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Requirements and Issues for Handling Chines in Internationalized Applications

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Requirements and Issues for Handling Chines in Internationalized Applicationsin,and,for

    Requirements and Issues for Handling

    Chines in Internationalized Applications

Vo1.7No.1J.ofComput.Sci.&Technoll992

    ;RequirementsandIssuesforHandlingChinesein

    ;InternationalizedApplications

    ;SunYu~ng(孙玉方)

    ;InstituteofSoftware,AcadencaSinica,Beg”ing100080

    ;ReceivedDecember30.1990;revisedJune17,1991

    ;Abstract

    ;ThecharacteristicspeculiartoChinese,especiallyHanzi,processingwithcomputersaredescribed,

    ;andissuesrelevanttotheportableappHcationenvironmentarereviewed.Thoughmuchofthedes-

    ;criptionconcernsthelocalizedissues,thewayofconsiderationisapplicabletothoseofportable,

    ;internationalizedapplications.

    ;1.Introduction

    ;ChinesecodeincludesHanzicodeandcodesofminoritylanguages.Thereare55minorities

    ;inChinawithatotalpopulationofmorethan95millionaccordingtothelatestce

nsus.Most

    ;oftheseminoritieshavetheirownlanguages,andabout25ofthemhavetheirownscripts.

    ;Hanzi,themostpopularscriptinChina,consistsofalargecharactersetwithabout65,000

    ;charactersintota1.AsHanziincludesnotonlytraditionalHanzicode,butalsosimplifiedand

    ;unsimplifiedcharacters,sothattheChineseInformationProcessingSystem(CIPS)shouldprocess

    ;bothofthesecharactersandtheminoritycharactersaswel1.

    ;ThispaperdescribesthecharacteristicspeculiartoChinese,especiallyHanzi,processing

    ;withcomputers,andreviewstheissuesrelevanttotheportableapplicationdevelopment.

    ;Thoughmuchofthedescriptionconcernsthelocalizedissues,thewayofconsiderationisapplica

    ;bletothoseofportable,interna:iOnalizedapplications.

    ;2.MajorAreasofChineseInformationProcessing

    ;ThemajorareasofChineseInformationProcessing(CIP)involveHanziautomatic

    ;typesetting,Hanzicomputerautomatictranslation,HanziCharacter(HC)patternrecognition,

    ;Hanzifontautomaticgenerationandtransformation,Hanzispeechprocessing,andChineseChar

    ;acterinput(especiallyHanziinput),etc.TofacilitateChineseInformationProcessing,thefol

    ;lowingtopicsaretobeconsidered,i.e.,thedevelopmentofChineseInformationProcessingSys

    ;tem(CIPS),thestandardizationoftheHanziCharacterSet(HCS),theHCfont,thecodefor

    ;lnformationInterchange(CII),andthecodeforinformationprocessing(i.e.internalcodeIC),

    ;thedesignandimplementationofChineseinputmethodsandChineseoutputdevices.

    ;2.,.DevelopmentofChineseInformationProcessingSystem(CIPS) ;CIPSisacompletesetofsoftwarepackages(includingoperatingsystems,utilities,high

    ;levellanguages,DBMSs,networks,windows,graphicsandinterfaces)capabletoprocessHC

    ;inputandoutput;transferHCbetweenmachines;representdata,identifiers,variables,fileanddi.

    ;rectorynames,databasenames,etc.;andeditandretrieveChineseinformationaseasilyas

    ;ASCIIcode.

    ;2.2.StandardizationofHanziCharacterSet(HCS)andCodeforInformation ;Interchange(CII)

    ;Thereareabout65,000Hanzicharacters,butthedisparityofprobabilityintheiruseis

    ;

    ;NO.1HandlingChineseinInternationalizedApplications69

    ;verygreat.About7,o00ofthemaremostfrequentlyused.andcalledcommon?usedchar.

    ;acters”;thenext8,000,usedlessfrequently,arecalled.seldom?usedcharacters:another

    ;10.000usedonlybychance,arecalled.accidentally.usedcharacters”;andtherest40,000charac.

    ;terswhichhavenopracticalvalueinmodemChineselanguages.arecalledancientcharacters

    ;or”deadcharacters.Ofthe7,000.common?usedcharacters,3,500areforprimaryschools.

    ;InordertofacilitatethedevelopmentofvariouskindsofChineseinformationsystemsfordif”

    ;ferentapplications,itisnecessarytodevelopthecorrespondingcodeoftheHCSsanditsrele?

    ;vanttechnicalstandards.ThestandardsofHanziCIIinmainlandofChinaareditierentfrom

    ;thoseinTaiwan.A.ChineseCharacterCodeforInformationInterchange(CCCII)”standard

    ;waspublishedinTaiwaninl980,andanotherstandardOfCII,CNS-ll643,wasalsoadopted

    ;inMarchl986,whichcontainsl305lHanzicharacters.

    ;IftheJapaneseKanjiandKoreanHanjaaretakenintoconsideration,itismorecomplicated

    ;insettingupthestandardsofHCSandCII.However,itisnecessarytodrawupunifiedstand?

    ;ardsoastoopenuppossibilitiesofexchanginginformationandsharingresourcesbetweendiffer?

    ;entcountriesandregionsinan.interworkingmode.

    ;2.3.StandardizationofInternalCode(IC)

    ;CIIandICareidenticalinsingleoctetcharacterset,butnotinmulti?octetcharactersets.

    ;ItisclearthatoneHCmustberepresentedbytwoormoreoctetbytes.Moreover,inorderto

    ;makefuUuseoftheoriginalsoftware,itisoftenrequiredtousemixedChineseandEnglish

    ;characters.ThereforeastandardICtoprovideChineseuserswithaconsistentinterfaceis

    ;needed.Butatpresent.morethantwentyschemesofICarepracticallyusedinv

ariousCIPSs

    ;inChina.

    ;AsChineseIChasnounifornlpresentation,whichimpedesthedevelopmentofCIPS.a

    ;workinggrouphasbeensetupforthestandardizationofChineseIC.Aproperstandard

    ;ChineseICwillbeofgreatbenefit.Forexample,thestorespacecanbesavedandtheefficien.

    ;cvofoperationforCIPcanbeimproved,andthemostimportantpointisthatthecompatibili.

    ;tywillbeensured.However,thestandardChineseICisassociatedwiththestandardofHC,it

    ;wouldbebetteriftheyareconformable.

    ;2.4.HanziCode(HC)InputandKeyboard

    ;HCcanbeinputintoacomputerwithavarietyofmethods.Thesemethodsmaybedi.

    ;videdintothreecategories:inputasawholecharacter(withanHCkeyboard),inputbythe

    ;soundandshapeofHC(withHCpatternrecognition),andinputbycoding.Thefirsttwo

    ;inputmethodsarestillunderresearchanddevelopment,andthereispracticallynoproductin

    ;themarket.TheinputmethodusedinCIPSsbelongstothelastcategory. ;ThebasicfeatureofcodinginputmethodisthatHCiskeyedintothecomputerfrom

    ;keyboardbymeansofagroupofcodes,calledexternalcodes.RoughIyspeaking,morethan

    ;500HCinputmethodshavebeenbroughtoutinChina.However,1essthanlOofthemare

    ;commonlyadopted,amongwhichthreemethods:Pinyin,Section/Position(Rowolumn),and

    ;5?Stroke.areusedmostpopularly.Difierentinputmethodsresultindifierentinputstyles.The

    ;mainconcernofselectinganefficientinputmethodisitsinputspeedandeaseofuse.Specially

    ;designedkeyboardsorexistingkeyboardswithmodificationmaybeused.Still,astandardof

    ;HCinputisneeded.SeveralkindsofChineseterminalshavebeenputforward,buttherelsa

    ;longwaytogoinimprovingtheirfunctionsandcost/performance. ;2.5.HanziCode(HC)OutputandFont

    ;TheHCoutputisbasicallyshownbymeansofscreendisplayorprinter.BecauseChinese

    ;charactersareideographic,eachcharacterisexpressedasagraph,oradotmatri

x.Thedotma.

    ;trixmustnotbelessthan16.16fordisplay,24,24fordotmatrixprinterwithafairquality.

    ;ItisbetterthatanHCisexpressednotlessthana64*64dotmatrixforlaserprinter.Some

    ;

    ;70J.ofComput.Sci.&Techno1.VO1.7

    ;styleswithdifferentsizesofHCfont,i.e.,Song,Kai,BlackandFangSongareoftenusedin

    ;Chinsedocumentsandpublishing.

    ;ItshouldbenoticedthatastheamountofHCsis7,000ormore,thememoryspace

    ;neededisverylarge.

    ;HCoutputdevices,especiallydotmatrixprinterandlaserprinter,needtobefurtherex’

    ;ploitedandimprovedinordertogainabettercost/performance. ;3.RequirementforPortableApplications

    ;3..Localization(1iOn)orBilingualProcessing

    ;TakeChineseasanexample,thelocalization(1l0n)requirementsinclude: ;a.MultipleCharacterSets

    ;.

    ;Alphanumeric

;.

    ;Hanzi

    ;?

    ;0thercharacters

    ;b.TextofMixedCharacters ;.

    ;TWOdifierentcharacterwidths ;

    onebyte ;Alphanumeric

    ;

    ;Hanzitwoormorethantwobytes ;?Wordrecognition.ThereisnospacebetweenHanzicharacters

    ;?Collatingsequence.Hanzicharactersetcanbecollatedindifferentways:

    ;

    ;Bvnumberofstrokes

    ;

    ;byradical

    ;——

    ;Alphabetical

    ;

    ;etc.

    ;?

    ;Writingdirection ;——

    ;Vertical

    ;

    ;Horizontal

    ;C.Traditions

    ;?

    ;Dateandtime

    ;——

    ;Reverseorder

    ;?

    ;Money

    ;

    ;PresentedbybothHanzi ;?

    ;Number

    ;

    ;PresentedbybothHanzi ;?

    ;Answerwithyesandno ;charactersandArabicfigures

    ;charactersandArabicfigures

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