Identify the muscle type of each description:
Dense connective tissue packaging
Acts like a pump
Moves bones and facial skin
Referred to as muscular system
Single nucleus per cell
Regarding the functions of muscles, which term doesn’t belong? Urine Foodstuffs Bones Smooth Muscle
Heart Cardiac Muscle Blood pump Promotes labor during birth
Excitability Response to stimulus Contractility Action Potential
Ability to shorten Contractility Pulls on bones Stretchability
Maintains posture Movement Promotes growth Generates heat
Match the structures with their descriptions:
1. connective tissue surrounding a fascicle a. endomysium
2. connective tissue ensheathing entire muscle b. epimysium
3. contractile unit of muscle c. fascicle
4. a muscle cell d. fiber
5. thin connective tissue investing each muscle cell e. myofilament
6. plasma membrane of muscle cell f. myofibril
7. long, filamentous organelle found in muscle cells g. perimysium
that has a banded appearance h. sarcolemma
8. actin or mysosin containing structure i. sarcomere
9. cordlike extension of connective tissue beyond the j. sarcoplasm
muscle, serving to attach it to the bone k. tendon
10. a discrete bundle of muscle cells
Complete the following description of actions at neuromuscular junctions. Word choices are:
Ach Depolarization Nerve impulse Synaptic cleft
Axonal terminals Motor units Sodium
A motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle it stimulates is called a _____________ . The axon of each motor neuron has numerous endings called _____________ . The actual gap between an axonal ending and the muscle cell is called a _____________ . Within the axonal endings are many small vesicles containing a neurotransmitter substance called _____________ .
When the _____________ reaches the ends of the axon, the neurotransmitter is released, and it diffuses to the muscle cell membrane to combine with receptors there. Binding of the neurotransmitters with muscle membrane receptors causes the membrane to become permeable to _____________, resulting in the influx of these ions and _____________ of the membrane. Then contraction of the muscle cell occurs.
Number the following statements in their proper sequence to describe the contraction mechanism in a skeletal muscle cell. The first step has been identified as #1.
1._ Acetylcholine is released into the neuromuscular junction by the axonal terminal.
___ The action potential, carried deep into the cell, causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium ions.
___ The muscle cell relaxes and lengthens.
___ Acetylcholine diffuses across the neuromuscular junction and binds to receptors on the sarcolemma.
___ The calcium ion concentration at the myofilaments increases; the myofilaments side past one another, and the cell shortens.
___ Depolarization occurs, and the action potential is generated.
___ As calcium is actively reabsorbed into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, its concentration at the myofilaments decreases.
Complete the following statements by choosing the correct response. Word choices are
; Depolarization ; Isotonic contraction ; Repolarization
; Fatigue ; Many motor units ; Tetanus
; Few motor units ; Muscle cell ; Whole muscle
; Isometric contraction ; Muscle tone
1. a continuous contraction that shows no evidence of relaxation.
2. is a contraction in which the muscle shortens and work is done.
3. to accomplish a strong contraction, these are stimulated at a rapid rate.
4. when a weak but smooth muscle contraction is desired, there are stimulated at a rapid rate
5. when a muscle is being stimulated but is not able to respond due to “oxygen debt,” this is
6. a contraction where the muscle does not shorten but tension keeps increasing.
Pick which way that a muscle replenishes ATP by the descriptions below.
Choose Aerobic, Anaerobic, or Creatine phosphorylation
Lactic acid formation
Supplies most ATP
Involves simple transfer of phosphate group
Requires no oxygen
Slowest ATP regeneration process
Energy mechanism at the end of a marathon
Good for sprinting
What type of movement? Choose from the following terms:
Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Abduction
Adduction Extension Pronation
Circumduction Flexion Rotation
1. standing on toes
2. walking on heels
3. winding up for a baseball pitch
4. holding onto a saddle with the legs
5. lifting your leg forward at the hip
6. your knee when kicking a football
7. Shaking your head “no”
8. Slamming your palm down during a game of Slap Jack
9. holding arms out to sides away from body
Choose the correct term that describes how the muscle is interacting. Choose from the following
terms: Antagonist Fixator Prime Mover Synergist
b. muscles for posture, for the most part
c. stabilizes a joint so the prime mover can act at more distal joints
d. performs same movement as prime mover
e. reverses and/or opposes the action of a prime mover
f. immobilizes the origin of a prime mover
How are the following muscles named? Match the columns.
1. Gluteus maximus a. action of muscle 2. adductor magnus b. shape of muscle
3. biceps femoris c. location of origin or insertion 4. transverse abdominis d. number of origins 5. extensor carpi ulnaris e. location relative to bone or body region
6. trapezius f. direction in which the fibers run 7. rectus femoris g. relative size
Muscles of the head; match the columns.
1. used in smiling a. buccinators
2. used to suck in your cheeks b. frontalis 3. used in winking c. masseter
4. used to crease forehead d. orbicularis oculi 5. the kissing muscle e. orbicularis oris 6. prime mover of jaw closure f. sternocleidomastoid 7. prime mover of head flexion g. zygomaticus