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Human Rights and Development

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Human Rights and Development

LW 537 Human Rights and Development [2011/12]

    Convenor: Dr Su-ming Khoo

    Room 320 Aras Moyola (ext 3643)

    Time: Semester 2, Tuesdays 5-8pm, Venue: Seminar Room, ICHR

    Format: (Seminar 6x3hrs) (7.5 ECTs).

    Learning objectives: The discussion in the sessions aims to:

    ; Unpack the relationship between human rights and development

    ; Address the problematic dichotomy of economic/social versus

    civil/political rights

    ; Understand „development‟ and „rights‟ within the frame of human

    development theory as it has evolved since the 1990s and examine

    elements of a common approach.

    Course description

    This course provides an overview and illustration of the connections between human rights and development. It examines the contribution that each field contributes to the other and explores in detail some of the key substantive aspects of development and rights. The course begins with an introduction to the historical, political and social context that gave rise to the twin modern projects of human rights and development. It draws attention to the impact of the Cold War and its aftermath on the evolution of legalistic understandings of human rights versus economistic understandings of development, and highlights the issue of key North-South tensions in concept and practice. The course addresses these problems by setting three basic objectives for development and rights: 1) recovering the indivisibility of rights 2) democratizing development and 3) humanizing rights. The Right to Development is examined as an „umbrella concept and programme‟ (Rosas 2001) and as a „process‟ or „vector

    (Sengupta 2002: 868) for achieving this vision. Three immediate action areas for the Right to Development are examined in depth: the rights to food, health and education. Important case studies are used to highlight the substantive issues involved in realizing rights to food, medicines and medical treatment, education, environmental resources and livelihoods. These are the spaces where agendas of rights and development overlap and converge. Environmental concerns and the problems of sustainability must be addressed as the fundamental basis of human life, and therefore human rights must consider important problems of resources, poverty and environmental (in)justice. Throughout the discussion, key principles of participation, progressive realization and human development are emphasized as well as two specific contributions from the field of development to that of human rights: 1) human development theory and 2) tools for measuring, monitoring and evaluation.

    Our contemporary era is characterized by globalization, but this could imply different scenarios for the „development compact of the Millennium Development Goals.

    Participants in this course may take the question: “What is the future of the Right to

    Development in a globalized world?” as a point for common discussion. The course

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    discussions will continually return to the debate on the prospects for such a convergence and for the movement towards indivisible human rights, given the current challenges of globalization, inequality and persistent North-South tensions. The seminars aim to provide an empirical and substantive approach, revealing cross-cutting issues of historical, social and political complexity, including decolonization and the colonial aftermath, the debates about economic growth, poverty, inequality and human needs, and the complexity of poverty and discrimination, involving gender, caste, race, ethnicity and culture, as well as the inescapable problem of ecological and resource limits.

    Seminar titles:

    1. Introduction: What can Human Rights and „Development‟ do for each other?

    A bridge to rights-in-practice

    2. The „Third World‟/ „Global South‟, the Right to Development and Human

    Development evolving meanings of, demands for, and tensions within

    „development

    3. The Right to Food: entitlement and the political economy of rights failure

    4. The Right to Health: mobilizing and claiming a „highest attainable standard‟

    5. The Right to Education developing a human right to education, human rights

    in education or education for human rights?

    6. Environment and sustainability ecological limits and the problems of

    poverty, resources and participation

Course assessment:

    One written essay, approx.10,000 words. Please agree the exact title with the course convenor, using the seminar topics and class discussion as a guide. (See Box for a guide on how to formulate a Proposal for your essay).

    Proposing the essay:

    When proposing an essay to the Course Convenor, you should prepare the following: i) Provisional Title of your essay

    ii) An introductory paragraph identifying the central issue(s), problem(s), question(s) or concept(s).

    iii) Review two or more sources that provide main theories, concepts, analytical approaches, discussion and illustration of your topic. What contribution will your discussion make to the existing literature? Does it illustrate an existing approach, fill a gap or try to add a novel dimension?

    iv) A plan of what the overall essay might look like, identifying some section headings and a timetable for completing the work in draft and final form.

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    v) A bibliography expanding on iii). In the course of the essay you are required to cover the relevant course material, as well as independently researching further scholarly articles, official documents, reports and advocacy materials. NB. The Harvard referencing system is preferred, using in-text citation and keeping footnotes to a minimum. Other styles are acceptable as long as they are consistently applied and include a full bibliography.

Readings: Key readings indicated in bold are provided in the Course Pack, which is

    available from the ICHR office at the printing cost. Further reading is suggested under each topic and additional materials may be referred to in individual sessions, so please refer to the course lecture notes on Blackboard for these details. The list is long, and you are not expected to read exhaustively for every topic, but please come prepared with at least one of the key readings from the pack (indicated in Bold script) ahead of

    each seminar.

    A. Introductory and background reading:

Amnesty International (2005) Human Rights for Human Dignity: A Primer on

    Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. London: Amnesty International

Jones, P and K. Stokke (2005) Democratising Development: The Politics of Socio-

    economic Rights in Africa

    Pettiti, and Meyer-Bisch (1998) Human rights and extreme poverty. In Symonides, J (ed) Human Rights: New dimensions and challenges. Ashgate/ UNESCO

Russell, G (1998) All rights guaranteed all actors accountable, poverty is a violation

    of human rights in Manji, F. ed Development and Rights, London Oxfam GB pp154-

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Sumner, Andy and Michael Tribe (2008) International Development Studies:

    Theories and Methods in Research and Practice. London: Routledge, see Introduction

    and Chapter 1 „What is Development?‟ pp1-30

    Thomas, Allen (2000) „Meanings and views of development‟ in Allen and Thomas (eds) Poverty and Development into the Twenty-first Century Oxford: Oxford

    University Press pp 23-47

UNDP (2000) Human Development Report 2000: Human Rights and Human

    Development, see particularly the Overview and Ch 1

    http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2000_EN.pdf

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    B. Textbooks, monographs and edited volumes on the general topic of human rights and development and related ESCR

Alston P and M Robinson, Eds. (2005) Human Rights and Development: Towards

    Mutual Reinforcement. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Andreassen, B and S Marks Eds. (2006) Development as a Human Right. Cambridge,

    Mass.: Harvard School of Public Health

Baderin, M and McCorquodale, R. (Eds) 2007 Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

    in Action Oxford: Oxford University Press

Centre for Development and Human Rights (2004) The Right to Development: A

    Primer. New Delhi: CDHR (* Recommended text)

     nd Revised Edition 2001) Economic, Social and Eide, A,. Krause, C and Rosas, A. (2

    Cultural Rights. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

    Gready, P and J Ensor Eds. (2005) Reinventing Development? Translating Rights-Based Approaches from Theory into Practice.

Goodhart, M. Ed. (2009) Human Rights Politics and Practice, Oxford: Oxford

    University Press (* Recommended text)

    Lindroos, A (1999) The Right to Development. Helsinki: Erik Castren Institute

Manji, F Ed. (1998) Development and Rights. Oxford: Oxfam

    Seppanen, S (2005) Possibilities and Challenges of the Human Rights-based Approach to Development. Helsinki: Erik Castren Institute

    Sengupta, A, A Negi and M Basu Eds (2005) Reflections on the Right to Development. New Delhi: Sage/Centre for Development and Human Rights

Steiner,H; Alston, P and R. Goodman (3rd ed, 2007) International Human Rights in

    Context: Law, Politics, Morals, Ch 4 „Economic and Social Rights‟, pp263-371

    Symonides, J. (Ed.) (1998) Human Rights: New Dimensions and Challenges. Ashgate/ UNESCO

    Uvin, P. (2004) Human Rights and Development, Bloomfield, CT; Kumarian Press

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    Session 1 Introduction : What can Human Rights and ‘Development’ do for each other? A bridge to rights-in-practice?

    Alston, P (2005) Ships Passing in the Night: The Current State of the Human Rights and Development Debate Seen Through the Lens of the Millennium Development Goals. Human Rights Quarterly 27 (2005) pp755829

Alston, P and Robinson, M (2005) „The Challenges of ensuring the Mutuality of

    Human Rights and Development Endeavours‟ and Robinson, M „What Rights Can Add to Good Development Practice‟ Ch 1 and 3 in Alston and Robinson eds Human

    Rights and Development: Towards Mutual Reinforcement. pp 1-18 and 25-44

    Archer, R (2009) Introduction JHRP Special Issue: Where is the Evidence? J Human Rights Practice 2009 1: 333-338

    Felner, E (2009) Closing the „Escape Hatch‟: A Toolkit to Monitor the Progressive Realization of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights J Human Rights Practice 2009 1:

    402-435

    Golub, S (2005) „Less Law and Reform, More Politics and Enforcement: A Civil society Approach to Integrating Rights and Development‟ in Alston and Robinson eds Human Rights and Development: Towards Mutual Reinforcement.

    Gready, P (2009) Reasons to Be Cautious about Evidence and Evaluation: Rights-based Approaches to Development and the Emerging Culture of Evaluation Journal

    of Human Rights Practice 2009 1: 380-401

    Gready, P and Phillips, B. (2009) „An Unfinished Enterprise: Visions, Reflections,

    and an InvitationJournal of Human Rights Practice 1, (1) 1-13

    Gready, P and J Ensor Eds. (2005) Reinventing Development? Translating Rights-

    Based Approaches from Theory into Practice. Introduction pp 1-46

    Jones, P and K. Stokke (2005) ‘Introduction –Democratising development: The

    Politics of socio-economic Rights’ in Democratising Development: The Politics of

    Socio-economic Rights in Africa pp1-38

Landman, T and E. Carvalho (2010) ‘Measuring human rights’ in Landman and

    Carvalho, Measuring Human Rights, London,. Routledge pp 31-44

    Landman, T (2009) „Measuring Human Rights‟ Ch 3 in Goodhart ed. Human Rights Politics and Practice

    Rosga, AnnJanette and Margaret L. Satterthwaite (2009) The Trust in Indicators: Measuring Human Rights. Berkeley Jnl of Int. Law 27, 2, pp 253-315

    Short, D (2009) „Sociological and anthropological approaches‟ Ch 6 in Goodhart Ed. (2009) Human Rights Politics and Practice, Oxford: Oxford University Press

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    Stewart and Wang (2005) Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers within the Human Rights Perspective Ch 17 in Alston and Robinson eds Human Rights and Development: Towards Mutual Reinforcement pp 447-74

UNDP Human Development Report (2000) Human rights and human

    development Overview and Ch 1 ‘Human Rights and Human development’

Uvin, P. (2004) „The Big Picturein Human Rights and Development, Bloomfield, CT;

    Kumarian Press pp 9-16

Session 2 The ‘Third World’/ ‘Global South’, the Right to Development and

    Human Development evolving meanings of, demands for, and tensions within ‘development

    Alkire, S. (2010) Human Development: definitions, critiques and related concepts

    Oxford: UNDP Human Development Reports Research Paper 2010/01 Baxi, U (2002) The Future of Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press Baxi, U, (1998) „The development of the Right to Development‟ in Symonides, J (ed). Human Rights: New Dimensions and Challenges

    Center for Development and Human Rights (2004) Chapter 1 ‘Introducing the

    Right to Development’, in The Right to Development: A Primer, New Delhi: Sage, pp 43-72

    Declaration on the Right to Development http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/rtd.htm

    Fukuda-Parr, S (2009) Human Rights and the Politics of Development Ch 10 in Goodhart, ed. Human Rights Politics and Practice

    Gaynor, C (2005) „Structural Injustice and the MDGs a Critical Analysis of the Zambian Experience‟ Trocaire Development Review 2005

    Ginther, Konrad. (1992). The domestic policy function of a Right of Peoples to Development: Popular participation a new hope for development or challenge for the discipline? In Chowdury, R. S., E. Denters & P.J. de Waart (Eds.). Right to

    Development in International Law. (pp.61-82). Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff

    Publishers

Hansen, J and Sano, H (2006) „The Implications and Value-Added of a Rights-based

    Approach Ch 3 in Andreassen, B and S Marks Eds. (2006) Development as a Human

    Right. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard School of Public Health

    Jerbi, S. (2009). Business and human rights at the UN: What might happen next? Human Rights Quarterly 31 pp.299-320

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Khoo, S (2005) The Millennium Development Goals A Critical Discussion Trocaire

    Development Review 2005 pp43-56

    Khoo, S. (2007) „Globalization, terror and the future of „development‟ – citizenship

    beyond bare life? In Maurice Mullard (ed) Globalization, Citizenship and the War on

    Terror, Edward Elgar Publishers, UK pp189-211

    Lindroos, A (1999) The Right to Development. Helsinki: Erik Castren Institute

    Marks, S (2004) The Human Right to Development: Between Rhetoric and Reality Harvard Human Rights Journal / Vol. 17 pp 138-68

    http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/hrj/iss17/marks.pdf

    Mutua, M (2002) „The limits of rights discourse‟ in Human Rights: A Political and Cultural Critique. University of Pennsylvania Press pp126-53

    Nyamu-Musembi, C (2005) „Towards an actor-oriented perspective and human rights‟

    in Kabeer, N (ed) Inclusive Citizenship, pp31-49

O‟Rawe, M (1999) „The United Nations - Structure versus Substance in Hegarty, A

    and Leonard, S. Human Rights: An Agenda for the Twenty First Century London: Cavendish Publishing

    Piron, L (2000)The Right to Development: A Review of the Current State of the Debate for the Department for International Development

    http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/1562.pdf

     ndPogge, T 2 Ed (2007) „Eradicating Systemic Poverty – Brief for a global resources

    dividend‟ in World Poverty and Human Rights

Preston, Peter (1996) Development Theory: an Introduction, Ch 9 „Decolonization,

    Cold War and the Construction of Modernization Theory‟

    Richards, D and Gelleny, R (2009) „Economic Globalization and human rights‟ Ch 11 in Goodhart ed. Human Rights Politics and Practice

    Rosas, A. (2001) The Right to Development. In Eide, A, Krause and Rosas (Eds) ndEconomic, Social and Cultural Rights A textbook (2 Ed.), pp119-32

    Ruggie, J (2008) Embedding Global markets: An Enduring Challenge. Ashgate

    Salomon, M (2005) „Towards a Just Institutional Order: A Commentary on the First Session of the UN Task Force on the Right to Development‟, 23 Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights 3

    Salomon, M (2006) International Human Rights Obligations in Context: Structural Obstacles and the Demands of Global Justice, in Stephen P Marks and Bard-Anders Andreassen (eds), Development as a Human Right

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    Seers, Dudley (1979) The meaning of development. Reprinted in S. Corbridge (ed.): Development: Critical Concepts in the Social Sciences. London: Routledge

    Sengupta, A (2004) On the Theory and Practice of the Right to Development. Human Rights Quarterly Vol. 24, 4, pp. 837-889

Westad, Odd A. (2007) „Creating the Third World: The United States confronts

    revolution Ch 4 in The Global Cold War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    Session 3 The Right to Food: entitlement and the political economy of rights failure

    Brot fur die welt, ICCO & FIAN (2009) The Right to Food and Nutrition Watch (2009) Who Controls the World Food System?

    Davis, M (2001) Late Victorian Holocausts: el Niňo Famines and the Making of the Third World. London: Verso

de Herdt, t (2008) ‘Social policy and the ability to appear in public without

    shame’ in Comim, Qizilbash & Alkire eds The Capability Approach. Cambridge:

    Cambridge University Press

    Dreze, J (2005) ‘Democracy and the Right to Food’ Ch 5 in Alston and Robinson eds Human Rights and Development.

    Eide, A. (2001) The Right to and Adequate standard of Living, including the Right to Food, In Eide, A, Krause and Rosas (Eds) Economic, Social and Cultural Rights A nd Ed.), pp 133-48 textbook (2

FAO 2004 Voluntary Guidelines on the Right to Food

Guha-Khasnobis and Vivek (2007) ‘The Rights-based Approach to Development:

    Lessons from the Right to Food Movement in India. In Guha-Khasnobis, B and S. Acharya (eds) Food Insecurity, Vulnerability and Human Rights Failure, pp308-

    327

Kent, G (2008) Global Obligations for the Right to Food. Rowman and Littlefield

    Khoo, S (2010) The Right to Food: legal, political and human implications for a food security agenda. Trocaire Development Review 2010

Sen, Amartya (1982) Poverty and Famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation.

    Oxford: Oxford University Press

Sen, Amartya (1999) Development as Freedom: Oxford: Oxford University Press

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ul Haq, Mahbub (1995) „The Human Development Paradigm Ch 1.2 in Fukuda-Parr, s

    and V.Shiva Kumar (eds) Readings in Human Development. New Delhi: Oxford

    University Press

Walton, M. (2009) The political economy of India’s malnutrition puzzle. IDS

    Bulletin 40, 4 pp16-24

Session 4 The Right to Health: steps towards a ‘highest attainable standard'

    Cornwall, A et al (2006) „Rights to health and struggles for accountability in a Brazilian municipal health council‟ in Newell P. and J. Wheeler (eds) Rights.

    Resources and the Politics of Accountability London Zed Books

DeJong, Jocelyn (2006) Capabilities, reproductive health and well-being, Journal

    of Development Studies 42, (7) pp 1158-1179

    Farmer, Paul (2005) Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights and the New War on the Poor Berkeley:Univ. of California Press

Farmer, Paul (1999) )‘The Consumption of the Poor’ Chapter 7 Infections and

    Inequalities: The Modern Plagues Berkeley:Univ. of California Press pp 184-210

    Freedman, Lynn (2003a) Averting international death and disability: Human rights, constructive accountability and maternal mortality in the Dominican Republic International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 82 pp.111-114

    Freedman, Lynn. (2003b). Strategic advocacy and maternal mortality: moving targets and the millennium development goals. Gender and Development, 11, (1), pp.97-108

    Gauri, V (2005) „Social Rights and Economics: Claims to Health Care and Education in Developing Countries. in Alston and Robinson eds Human Rights and Development: Towards Mutual Reinforcement pp 65-86

    Heywood, M (2009) „South Africa's Treatment Action Campaign: Combining Law and Social Mobilization to Realize the Right to Health‟ J Human Rights Practice

    2009 1: 14-36

    Hunt, P & Bueno de Mesquita, J. (2007) Reducing maternal mortality: The contribution of the right to the highest attainable standard of health Essex Centre for Human Rights/ UNFPA

    http://unfpa.dexero.com/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/reducing_mm.pdf

Hunt, P. (2006a). The right to an effective, integrated health system accessible to all.

    UN Doc E/CN.4/2006/48 of 3 March 2006

    Hunt, P. (2006b). Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to

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the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. UN

    Doc A/61/338 of 13 September 2006

    Khoo, S (2011, in press) Re-interpreting the citizen consumer: Alternative consumer activism and the rights to health and development, Social Science & Medicine

    Lagomarsino, G., Nachuk, S. and Kundra, S.S. (200) Public Stewardship of Private

    Providers in Mixed Health Systems (Synthesis Report from the Rockefeller

    FoundationSponsored Initiative on the Role of the Private Sector in Health Systems in Developing Countries) Washington: Results for Development Institute/ Rockefeller Foundation

    Lee, K. Kent Buse and Suzanne Fustukian (eds) Health Policy in a Globalising World

    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Mann, J. S. Gruskin, M. A. Grodin & G. Annas, Health and human rights: A reader.

    (pp. 29-36) New York: Routledge

     Development as Health: Employing the Collective Meier, B. M.& A. Fox (2008)

    Right to Development to Achieve the Goals of the Individual Right to Health. Human

    Rights Quarterly 30 pp.259355

    O‟Donovan (2008) The Atlas of Health: Mapping the Challenges and Causes of Disease Myriad editions

Peoples‟ Health Movement, USA (2009) Letter to The Lancet, 5 Dec 2009

    Peoples‟ Health Movement (2006) The assessment of the right to health and health care at the country level: A People‟s Health Movement Guide

Petchesky, Rosalind Pollack (2003 Global Prescriptions: Gendering Health and

    Human Rights. Zed Books/UNRISD

    Potts, H. (2008) Participation and the right to the highest attainable standard of health (please download from Blackboard)

    Robins, Stephen (2004) ‘Long live Zackie, Long Live’ AIDS activism, science and citizenship after Apartheid, Journal of Southern African Studies 30(3) pp 651-672

    Sachs, A (2009) „The Judge who cried‟ Ch 7 in The Strange Alchemy of Life and Law

Toebes, B. (2001) The Right to Health, In Eide, A, Krause and Rosas (Eds) Economic, ndSocial and Cultural Rights A textbook (2 Ed.), pp 169-90

    UNDP (2005) Human Development Report 2005, Boxes providing snapshots on the United States, India, China, Russia

WHO (2005) Human Rights, Health and Poverty Reduction Strategies

    http://www.who.int/hhr/news/HRHPRS.pdf

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