University of California--Berkeley
标签: 加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校 University of California--Berkeley 加利福尼亚州 伯克利市
Berkeley CA AAU IARU Pacific-10 University of California
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The University of California, Berkeley (also referred
to as Cal, California, Berkeley, Cal-Berkeley, and UC Berk
eley) is a public research university located in Berkeley,
California, United States. The oldest of the ten major camp
uses affiliated with the University of California, the Univ
ersity was founded in 1868 in a merger of the private Colle
ge of California and the public Agricultural, Mining, and M
echanical Arts College. The university occupies 6,651 acres
(2,692 ha) with the central campus resting on approximatel
y 200 acres (80.9 ha) in the San Francisco Bay Area.
; • 基本信息
; • 历史沿革;History；
; • 本科学院;Undergraduate Schools；
; • 研究和专业学院;Grad Schools)
学校成立时间 ;Established Time；:March 23, 1868
学校座右铭 (Motto):Let There be Light
城市所在地 (Location)？Berkeley, CA, USA
学校颜色;Colors；:Yale Blue, California Gold
校园面积;Area of Campus):Urban 6,651 acres (27 km2)
In 1866, the land comprising the current Berkeley campus was purchased by the private College of California. Because it lacked sufficient funds to operate, it eventually merged with the state-run Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state of California. The university opened in September 1869. Frederick
Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870 Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 222 female students and held its first classes.
Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and
new buildings, and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect Emile Bernard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davis. By the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments.
During World War II, following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U.S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan
Project in 1942.Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (formerly the Radiation Lab), Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory (1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1952).
Originally, military training was compulsory for male
undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose. In 1917, Cal's ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, who graduated with a B.A. in 1922. Both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from Cal's ROTC program, earning B.A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, respectively. During World War II, the military increased its presence on campus to recruit more officers, and by 1944,
the student body at Berkeley included more than 1,000 Navy
personnel. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents
adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed;ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay.
In 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given relative autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, and Clark Kerr became the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley.
Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement in 1964,and opposition to the Vietnam War. In the highly publicized People's Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land; the National Guard was called in and violence erupted.Modern students at Berkeley are less politically active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives.Democrats outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a ratio of 9:1.
Various human and animal rights groups have recently conflicted with Berkeley. Native Americans conflicted with the school over repatriation of remains from the Phoebe A. Hearst
Museum of Anthropology.Animal-rights activists have threatened faculty members using animals for research.The school's response to tree sitters protesting construction caused controversy in the local community.
As state funding (now about 25%) has declined,Berkeley has turned to private sources: BP donated $500 million to
develop biofuels, the Hewlett Foundation gave $113 million
to endow 100 faculty chairs, and Dow Chemical gave $10 million to research sustainability.The BP grant has been criticized for diverting food production to fuel production.
The original name University of California was frequently shortened to California or Cal. Its athletic teams date to this time and so are known as the California Golden Bears, Cal Bears, or Cal. Today University of California refers to a statewide school system and the official name is University of California, Berkeley, frequently shortened to UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal. Usage of UCB and University of California at Berkeley is discouraged and the domain name is
berkeley.edu. The term "Cal Berkeley" is not a correct reference to the school, but occasionally used. Berkeley is unrelated to the Berklee College of Music or Berkeley College.
College of Chemistry
College of Engineering
College of Environmental Design College of Letters and Science College of Natural Resources
Graduate School of Education Graduate School of Journalism Haas School of Business
Goldman School of Public Policy School of Information
School of Law (Boalt Hall) School of Optometry
School of Public Health
School of Social Welfare
In 2010, U.S. News & World Report ranked Berkeley as
the top public university among "National Universities" in
the United States.
According to the National Research Council, 35 of 36 Berkeley graduate programs rank in the top 10 in their respective fields. Berkeley is the only university in the nation to achieve top 5 rankings for all of its PhD programs
in those disciplines covered by the US News and World Report graduate school survey.
Internationally, the 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings placed Berkeley 8th and the QS World University Rankings placed Berkeley 28th in the world.(In 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS
World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings.) The Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Berkeley 2nd in 2010.In the 2006 international edition of Newsweek, Berkeley was the
fifth-ranked global university,and the Center for Measuring University Performance placed Berkeley ninth among national research universities.
Berkeley's undergraduate program is ranked 1st by The
Washington Monthly and 22nd among National Universities by
U.S. News & World Report .U.S. News ranked both the undergraduate programs in engineering and business 2nd in the nation .Berkeley ranks 9th among universities that have produced the largest number of living billionaires.
According to the US News & World Report Subject Rankings, Berkeley is ranked 4th in Arts & Humanities, 2nd in Engineering & IT, 5th in Life Sciences and Biomedicine,,3rd in Natural and Physical Sciences, and 2nd in Social Sciences.
The Princeton Review ranks Berkeley as a college with
a conscience and the 5th best value in public colleges.
Washington Monthly ranks Berkeley as the University doing the most public good.The rankings were based on social
mobility, research done by the University, and service.
The College Sustainability Report Card, published by the Sustainable Endowments Institute, gave Berkeley a B in 2009 for its efforts in environmental sustainability.
Undergraduate Graduate California U.S. Census
African American 4%
3% 6.2% 12.1%
Asian American 42% 1
7% 12.3% 4.3%
White American 31% 4
2% 59.8% 65.8%
Hispanic American 12%
6% 35.9% 14.5%
Native American <1%
1% 0.7% 0.9%
International student 4% 18% N/A N/A
Berkeley enrolled 25,151 undergraduate and 10,258 graduate students in Fall 2008.Women make up 53% of undergraduate enrollments and 45% graduate and professional students. 90% of undergraduates and 62% of graduate and professional students are California residents.In the wake of Proposition 209,
the plurality of Asian American students and under-representation of African-American and Hispanic students has received national attention.
Berkeley received 48,461 applications for admission to the undergraduate program in 2008; 10,474 were admitted (22%) and 4,261 enrolled (41%). 12,371 students from other col