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jbf18th centuryxka

By Miguel Hernandez,2014-02-08 11:20
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jbf18th centuryxka

    The 18th Century Literature

; Background

    ; The Enlightenment Movement

     Characteristics

     Effects

    ; Literary divisions

     Neo-classicism

     The Rise of the Modern Novel

     Revival of Romantic Poetry

    Backgrounds

    ; The Glorious Revolution (1688)

    ; Religious Conflicts

    ; The Expansion of the British Empire

    ; The Industrial Revolution

    ; Two-party Politics

    ; Connection Between Politics & Literature

    ; The American War of Independence

    ; The French Revolution

    The Enlightenment Movement

; It refers to the movement of intellectual liberation that developed in Western Europe ththfrom the late 17 century to the late 18 (the period often called the “Age of Reason”).

    It culminated with the writings of Rousseau, the philosophy of Kant, and the political ideas of the American and French revolutions. Its central idea was the need for and the capacity of human reason to clear away ancient superstition, prejudice, dogma and injustice. Its thinking encouraged rational scientific inquiry, humanitarian tolerance, and the idea of universal human rights. The advocates of enlightenment tended to place their faith in human progress brought about by the gradual propagation of rational principles. In English, the attitudes of the Enlightenment are found in the late th18 century, in Thomas Paine, William Godwin, Edward Gibbon and so on.

    Jean Jacque Rousseau & Kant

    Neoclassicism

    ; Literary Theory

    ; The Restoration Literature (1660-1700): the Age of Dryden

    ; The Augustan Age (1700-1745): the Age of Pope

    ; The Neoclassical Decline (1745-1785): the Time of Johnson

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    Neo-classicism

    ; It refers to the literary principle according to which the writing and criticism of poetry and drama were to be guided by rules and precedents derived from the best ancient Greek and Roman writers. Often employed in contrast with Romanticism, this term has also been used to describe the characteristic world-view or value-system of this “Age of Reason”, denoting a preference for rationality, clarity, restraint, order and decorum, for general truth rather than particular insights.The neo-classical view of literature included the principle of decorum by which the style must suit the subject matter, and the believe that art must both delight and instruct.The central assumption was that the ancient authors had already attained perfection, so that the modern author‟s chief task was just to imitate them.

    Chief Characteristics of Neoclassic Literature

    1.The neoclassics manifested a strong traditionalism

    2.they believe literature must be perfected by long study and practice and laid much emphasis on the correct, the appropriate, on restraint and discipline, on their style and established rules of their art.

    3.they regard poetry as imitation of human life and emphasized on representative characteristics and widely shared experience, thoughts, feelings and tastes. 4.they believe that the poet is the “maker‟and he must please the reader by his fictions and craft.

    5.they invented new rules of their own

    6.the neoclassic poetry is more formal, more artificial, polished, prosaic and dull; the chief form is heroic couplet

    The Restoration Literature

    (1660-1700)

    The Age of Dryden

    Chief Characters of This Age

    ; English literature of this period was influenced by that of France where classicism was prevailing. There was a great variety in literary forms with John Dryden as the dominant figure.

    John Dryden

    (1631-1700)

    ; Heroic play: The Conquest of Grenada

    ; Blank verse tragedy: All for Love

    ; Prose: An Essay of Dramatic Poesy

    ; Poetry:

    Absalom and Achitophel

    The Medal

    A Song for St. Cecilis’s Day

    Alexander’s Feast

Excerpt:

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    Alexander‟s Feast

    „T was at the royal feast, for Persia won

    By Philip‟s warlike son;

    Aloft in awful state

    The Godlike hero sate

    On his imperial throne;

    His valiant peers were placed around; Their brows with roses and with myrtles bound;

    (So should desert in arms be crowned). 腓力的儿子英武善战?

    征服了波斯?大开御宴?

    这位英雄亚赛天神下凡?

    高居宝座?

    尊贵庄严。

    勇敢的臣爵环绕身旁?

    头戴衣冠?绚烂芬芳?

    汗马功劳应得的荣光。

    The lovely Thais, by his side, Sate like a blooming Eastern bride In flower of youth and beauty‟s pride.

    Happy, happy, happy pair!

    None but the brave,

    None but the brave,

    None but the brave deserves the fair.

     可爱的泰绮丝偎坐在身旁?

    好象是东方的新娘一般?

    青春焕发?妩媚娇艳。

    美满、美满、美满缘?

    只有英雄?

    只有英雄?

    只有英雄配红颜。

    The Augustan Age

    (1700-1745)

    The Age of Pope

    Chief Characters of This Age ; It is the culmination of Neoclassicism. The literature of this period is chiefly a

    literature of wit, concerned with civilization, with man in his social relationships and

    consequently it is critical and in some degree moral and satirical. The chief

    representatives are Pope, Swift, Addison and Steele.

    Alexander Pope

    (1688-1744)

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; Heroic couplets: iambic pentameter rhymed in couplets

    ; Major Works

     On Criticism

     On Man

     The Rape of the Lock

    Essay on Man

    One Truth

    All Nature is but art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see;

    All discord, harmony not understand; All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason‟s spite,

    One truth is clear: Whatever Is, is RIGHT.

    The Neoclassical Decline

    (1745-1785)

    The Time of Johnson

    Chief Characters of This Age ; This is an age when neoclassicism was coming to a decline and new literary themes

    and forms began to emerge.

    ; This is “Age of Prose”.

    Samuel Johnson

    ; He is a poet, essayist, literary critic and a lexicographer

    ; Major works

     Dictionary

     The Vanity of Human Wishes

     London

     The Lives of Great Poets

    Other Important Writers ; James Boswell(1740-1795)

    ; Oliver Goldsmith(1728-1774)

    ; Richard Brinsley Sheridan(1751-1816) ; Edmund Burke(1729-1797)

    ; Edward Gibbon(1737-1794)

    Oliver Goldsmith

    (1728-1774)

; Life

    ; Novel: The Vicar of Wakefield

    ; Play: She Stoops to Conquer

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    ; Essay: The Citizen of the World ; Poetry

     The Traveller

     The Deserted Village

    Richard B. Sheridan

    (1751-1816)

; Life

    ; Comedy

     The Rivals

     The School for Scandal

     The Critic

    James Boswell ; biographical work : Life of Johnson

    Edmund Burke & Edward Gibbon

    The Rise of Novels & Essays ; Joseph Addison & Richard Steel ; Daniel Defoe

    ; Jonathan Swift

    ; Samuel Richardson

    ; Henry Fielding

    ; T. G. Smollet

    ; Laurence Sterne

    ; Gothic novels

    Joseph Addison& Richard Steele

    ; The flowering of the Periodical Literature

    ; Newspaper

     The Tatler

     The Spectator

     Sir Roger

    ; Chief Contribution

     Their writings shape a code of social morality th They give a true picture of the social life of England in the 18 century

     In their hands, the English essay has completely established itself as a literary genre

    Daniel Defoe

     (1661-1731) ; Life

    ; Works

     Robinson Crusoe

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     Captain Singleton

     Colonel Jack

     Moll Flanders

     Jonathan Wild

     Journal of the Plague Year

    Robinson Crusoe

    John Swift

    (1667-1745)

; Life

    ; Works

     The Battle of the Books

     The Tale of a Tub

     Gulliver’s Travels

    Gulliver‟s Travel

    Samuel Richardson

    (1689-1761)

    ; He wrote the first English novel:Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded ; Other works

     Clarissa Harlowe

    ; He was the discover of the novel of character

    Henry Fielding

    (1707-1745)

; Life

    ; Works

     Joseph Andrews

     Jonathan Wild

     The History of Tom Jones a Foundling

     Amelia

     The Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon

    Joseph Andrews

    Tobias Smollet

    (1721-1771)

    ; He is father of the nautical novel ; Major works

     The Adventures of Roderick Random

     The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle

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    Gothic Novels

    The Gothic Novel is imaginative and impulsive, dark and tempestous. The settings are usually castles or monastaries with hidden panels, passages and trap doors. Darkness, manipulation of light, veiled paintings and superstitions make the Gothic novel what it is. An important topos of this genre is the supernatural.

    The Supernatural is defined as: occuring outside the normal experience, not explainable by the known forces or laws of nature, exceeding normal bounds. This is a true description of the supernatural occurences found in many Gothic novels. Many authors use the supernatural to add to their works, or as the central theme itself. Some authors of Gothic novels are Matthew Lewis, Edgar Allen Poe, Nathanial Hawthorne, Bram Stoker and Anne Rice. These authors found thier way into Gettysburg College's Gothic Novels class because of thier exceptional novels.

    Major Writers & Works

    ; Horace Walpole

     The Castle of Otranto

    ; Ann Radcliff

     The Mysteries of Udolpho

    Sentimentalism

    ; It refers to an emotionally extravagant writing of a kind that became popular in the late th18 century. Partly inspired by the emotional power of Samule Richardson‟s novel Pamela, the sentimental works exhibit the close connection between virtue and sensibility, in repeatedly tearful scenes; a character‟s feeling for the beauties of nature

    and for the griefs of others is taken as a sign of a pure heart.

    ; Major writers

     Oliver Goldsmith

     Laurence Sterne

     Thomas Gray

    Laurence Sterne

    (1731-1768)

    ; Representative of sentimentalism and father of the postmodernist novel ; Major Works

     Tristram Shandy

     Sentimental Journey

    James Thomson

    ; Poetical work:

     Four Seasons

    Thomas Gray

     (1716-1771)

    ; Life

    ; Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard

     The best known poem in the English language

     The most perfect poem of the age

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