Guidelines for Writing the three major parts of the Literature

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Guidelines for Writing the three major parts of the Literature

    13. ASSIGNMENTSGuidelines for the Literature Review (Critical Analysis)

    Guidelines for Writing the three major parts of the Literature Review

    (Introduction, Literature, and Discussion) follow.


Do not begin typing until you see the level heading - An Overview and Purpose in your template.

The Guidelines are organized by LECTURES and INSTRUCTIONS.

    Lectures and related reading material are included to assist in developing each part of the Review.

    Where there is to be writing, there are specific Instructions as what is to be included under each heading.

Instructions appear in a box.

    Each instruction is numbered. Respond to ALL NUMBERED INSTRUCTIONS.

    13. ASSIGNMENTSGuidelines for the Literature Review (Critical Analysis)

    Introduction to the Literature

    Insert Your Brief Topic before the Colon: An Overview and Purpose


    Note: This section is revised with each new submission of a draft.

The introductory section should describe the topic (problem area, guiding concept, theme or

    research question or problem) that is being reviewed. Aim for an eye catching opening

    sentence”. Sometimes this is a dramatic expression of a number to catch the reader’s attention

    such as the prevalence of a disease, crime rate, school drop out rate, or sales volume. Be sure the topic is focused on the literature that will be reported. Briefly define the key concepts. Introduce these immediately. The topic should be sufficiently focused to permit an in-depth, substantial investigation, relevant to an area of advanced study/global leadership that guides a range of inquiry, results in an extensive search of scholarly literature, and generation of questions for further inquiry.

The purpose of a literature review is presented in the introduction. Bourner (1996) reports the

    following Purposes of a literature review (reasons for a review of the literature) before embarking

    on a research project. These reasons include:

    ; to identify gaps in the literature

    ; to avoid reinventing the wheel (at the very least this will save time and it can stop you from

    making the same mistakes as others)

    ; to carry on from where others have already reached (reviewing the field allows you to build on the

    platform of existing knowledge and ideas)

    ; to identify other people working in the same fields (a researcher network is a valuable resource) ; to increase your breadth of knowledge of your subject area

    ; to identify seminal works in your area

    ; to provide the intellectual context for your own work, enabling you to position your project relative

    to other work

    ; to identify opposing views

    ; to put your work into perspective

    ; to demonstrate that you can access previous work in an area

    ; to identify information and ideas that may be relevant to your project

    ; to identify methods that could be relevant to your project

    Bourner, T. (1996). The research process: Four steps to success in T. Greenfield (Ed.), Research

    methods: Guidance for postgraduates (pp. 7-11). London: Arnold. Retrieved 8-13-02 from

    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology RMIT University

    As you attempt to define concepts (variables) and their relationships to other variables, if applicable,

    identify causal (independent) variables and effects (dependent variables). You may also identify

    other variables that can be contextual, intervening, or mediating (see Creswell, pp. 94-95 or other


    After you introduce the topic area properly (instructions follow), you will develop a succinct one-sentence

    purpose of the review. Three examples of a concluding purpose statement in the overview are:

    Example 1: The purpose of this review is to critically analyze the theoretical and empirical

    literature on web-based instruction as an instructional method in distance education, with an

    emphasis on effectiveness studies that focus on instructional effectiveness, student learning

    outcomes, retention, student perceptions of this method of course delivery, and to identify areas

    of future scholarly inquiry.

    13. ASSIGNMENTSGuidelines for the Literature Review (Critical Analysis)

    In this example, the causal variable (independent) is “instructional method of web-based

    instruction” and the effects (dependent variable) are instructional effectiveness, student

    learning outcomes, retention, and student perceptions.

    Example 2: The purpose of this critical analysis of theoretical and empirical literature is to (a) examine historical and current literature to evaluate whether gender workplace bias exists; (b) explore the impact such a bias would have on women in the workplace, specifically women moving up the corporate ladder; and, (c) identify any theoretical or empirical gaps in the literature for the purpose of suggesting future areas of scholarly inquiry.

    In this example, the causal variable (independent) is “gender bias against women in the

    workplace” and the effect (dependent variable) is mobility up the corporate ladder.

    Example 3 (Review carefully): The purpose of this critical analysis of theoretical and empirical literature is explore the influence of organizational leadership and other factors on organizational performance, in for-profit and not-for profit service organizations, and to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry.

    In this example, the causal variables (independent) are “organizational leadership” and “other

    factors”, contextual (intervening or mediating) variables are the type of organization (product

    versus service) and profit/non-profit, and the effect (dependent variable) is organizational


    Please note in developing your purpose statement, that the purpose statement begins with The

    purpose of …. and concludes with a statement related to identifying future areas of scholarly


    13. ASSIGNMENTSGuidelines for the Literature Review (Critical Analysis)

    9 Instructions: Writing An Overview and Purpose (Follow precisely)

    * Review Blackboard Forum 5. Use your information and faculty comments for strengthening, as a guide to develop your Overview and Purpose (see items #1-9 below).

    *Draft 1 is due Week 3. Review Forum 6. You will get a great start if you develop this well. 1. Using the template:

    a. Develop a preliminary title for the Review and include on the title page. The title should

    include the main concepts and themes (and/or key theories) for this review. Remember

    this is a critical analysis of the literature NOT a research study!!!! In no area of this

    paper, should you refer to this Review of Literature as a research study!!!!!!

    b. For the Introduction to the Literature, insert a brief subtitle preceding the colon for the

    level heading: ___: Overview and Purpose.

    2. Under the Overview and Purpose, introduce the paper with an “eye catchingopening

    sentence for the first paragraph.

3. After the “eye catching” opening sentence, briefly describe the topic (problem area, guiding

    concept, theme). Get to the point don’t let the reader guess what the review is about --a few


4. Next include brief definitions of each of the major concepts and cite references for these

    definitions in appropriate APA format. BE BRIEF this is not the literature but an

    introduction to it! Anything you present in the introduction is developed in depth in the

    Review of the Literature.

5. Next, very briefly, attempt to identify how the literature explains these variables and their

    relationships to other variables. Include as many as possible variables because this will help in

    constructing a literature map. The map will show relationships between the variables as you

    describe here. Begin with the following:

    The causal variables (independent are) …

    The effects (dependent/outcome variables are…

    Contextual (intervening or mediating) variables that further impact the dependent or

    outcome variables are ….

    6. Discuss how the topic area was identified and your reasons (point of view) for selecting the topic

    area to conduct your critical analysis of the literature. Review the Guidelines: How to Start -

    Select a Topic and Overview and Purpose, including purposes identified by Bourner (1996).

    Begin with the following:

    The topic area of ____ was selected because___.

    7. Explain what you want to know about the topic. Review Hart, 1999, p. 14 (Questions the Review

    Can Answer). Begin with the following:

    Some questions to be answered through this critical analysis of the literature are:……

    8. Answer the following: Is the topic about the problems in a discipline or field of study, the

    processes in a discipline or field of study, or the practices in a discipline or field of study?

    Processes can refer to various epistemologic processes to develop knowledge (also See Hart,

    1999, p. 14). Introduce this clearly so the reader knows what you are speaking about. Begin with

    the following:

    The problem area of … is about……

    9. Conclude the Overview and Purpose with a clearly formulated statement of purpose of the

    literature review. Use the examples in the guidelines, as a guide to develop this. Make this clear

    (see examples in the previous lecture note). Begin with the following and include the ending

    The purpose of this ……………………….., and to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry.

    13. ASSIGNMENTSGuidelines for the Literature Review (Critical Analysis)

    Organization of the Review, Scope, and Library Research Plan

    Organization of the Review


    Collect appropriate articles, read critically, identify concepts, theories, and themes, and think about the best way to present your topic. Write these concepts, theories, and themes down (see your Blackboard forum 5 submission and instructor response.

Develop a Literature Map. This is a Content Map (Concept Map or Mind Map): All students will

    have a literature map that will guide the organization of the review and literature search. Build (draw)

    a visual picture of the concepts and their relationships, which results in a literature map. These

    evolve from your topic, key concepts, ideas, theme, and/or purpose. Don’t introduce new information

    or concepts. It should first be introduced in the overview. The literature map is presented in-depth here. There are many methods to organize the review, which often change as you learn more about

    the topic.

    Concept Mapping - Representing information in diagram form where key words are linked by lines. These lines are then labeled to express the relationship between the terms. The resulting 'map' shows links between key ideas and can then be read through to clarify relationships between key terms.

    a. Definition and Purpose of a Literature Map. This map is a visual/graphic

    representation of concepts, ideas, and themes that serve to guide thinking. In this case, the

    purpose is to guide the search and organizational presentation of your review. This map

    serves to:

    i. Develop ideas for your review

    ii. Show relationships and interrelationships between the concepts, theories, and

    themes and if so, what type of relationships

    iii. Assist in organizing old knowledge and integrating it with new knowledge

    iv. Guide your literature search plan/strategy

    v. Identify subtitles (subheadings) to organize your literature review so that you can

    communicate your ideas systematically.

    vi. A literature/content map is a creative, intuitive, and artistic endeavor to see how

    things fit to generate alternatives. It is also analytical and critical, based on what

    you are finding in the literature.


    A simplified explanation of understanding of a Content map is described in the following URL

     web link

    b. Various types of Graphic or Visual Organizers (review this online. Click

    each box) (you need to have the syllabus downloaded and Internet connection on)

    Chain of Events Clustering Compare/Contrast

    Continuum Cycle Family Tree

    Fishbone Interaction Outline Problem/Solution

    Spider Storyboard Venn Diagram


    13. ASSIGNMENTSGuidelines for the Literature Review (Critical Analysis)

     Other Web sites: Graphic or Visual Organizers

    Graphic or Visual Organizers: A good site review this online by clicking link.

    Some diagrams of content maps are depicted in the following URL web link

     Free Mind Mapping Software (Smart Draw)

    Readings on Mapping Ideas: See Hart, 1999, pp. 142-162

    Blackboard’s Assignments Toolbar: See example of literature maps in

    Assignments Weeks 1-8 Literature Review (Critical Analysis) 50%. Within this folder is

    information on PowerPoint Presentation and Student Examples. Most of the student

    examples include literature maps for RES 702 (RES600) students.

    Organizing the review of the literature by themes, theories, or major concepts and related concepts provides a “frame for the central topic” to organize. In this case, you may proceed inductively or deductively.

    Exercise in Deductive/Inductive thinking:


    For example, a deductive approach might start with the broader view or concept(s) then move to the specific topic area. Example FOLLOWS:

    A literature map (Figure 1) is used to guide the library search for theoretical and empirical

    literature about distance learning. The map shows a deductive pattern of the major

    themes, using an “interaction line style” type of graphic organizer. Beginning with the

    broadest concept of distance education, web-based instruction interacts with student

    characteristics, which leads to evaluation of effectiveness of web-based instruction in

    distance education. . . . Other concepts and their relationships to guide the review

    are . . …….

     Other Organizational Methodologies for Reviews: While RES 702 students are asked to

    develop literature maps that serve to organize the review, with more scholarly experience and depending upon the topic, you could also present the Review using an “opposing view” or “methodological approach”. This is not expected now.

c. The literature map generates an outline for the Review of the Literature

    Review Why do an Outline, and Basic Outlining skills:

    An outline provides a blueprint, skeleton, or a roadmap for the final written review. An outline is an organizational process that is a logical description of the important components of the literature review. It provides a visual and conceptual design for writing.

    1. Identify the main points in the order they should be presented.

    2. Differentiate each main heading into logical subheadings.

    3. Use further subdivisions if necessary.

    13. ASSIGNMENTSGuidelines for the Literature Review (Critical Analysis)




    CONCEPTS IN YOUR OUTLINE. Notice in the outline that follows, a sub-level heading is

    measurement of leadership and organizational performance. In the Review of the Literature

    section, you would then describe the tools whether qualitative or quantitative, and reliability,

    validity (quantitative tools), and trustworthiness of qualitative tools. Run a Proquest or Google

    search such as: “measurement leadership”. This saves you time in the QP and literature in

    the ”dissertation” where you need to know how your variables have been studied and measured.

    It is best to have MORE detail in these themes. You can always change later.

    Example of an Outline: (Let us say that the following concepts are present in the literature map

    which could be Chain of Events, Clustering, or Interaction Outline. This is an example of an

    outline (quite detailed). It includes the major concepts that can be used for the literature search, ndand the outline is placed in the 2 part of this Review (Review of the Literature) to organize how

    to present the literature.


    Classical, Progressive, Risk Leadership Theories

    Traits and Characteristics of Leaders;

    Leadership, Power and Influence;

    Gender and Equity Issues in Leadership Practice

    Cultural Issues and Leadership

    Developing Teams

    Leading Organizational Change

    Organizational Leadership Development;

    Strategic Leadership

    Leadership Measurement

    Organizational Performance

    Dimensions of Organizational Performance

    Organizational Climate

    Individual Performance

    Team Performance

    Supplier/Vendor Perspectives

    Customer Satisfaction

    Financial Performance

    Effectiveness Indicators

    Performance Driven Organizations

    Competency Modeling

    Managing Performance

    360 Degree Feedback

    Collaborative Change

    Organizational Performance Measurement: Output (Activities) and Outcome (Results) Measures

    Factors Influencing Organizational Performance

    Leadership and Performance of Organizations

     Leadership Style and Team Performance

     Leadership Style and Organizational Outcomes

     Leadership Style and Vendor/Supplier and Customer Satisfaction

    Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture, and Organizational Effectiveness

    13. ASSIGNMENTSGuidelines for the Literature Review (Critical Analysis)

7 Instructions for Writing the Organization of the Review

Do not present literature that you reviewed here. Just respond to questions 1-7.

    1. After you design the literature map, begin with the statement:

    A literature map (Figure 1) is used to guide the library search for theoretical and empirical literature in

    this review about ___.

    2. Next, describe the specific type of organizer that you used to design your map (for example, cluster,

    chain of events, cycle, etc). To do this, you need to review this syllabus on line, and click the different

    URL links of examples of visual or graphic organizers (review preceding lecture which provides

    several types).

3. Identify the specific the concepts, theories, and themes that are in your literature map.

    4. Next, briefly, describe the relationships between these concepts, theories and themes (such as what

    leads to what? Which are the causal, outcome and/or intervening variables? Are the concepts

    organized inductively or deductively? This all refers to the concepts, theories, and themes in your

    literature map.

    5. Next explain that in addition to guiding the literature search, the literature map serves to identify

    themes, theories, and concepts that will organize the Literature Review. Present these theories,

    concepts, and themes in outline form, differentiating each main heading into logical subheadings.

    (Keep it simple).

6. Due for draft 1, go to the next major section (Review of the Literature) insert these

    themes/concepts as level headings/sublevel headings in outline form. They serve to organize the

    Review of the Literature. Use appropriate APA (see p. 113 of APA) level headings. An example

    using APA level headings, is shown in the next major section of these guidelines. The concepts and

    themes for the example, uses the outline of themes previously discussed (leadership and

    organizational performance).

7. Insert the Figure 1, Literature Map at the end of this discussion of the Organization of the Review

    (before Scope and Context).

    a. Make sure that you develop your literature map in a software application that can be

    copied and pasted into your Microsoft word document containing your paper.

    b. Make sure the map is an appropriate size and fits within the required paper margins.

    c. The Figure and #, and Title (Literature Map) belong at the bottom, centered:

    Figure 1

    Literature Map

    Your goal is to have the map well-developed in draft 1 and finalized in (draft 2). It is expected that

    this map will change as you “tighten” and “organize your literature review in the next section” as well

    as well as in your qualifying paper.

    Refine this part with each new draft (and particularly as your literature map evolves).

    13. ASSIGNMENTSGuidelines for the Literature Review (Critical Analysis)

    Scope and Context


    This section lets the reader know what is and is not included in your literature review (scope). The topic

    is described in such a way that an appropriate context for the review of the literature is established, in a

    meaningful, logical way. The key terms here are included/excluded. You can restate the theories,

    concepts and constructs that you will include and obvious theories, concepts and constructs you won’t

    include (Look at your problem and topic area).

    Identify what might be included in the search in terms of types of organizations (public/private; for-profit, not for profit; service/product; types of businesses, types of educational institutions); populations such as young versus old; gender; cultural groups; countries; or type of occupation.

    The major types of scholarly literature to review are: empirical studies, review articles (critical

    analysis), theoretical articles/books, methodological articles, and case studies. These types of

    literature may be in the form of a book, hard copy journal articles, and electronic journal articles.

    The following are different types and forms of literature: Periodical Abstract in a primary source,

    Abstract in a secondary source, Periodical (hard copy), Periodical (electronic), Non-periodical (Book),

    Non-periodical (chapter in a book), Proceeding of meetings or symposia, Doctoral Dissertations

    (including abstracts), Unpublished work, Audio-Visuals, Newspaper, Government documents, and

    Electronic Media.

5 Instructions for Writing the Scope and Context

    1. As you write this, discuss what is and is not included. Regarding the topic or problem area,

    discuss what is and is not included in terms of concepts/theories, applications to different

    populations and settings.

    2. Identify the forms (not types) of publications that are included. You don’t need to name specific

    articles, but identify the forms of literature to be included.

    3. Identify the discipline(s) you are focusing in (e.g., education, health, business, criminal justice,

    accounting, sociology)? Included specialized areas within these disciplines, such as: gender

    theories in sociology, accounting ethics, special education for specified populations, urban

    violence, etc.

    4. Identify the scope in terms of the years (period of time) that your literature review covers and


    5. Discuss whether you are limiting your review to U.S. literature, and/or Global literature. For

    global literature, identify the “countries”. If seminal books are emphasized, include the titles.

    Refine this part with each new draft (and particularly as your literature expands).

    13. ASSIGNMENTSGuidelines for the Literature Review (Critical Analysis)

    Library Research Plan and Strategy


    THIS IS THE PLAN, NOT THE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE!! The review is presented in the second major section (Review of the Literature)

    Searching the Literature: A good review of the literature is dependent upon knowledge of the use of indexes and abstracts, the ability to conduct exhaustive bibliographic searches, and ability to organize the collected data meaningfully. Information literacy skills assist with information seeking

    and retrieval methods and scholarly communication.

Recognize scholarly and peer reviewed journals (See Week 1 Lecture)

    The e-Learning tutorials about Lynn Library can assist research students with the development of literature reviews using electronic databases, abstracts, bibliographic software, Internet searching, Library catalogue searching, subject resources, off-campus searching, and research and writing skills. You need to complete the tutorials.

    Library Research Plan/Strategy: In reporting your library plan/strategy, identify concepts, themes (key words) or descriptors and search the relevant databases for research on your topic. Be consistent with the Literature map concepts and themes. Focus your search on primary scholarly

    works including: empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological inquiry. Recognize the differences between these types of scholarly inquiry. Review dissertation abstracts. Did you do a

    Lynn Library catalog search on the topic (at Lynn)? Did you search selected journals? Did you limit the search to peer-review journals? Did you limit the search to certain years?

    If you are having difficulty in your library search, you may make an appointment with the

    Reference Librarian who may assist in building effective search strategies. When visiting the

    Library, you should come prepared with your search words.

    Requesting Materials: It is suggested that you read the abstracts before requesting the materials

    from the Librarian, because certain abstracts may provide enough information to help you make a

    decision on the material’s relevance.

    Expect that you will obtain more literature than you will need to include in your literature review.

    Quantity, however, is not as important as selecting appropriate literature, that is of value and

    relevant. While many published review articles may have more than 100 cited references, due to

    time constraints in the course, the expectation is a minimum of 20 “relevant”, scholarly citations

    in the text of your paper. Do not go overboard. Quality and relevance is what counts. Don’t use

    references from “consulting firms” or firms that are “promoting” their products or services. Look

    for scholarly publications.

    Types and Forms of Literature: Minimum Requirements

    i. The preference is that you review a variety of types and forms of literature so that you

    many learn to:

    ii. Search for and evaluate different types and forms information

    iii. Integrate a variety of types information in the text of your paper

    iv. Recognize classic (seminal) works as well as current literature

    Give yourself time to read the material; do not make a library request for everything at once.

     Readings: Search Strategy worksheet:

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