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CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY

By Barbara Rice,2014-07-04 08:26
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CULTURE. THE COMBINATION OF THREE THINGS: VALUES; MATERIAL ARTIFACTS; POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS. THIS CHAPTER ... GEOGRAPHERS ARE INTERESTED IN TWO ASPECTS OF CULTURE: ...

    CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY

    Lecture Outline

    Chapter 4 Folk and Popular Culture

Folk and Popular Culture

    Folk

    ; Rural

    ; Community

    ; Cohesive

    ; Conservative

    ; Homogeneous

    ; Slow change

    ; Ex. - Amish

    Popular

    ; Urban

    ; Masses

    ; Individualistic

    ; Liberal

    ; Heterogeneous

    ; Rapid change

    ; Ex. - modern USA

Culture

    ; The combination of three things:

    o Values

    o Material artifacts

    o Political institutions

    ; This chapter deals with material artifacts

Material Culture

    ; Two basic categories: folk and popular culture

    o Folk culture

    ; Traditionally practiced by small, isolated, homogeneous groups in

    rural areas

    o Popular culture

    ; Characterized by large, heterogeneous groups of people who share

    common habits despite differences in other personal characteristics

    o Geographers are interested in two aspects of culture:

    ; Where cultures are located in space

    ; How cultures interact with the environment

    Where Do Cultures Originate and Diffuse? ; Origin of folk and popular cultures

    o Folk culture = hearth area; originators are usually unknown o Popular culture = hearth area comes from more developed countries (MDCs)

    ; People in MDCs have disposable income and leisure time that allow

    for these innovations

    ; Origin of folk and popular music

    o Folk music characteristics

    ; Tells a story or recounts important life events or activities

    ; Is personal in nature

    o Popular music characteristics

    ; Written by individuals for the purpose of selling to a large audience

    ; Highly technical

    ; Hip Hop

    ; Reggaeton

    ; Diffusion of folk and popular culture

    o Folk culture diffuses slowly, primarily through migration, and at a small scale

    ; Example: Diffusion of Amish culture

    o Popular culture diffuses rapidly, via hierarchical diffusion, and over a large

    scale

    ; Example: Sports

    ; Soccer

    ; Rugby

    ; American Football

    ; Lacrosse

    ; Baseball

    ; Cricket

    ; Influence of the physical environment

    o Folk culture = close connection to the environment

    ; Most folk cultures are rural and agricultural

    ; Clothing is often tied to environmental conditions

    o Example: Wooden clogs in the Netherlands

o Food preferences and the environment

    ; Food preferences are adapted to the environment

    ; Example: In Asia, rice is grown in milder, wetter environments

    whereas wheat is grown in colder, drier environments

    ; Food taboos may be especially strong

    ; People avoid certain foods because of negative associations

    with that food

    ; Terroir = the sum effects of the local environment on a particular food

    item

; Folk housing and the environment

    ; Housing = a reflection of cultural heritage, current fashion, function,

    and the physical environment

    ; Two most common building materials = wood and brick

    ; Minor differences in the environment can produce very different house

    styles

    ; Isolation promotes cultural diversity

    ; Examples:

    ; Beliefs and folk house forms

    ; Sacred spaces

    ; U.S. folk housing

    ; Fred B. Kniffen

    ; Folk Housing around the world

    ; Courtform houses

    ; Adobe/mud brick construction

    ; Wattle & daub construction

    ; Timber construction (logs & planks)

    ; Half-timber construction

    ; Brick and stone

    ; Environmental impact of popular culture

    ; Modifying nature

    ; Golf courses

    ; Uniform landscapes

    ; Negative impacts

    ; Increased demand for natural resources

    ; Pollution

Folk house regions in USA

    ; Yankee/New England

    o Cape Cod

    o New England large

    o Upright and wing

    o Saltbox

    ; Mid-Atlantic/Midwest

    o I-House

    ; Upland South

    o Dogtrot

    o Carolina I-house

    ; Tidewater South

    o Raised Tidewater house

    ; African American South

    o Shotgun

    ; Acadiana (Cajun Country)

    o Cajun cottage

    Folk Houses around the world Based on materials & other media of construction: ; Adobe drier regions of Latin America and Middle East ; Wattle and daub humid and seasonally humid tropics of Latin America, Africa, and

    Asia

    ; Half timber frame Europe (during Medieval period)

    ; Corner-notched timber and plank Russia, Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, North

    America

    ; Courtform dwellings Latin America, Mediterranean, Middle East, South Asia

    o Pit dwellings (Tunisia)

Diffusion of Popular Culture

     Diffusion of popular housing, clothing, and food

     Popular housing styles

     Rapid diffusion of clothing styles

     Popular food customs

     Television and diffusion of popular culture

     Diffusion of television

     Diffusion of the internet

     Popular music

    Impacts of Globalization and Pop Culture on Folk Culture Threats to folk culture

     Loss of traditional values

     Foreign media dominance

     Environmental impacts of popular culture

     Modifying nature

     Uniform landscapes

     Negative environmental impact

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