools for Building Healthy

    Communities (Wiley Blackwell, 2010)



    Canadian Journal of Development Studies Canadian Journal of Regional Science Economic and Industrial Democracy Economic Development Quarterly Regional Studies

    World Development


Making Waves

    The Atlantic Cooperator




    ; Graham Haughton. "Principles and Practice of Community Economic Development,"

    Regional Studies vol. 32, December 1998.

    ; Lamarche, Randolphe H. "Local Development: A Selected Review of the Literature,"

    Canadian Journal of Regional Science vol. 18, no. 2, Summer 1995, pp. 235-254.

    ; Loxley, John, “Elements of a Theory of Community Economic Development” in Loxley

    (2007), pp. 7 33.

    ; Loxley, John and Laura Lamb, “Economics for CED Practitioners” in Shragge and Toye

    (2006), pp. 42 54.

    ; O’Neill, Tim J. “Regional, Local and Community Based Economic Development” in Burt

    Galaway and Joe Hudson (eds). Community Economic Development (Thompson Educational

    Publishing Inc., 1994)

    ; Putman, Robert D. “The Prosperous Community,” TAP Spring 1993.

    ; Silver, Jim, Parvin Ghorayshi, John Hay and Darlene Klyne, “In an Voice of their Own: Urban

    Aboriginal Community Development” in Loxley, Silver and Sexsmith (2007), pp. 69-79.

    ; Turok, Ivan, “Inclusive Growth: Meaningful Goal or Mirage?” in Pike, Rodriguez-Pose and

    Tomaney (2011), pp. 74 86.

    II. Theories and Approaches to Community and Local Economic Development

    and the Location of Economic Activity.

    1. Locational Theory

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 2

     *Blakely and Leigh, chapter 3 (pp. 85 88) ;

    ; *Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapters 3 (pp. 38 52) and 4 (pp. 73 78)

    ; Maki & Lichty, chapter 2

    ; Bryant, Christopher R., “The Locational Dynamics of Community Economic Development” in

    David J. A. Douglas (ed). Community Economic Development in Canada, Vol. 1 (McGraw-

    Hill Ryerson, 1994), chapter 6.

    ; Capello, Roberta, “Space, Growth and Development” in Roberta Capello and Peter Nijkamp

    (eds), Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories (Edward Elgar, 2009)

    2. Stages of Growth and Adding New Work to Old

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 5 (pp. 89 92)

    3. Export or Economic Base Theory

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 5 (pp. 99 111)

    ; *Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapter 4 (pp. 61 66)

    ; Blakely and Leigh, chapter 3, (pp. 82 83)

    ; Maki & Lichty, chapter 4

    4. Supply Side Approaches

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 5 (p. 93 99, 109 -113)

    ; *Blakely & Bradshaw, chapter 3, pp. 65- 66

    ; James A. Segedy. “How Importamt is “Quality of Life” in Location Decisions and Local

    Economic Development?” in Bingham and Mier (1997), chapter 3, pp. 56-73.

    5. Cumulative Causation Theory

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 13 (pp. 282 284)


    ; *Blakely and Leigh, chapter 3 (pp. 87-88)

6. The Central Place Theorem

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 3

    ; *Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapter 4 (pp. 66 73)

    ; Blakely and Leigh, chapter 3 (pp. 88 89)

    ; Maki and Lichty, chapter 3

7. Gravity and Other Models

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapters 4 and 5

    ; Brusco, Sebastiano. “The Emilian Model: Productive Decentralization and Social

    Integration,” Cambridge Journal of Economics vol. 6, 1982, pp. 167-184.

    9. Cluster Analysis and Diamond of Competitive Advantage

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapters 4 (pp. 71 - 78) and 7 (pp. 151 153)

    ; *Blakely and Leigh, chapter 6 (pp. 191 200)

    ; *Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapter 3 (pp. 54 55), chapter 5 (pp. 75 76)

    ; Hassink, Robert and Claudia Klaerding, “Evolutionary Approaches to Local and Regional

    Development Policy” in Pike, Rodriguez-Pose and Tomaney (2011), pp. 139 148.

    ; McCann, Philip, “Agglomeration Economics” in Charlie Karlsson (ed), Handbook of Research

    on Innovation and Clusters: Cases and Policies 1 (Edward Elgar, 2008)

    ; Porter, Michael E. “Competitive Advantage, Agglomeration Economies, and Regional

    Policy,” International Regional Science Review vol. 19, nos.1 and 2, 1996, pp. 85-94.

    ; Simmie, James, “From Contribution of Clustering to Innovation: From Porter I to

    agglomeration to Porter II Export Base Theories” in Charlie Karlsson (ed), Handbook of

    Research on Innovation and Clusters: Cases and Policies 2 (Edward Elgar, 2008)

    III. Conceptual, Measurement and Other Issues

    1. Shift and Share Analysis and Location Quotients

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 4 (79 87) and 6 (pp. 115 118)

    ; *Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapter 14(pp. 260 261, 269 - 272)

    ; *Blakely and Leigh, chapter 6 ( pp. 181 187)

    ; Maki & Lichy, chapter 6, pp. 196 - 217

2. Input Output Analysis

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 6 (pp. 125 131)

    ; *Blakely and Leigh, chapter 6 (pp. 188 191)

    ; Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapter 15

    ; Blakely & Bradshaw, chapter 5, pp. 136 139

    3. Qualitative Measurements and Approaches

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 6 (pp, 124-125)

    ; *Blakely & Bradshaw, chapter 5, pp. 103 121 & 139 - 152

    ; *Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapter 14, pp. 262- 265,

    4. Additional Quantitative Methods and Approaches

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 12 (pp. 272 278)


    IV. Community Economic Development in Action

    1. Objectives and Effects of Community Economic Development

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 8 (pp. 167 173) and 11

    ; Blakely and Leigh, chapter 11

    ; Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapter 13

    ; Shaffer, chapters 4 & 10

    ; Follain, James R. and John P. Ross. “Proceedings of the Regional Growth and Community

    Development Conference , November 1993, Washington D.C. : Introduction.Cityscape: A

    Journal of Policy Development and Research vol. 1, no. 1, August 1994, pp. 1-7.

    ; Schwartz, Ed. “”Reviving Community development” American Prospect vol. , no 19, Fall

    1994, pp. 82-87.

    2. Issues related to Community Development Planning

    ; *Blakely and Leigh, chapters 5 (pp. 115 119) and 6

    ; *Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapter 13

    ; Green and Haines, chapters 1

    ; Blakely & Bradshaw, chapters 4 & 5

    3. Main Approaches to Community Economic Development and Planning

    ; *Blakely and Leigh, chapter 7

    ; Blair and Carroll, chapters 9 - 10

    ; Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapters 12 and 13

    ; Blakely and Leigh, chapters 8 10

    ; Green & Haines, chapters 3 - 4

    ; Mike Lewis. “The Scope and Characteristics of Community Economic Development in

    Canada” in Galaway and Husdson (eds). Community Economic Development (Thompson

    Educational Publishing Inc., 1994)

    ; Wilkinson, Paul and Jack Quarter. “A Theoretical Framework for Community Based

    Development” Economic and Industrial Democracy vol. 16, no. 4, November 1995, pp. 525-


    4. The Public Sector and Community Economic Development

    ; Blair and Carroll, chapter 12

    ; Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapter 10

    5. Reconsideration of Production, Consumption and Resource Flows

    ; To be assigned later

    6. Alternate Approaches to Community Economic Development and Planning

    ; Blair and Carroll, chapter 7

    ; Blakely & Bradshaw, chapters 12 & 13

    ; Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller chapter 5

    ; Loxley, John, “Strategies Advocated by Native people” in John Loxley, Aboriginal, Northern,

    and Community Development: Papers and Retrospectives (ARP, 2010), pp. 57 71.

    ; MacPherson, Ian, “Co-operatives and the Social Economy in English Canada: Circles of

    Influence and Experience” in McMurtry (2010), pp. 35 – 56.


    ; Lionais, Doug and Harvey Johnstone, “Building the Social Economy Using the Innovative

    Potential of Place” in McMurtry (2010), pp. 105 – 128.

    V. Economic Analysis of Community Needs and Resources

    ; Blair and Carroll, chapter 11

    ; Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapters 5 10 (selectively)

    ; Green & Haines, chapters 5 9 (selectively)

    ; Barnes, Trevor J. and Roger Hayter. “Economic Restructuring, Local Development and

    Resource Towns: Forest Communities in Coastal British Columbia.” Canadian Journal of

    Regional Science Vol. 17, no. 3, Autumn 1994, pp. 289-310.

    VI. Social Infrastructure and Supporting Institutions

    ; *Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller, chapter 11

    ; *Blair and Carroll, chapter 7 (pp. 145 150)

    ; Maki & Lichty, chapter 5

    ; Arsen, David. “Is There Really an Infrastructure/Economic Development Link?” in Richard D.

    Bingham and Robert Mier (eds). Dilemmas of Urban Economic Development (Sage, 1997),

    chapter 4, pp. 82-98.

    ; Goddard, John and Paul Vallance, “Universities and Regional Development” in Pike,

    Rodriguez-Pose and Tomaney (2011), pp. 425 437.

    ; Luger, Michael I. and Harvey A Goldstein. “What is the Role of Public Universities in

    Regional Economic Development?” in Richard D. Bingham and Robert Mier (eds).

    Dilemmas of Urban Economic Development (Sage, 1997), chapter 5, pp. 104 - 134.

    ; McNeill, Desmond, “Social Capital” in Keith Hart, Jean-Louis Laville and Antonio David

    Cattini (eds), The Human Economy (Polity Press, 2010)

    VII. The Experience of Community Economic Development

1. Overview

    ; *MacPherson, Ian, “Co-operatives and the Social Economy in English Canada: Circles of

    Influence and Experience” in McMurtry (2010), pp. 35 - 56.

2. The Antigonish Movement Approach to Community Development

     (Class handouts)

    3. Case Studies of Local Initiatives from around the World

     (to be assigned later)


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