By Victoria Hamilton,2014-06-09 22:17
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Lecture 1

    How to improve and maintain your circle?

    ; Check occasionally; Keep in touch with people to give them your update,

    Lunch Coffee, Hangout with them.

    ; Understand their perspectives; Tell things in their interest; understand what

    you can offer your counterparties; Give and take; Doing common things.

    ; Expanding your network. Going to conferences. Extra-Curriculum.

Lecture 2

    Questions are validated proper measure?

    ; The results make sense contents relevant.

    ; Based on research and tested across culture.

    ; Different from reliability get consistent results.

    ; Have someone else take the questionnaire: depends on its usefulness,

    different perspective.

Self Control vs Self Monitoring (Social Situations)

    ; Self Control (Intrapersonal) is pulling back whereas Self Monitoring

    (Interpersonal) is pulling back and also acting forward e.g. funeral, party

    when sad

    ; Self Control temper self-centeredness, included in self-monitoring.

    ; Example: Salesman,

    ; Persistence is the key(social situations is to stay focused)

Social Skills Vs Interpersonal Skills

    ; Social Skills: figure out what they need

    ; Self Control: give them that in a consistent way

    ; Self Monitoring: adjust your behavior based on what they want

Why self-awareness?

    ; To improve performance

    ; To develop intrapersonal skill

    ; To develop interpersonal skill

What is self-awareness?

    Ability to assess one’s personality, behaviors and skill accurately by:

    ; Observing one’s own thoughts, behaviors and skills using validated,

    structured questionnaire

    ; Comparing observations to an external source

    ; Incorporating comparison into self observation and subsequent behavior

    Intrapersonal skill: Attitudes towards authority, self-esteem, self control Interpersonal skill: self-control, self-monitoring, social skills

    Self-monitoring: extent to which you monitor, regulate, control yourself in social situations; part of self-awareness

Self control:

    ; Impulse control

    ; Persistence

    ; Low risk seeking

    ; Low self centeredness

    ; Ability to control temper

Social skills:

    ; Able to read others accurately

    ; Make favorable first impression

    ; Adapt to a wide range of social situations

    ; Be persuasive

Interpersonal Skills (initiate, build, maintain)

Lecture 3

    Learning Goals Vs sub goals

    ; Learning goal is one that is specific about the number of strategies to be

    discovered to learn to how to perform a task

    ; Subgoals give markers of progress- recast the big goal into smaller attainable

    goals, helps get feedback to evaluate whether strategies to attain larger goal

    are successful

What is a simulation?

    ; General background information, dialogue is completely self-engineered


    ; Give feedback based on an objective standard no other people

    ; Attention to self decreases performance while attention to task increases it

Why do goals improve performance?

    ; Focus on behaviors that will attain goal

    ; Increase how hard one works on task

    ; Lengthen time spent on task

    ; Promote use/discovery of knowledge needed to do task

Individual Goal Setting

    ; Specificity & Difficulty of Goal

    ; Knowledge to attain goal

    Set learning goals:

    1. Facilitate planning

    2. Focus on understanding the task

    3. Monitoring and evaluating progress toward goal attainment

    Provide Training

    ; Feedback on progress toward goal

    Sub Goals: Provides immediate feedback on whether behavior is consistent

    with goals

    ; Commitment to goal (reflect goal importance)

    1. Making goals public

    2. Assigning goals that implicitly convey confidence in performer

    3. Making goals important by rewarding their achievement: Money =

    Praise > Public Recognition

    ; Situational Constrains

    High Role overload = having excess work without resources to accomplish


    Goals positively affect performance only when overload was low


    ; Does it elicit attention to self or task goal

    Compare self to others ; Attention to self ; Affect(mistrust, retaliation),

    Distraction from focal task, attention to non-focal task ; lower performance

    Info on how to improve & information about correct answer ; attention to

    task ; Focus on task ; Increased motivation & learning ; Increased


    ; Compare feedback to goal/ standard

    ; Is there a gap between behavior and goal ; Is the goal of a moderate level

    ; Change behavior to meet goal

    Behaviors to practice

    ; Non-verbal communication behaviors

    1. Positive demeanor

    2. Neutrality

    3. Attentiveness

    ; Leadership behaviors

    1. Transformational leadership

    2. Minimal conflict-seeking

    3. Use of referent power

    ; Speech characteristics

    1. Conversational maintenance

    2. Low controlling

    3. Fact finding

    4. Low asserting authority

    5. Tentativeness

    ; Conveying interactional justice

    1. Give good explanations

    2. Active listening

    3. Convey justice when interacting

Lecture 4

    Email Strategy:

    ; Customers & Boss

    ; Most costly subordinate

Interpersonal Roles

    ; Leader

    Responsible for work of people in unit

    Main focus of house’s theory

    ; Figurehead

    Ceremonial duties

    ; Liaison

Decisional Roles

    ; Entrepreneur

    ; Handles Disturbances

    ; Allocates Resources

    ; Negotiates

    Informational Roles 40%

    ; Monitor

    ; Disseminator

    ; Spokesperson

Lecture 5

    Learning goals Vs sub goals

    ; Learning goal is one that is specific about the number of strategies to be

    discovered to learn how to perform a task

    ; Sub goals give markers of progress- recast the big goal into smaller attainable

    ones, helps get feedback to evaluate whether strategies to attain larger goal

    are successful

Lecture 7

    House bidding problem

    ; Average price of the house based on the number of the bidders

Factors Affecting Negotiation

    ; Ability to Invent Options

    Factors affecting it:

    1. Fixed Pie Perception

    Erroneous belief that negotiators’ interests are directly opposed

    2. Pre-mature Judgments (Time pressure)

    Commit to a course of action & find it difficult to change that course

    even if change could yield mutually beneficial outcomes

    Time pressure increases premature judgments, prevents use of new


    3. Search for single answer

    Having multiple equivalent offers results in better outcomes ; BATNA = best alternative to negotiated agreement

    ; Type of relationship between parties

    1. Friends are less competitive with each other than they are with


    2. Friends are more willing to compromise and fail to invent options to

    mutual gain than are strangers

    ; Type of Emotions

    1. Happy emotions are more cooperative and identify options for greater

    mutual gain

    2. Negotiators are less demanding and concede more with opponent

    who is angry

    ; Perception of Parties

    1. Negotiators perceive concessions made by opponents as benefiting

    opponents and therefore devalue them

    2. When negotiators evaluate proposals not knowing that opponents

    made those proposals, they are more likely to perceive such proposals


    ; Bargaining Style

    Extraversion & Agreeableness

    1. Less likely to claim resources at table

    2. Were more susceptible to anchoring effects due to other party’s

    extreme first offers and therefore obtained worse outcomes

    Lecture 8

    5 things you need to know before going to an interview.

    ; Brainstorm all your needs

    ; Prioritize

    ; Research the industry for every issue that can be negotiated ; Make combinations of things that you are equally happy with ; Alternatives

    Power Vs Influence Vs Symbols of power

; Power = the ability of one party to change/control the values, attitudes, etc.

    of another party

    ; Influence = the process of affecting the thoughts and behavior of others ; Symbols of power = ability to intercede for somebody in trouble

    Power Vs Influence

    ; Power is not sufficient to result in behavioral or attitudinal change, it is the

    potential to change

    ; Influence is the process of changing

    Factors affecting negotiation

    ; Influential behaviors

    ; Type of Relationship between parties

    ; Type of Emotions

    ; Perceptions of Parties

    Influence Tactics:

    1. Rational persuasion (+)

    ; Explaining the reasons for request

    ; Using logic to convince person

    ; Presenting information in support of point of view 2. Ingratiation (liking) (+)

    ; Made me feel important

    ; Praising

    ; Acting very humbly while making request

    3. Preference for consistency

    4. Scarcity to resources

    5. Expertise

    6. Exchange Norms (reciprocity)

    ; Reminding person of past favors that you did for them

    ; Offering an exchange

    7. Whether similar others are influenced

    8. Coalition (3)

    ; Pointing out that many non participants back up your idea

    ; Obtaining support of other participants to back up your idea 9. Consultation

    ; Told person what you are trying to accomplish and asked if person

    knew of a good way to do it

    ; Actively sought person’s input with regard to a decision

    10. Pressure

    ; Expressing anger verbally

    ; Demanding that other person do what you want

     11.Inspirational Appeals

    ; Using charisma to arouse person’s interest and support for ideas and


    ; Describing your proposal or change with enthusiasm and conviction

    that it is important and worthwhile

Lecture 9

    Moral Values = beliefs about what is good vs bad, right vs wrong

    Ethics = standards of behavior consistent with one’s moral values

    Decision = intention for behaving consistently with ethics

    Behavior = action

    Sources determining Managerial Ethics

    ; Personal Ethics

    ; Organizational Culture

    ; Organizational Systems

    ; External Stakeholders

    Bias in judgment

    ; Ambiguity

    ; Attachment (self-serving bias)

    ; Seeking Approval

    ; Disclosure

    ; Familiarity

    ; Discounting

    ; Escalation

Lecture 10

    Core Ideology: Core Value + Core Purpose Envisioned Future: BHAG + Vivid Description

Personal Vision?

    Core Ideology Vs Envisioned Future

    ; Core ideology features:

    1. Discovery Process

    2. Never Changes

    3. What Company stands for

    ; Envisioned Future features:

    1. Creative Process

    2. Change once BHAG(Big Hairy Audacious Goals) is attained

    3. What company aspire to become

Core Purpose Vs Vision Level BHAG

    ; Core Purpose features:

    1. Can never be completed

    2. Not a specific goal

    3. Forever pursued

    ; Vision Level BHAG features:

    1. Achievable in 10 to 30 years

    2. Clearly articulated goal

    3. Once reached, move on to the next goal

BHAG Vs Goal

    ; Vision level BHAG features:

    1. Strategic level

    2. Company/Departmental Scope

    3. Long time horizon 10 to 30 years

    4. What company aspire to become

    ; Goal (traditional sense) features:

    1. Operational Level

    2. Task Specific

    3. Short time horizon

    4. Used to achieve BHAG

Lecture 11

    Personal Vision & BHAG

    Power and Influence Lecture 8

    Role Specialization in Group: task/ social leader, facilitator, blocker, devil’s advocate

Factors leading to bounded awareness and poor group decisions:

    ; Not sharing information

    ; Not using relevant information

    ; Not noticing information limits awareness

    1. Focus on certain type of information

    2. Gradual changes in environment

    3. Expectations about existing information Need to locate information that is out of your awareness to improve decision quality

Potential sources of conflict

    ; Goal incompatibility

    ; Task independence

    ; Ambiguity

    ; Scarce resources

    ; Communication problems

    ; Personal characteristics


; Legitimate power

    ; Reward power

    ; Coercive power

    ; Referent power

    ; Expert power

    Sources of Power

    ; Scarcity

    ; Uncertainty

    ; Centrality

    ; Substitutability

    Lecture 12

    Directive Vs Achievement

    ; Directive is to set the goal and also give instructions of how to achieve it ; Achievement is only setting the goal

    Leadership Styles:

    ; Directive (Path-goal clarifying): Sets specific goals and delineates how to

    achieve them

    Clear Role Ambiguity = lack of clarity on what is expected || How one’s

    performance will be evaluated; Criteria for evaluation

    Novel Roles; Subordinates with low ability; People with low tolerance for


    ; Supportive: Show concern for welfare; Create a friendly and supportive


    Builds self confidence; Builds social satisfaction; Reduce Stress; Alleviates


    ; Achievement: Set challenging goals; Look for improvement; Focus on

    excellent performance; Demonstrate that you are confident that subordinate

    can achieve the high standards of performance you set

    1. Make subordinates to work to achieve higher performance levels

    2. Increase subordinate confidence to meet challenging goals

    ; Participative: Encouraging subordinates to influence how decisions are made,

    how work is done

    1. Clarify links between effort, performance and rewards.

    2. Increase congruence between organizational & individual goals

    3. Enable subordinate autonomy

    4. Increase subordinate’s involvement & commitment

    For subordinates with internal locus of control


    ; Difficulty being flexible with different subordinates while not appearing to be

    inconsistent, fake or unfair

    ; Leadership style changes with same subordinate over time ; To be effective leaders, one needs to tailor one’s behavior to specific

    situational factors (High requirement for interpersonal skills)

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