The fastest delivery = IV therapy
It puts it into circulation immediately
1. You can kill the patient very easily if you make a mistake
2. You have immediate access: BUT…
- USE THE 5 RIGHTS
- RIGHT PATIENT
- RIGHT MEDICATION
- RIGHT ROUTE
- RIGHT TIME
- RIGHT DOSE
- TAKE IT SERIOUSLY
- THINK SECRUITY/CONFIDENTIALITY
- continuous medication
- replacement therapy
- NPO or (dehydration)
- Medication delivery of choice
- Give a fluid challenge, also called bolus dose, (One time)
- contamination (TEST QUESTIONS – BIG CHANCE ON
Types of patients who need IV therapy
- IV drug abusers
- Very sick people
- People with no veins (blood volume)
Use aseptic technique
- Follow policy and procedure by each individual agency
- Patients watch what your doing, do it right and aseptic.
- Remember if you break technique you start over
Things to think about
- Use correct size needle for meds being infused
- Choose correct size needle for insertion of IV access.
- Place IV in appropriate site for client comfort/patency
- Think of movement
- Remember legs/feet last choice
- Peripheral = arms
- Central line and PIC line = larger veins
Causes of complications:
1. Infection/ infiltration
- Remember to observe the whole arm
- Starting a new IV it needs to be ABOVE the injured site (infiltrated IV
- Look for blood return (assess for patency) 3. certain meds are caustic
- high acidic value like potassium (never give this undiluted)
- hypertonic solutions are caustic
- Chemotherapy agents and other meds.
What does it look like? (Complication)
3. cool to touch
5. IV behind in time
7. Leakage around site
8. Dressing wet/bed wet
CDC GUIDELINES FOR TUBING/SITE CONTROLS ***test*******
72 hours for site and dressings, and tubing’s
24 hours for all bottles and bags
Fat emulsion and tubing’s change each time
24 hours for High sugar (TPN)
What do you do with an infiltration?
# 1. Assess
- stop IV? NO, NO, NO it could clot with in 5 minutes
- Get RN? YES, YES, YES
- Heat compresses
- Compare arms
Can at come institutions be addressed with an incident report Extremely painful
Hardened area (rope type feel to vein)
IT IS DUE TO A CLOT FORMATION AND SOMETIMES DUE TO CAUSTIC AGENT IN IV.
Ways to prevent phlebitis: change IV site, monitor s/s of impending phlebitis
If it does occur, stop IV disconnect and go to a new site
- Stop IV
- Raise arm
- Apply heat
- Medicate with MD order for pain meds
- *****DO NOT MASSAGE THE SITE,(THINK CLOT) ************
PYROGENTIC REACTION TO MEDICATION
1. look at solution
- Is it clear?
- Tampered with?
- Nothing floating?
- Expired medication?
Number 1 prevention: do not hang anything you feel is wrong, verify with lot
number for any recall.
Symptoms of possible pyrogenic reaction:
- nausea or vomiting
Make sure to rule out anaphylaxis
- trouble breathing
- throat swelling
- tongue swelling
- respiratory failure
- decreased blood pressure
Infusion going to fast, out of control What is in the infusion?
- is it just a bag of NS, what about potassium, or TPN
- Can go into FVE (lungs (PE), or cardiac (CHF)).
Safest IV delivery system
IV pump = #1
Dial a flow = #2
Roller clamp = #3
Speed shock can happen with all three. Things to think about:
- are you always watching your patient
- other staff may mess with your equipment
- has your patient left the floor for other therapy or by self?
50 cc or more
We just don’t infuse air!
Be more concerned about a central line (close to right atrium)
Lines need to be connected, (check, and be careful)
Start of shift check
- bag, solution correct
- follow lines down
- check arm and site
What should you do in case of Air embolism?
LIE ON LEFT SIDE
INSTRUCT PATIENT TO DO VAL SALVA MANEUVER (slows circulation down)
Patient unable to absorb fluid, heart borderline (what do they look like?)
- high pulse
- peripheral edema
- distended neck veins
- Wet lungs
What do you do next?
Turn IV down
Get vital signs
Sit them up at 30 degrees or more Call the doctor
Oxygen therapy with standing MD orders (remember is patient COPD or cardiac?)
What type of solutions would we normally see for different situations?
Surgery – LR
Diabetic – NS
Used most – D5 ? NS
Nursing actions on flow rate
- Do we catch up on flow rate? NO NO NO
We are concerned with the heart and lungs
- What about antibiotics?
Different than IV fluid, we need a therapeutic level to be effective.
- Monitor patient urinary output while on IV therapy
- Act quickly for increased fluids and no increase or presence of urine.
- If patient is rehydrating the bladder may not be full encourage patient
to pee to make sure there isn’t retention.
- Intake helps decide how much output there should be
; Check fluid is it clear? * is it on time ; date and time IV bottle or bag * date and time IV tubing ; check connections * check IV site
; Check tubing * Expiration dates
; Check IV every hour
; Correct solution
; Correct additive
; Correct level of solution
; Correct flow rate
Factors effecting flow rate
; needle position * lying, sitting on tubing ; infiltration * thrombophlebitis
; height of solution * patency of needle
; venous spasm
; change of position with patient
; extremity position
; kinked tubing
; adjust flow rate
; Too slow do not catch up.
; Too fast slow down