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Supplemental Material

By Judith Thompson,2014-09-03 14:48
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Supplemental MaterialSupp

    Additional File 3 Sensitivity and supplementary analyses

    Additional File 3, Table S1. Characteristics of the study population and a sub-group with

    allergy by residential distance to highway. The number of actual persons are displayed in

    brackets.

    Low High Low High All exposure exposure exposure exposure participants (>200 m of (?200 m of Participants with allergic (total group) a highway) a highway) rhinitis or hay fever n 1581 1384 197 288 42 Men (%) 46.5 (735) 45.6 (631) 52.8 (104) 46.9 (135) 57.1 (24) Age, mean 41.7 41.9 40.2 37.7 36.5 Primary school education only (%) 5.7 (90) 5.7 (79) 5.6 (11) 3.8 (11) 2.4 (1) Swiss nationality (%) 88.2 (1394) 87.6 (1212) 92.4 (182) 88.2 (254) 90.5 (38) Body Mass Index, mean 24.4 24.4 24.5 23.7 24.2 Maternal atopy (%) 12.4 (196) 12.9 (179) 8.6 (17) 25.7 (74) 9.5 (4) Early childhood respiratory infection (%) 7.7 (121) 7.4 (102) 9.6 (19) 11.5 (33) 11.9 (5) ETS exposure (%) 27.3 (431) 27.0 (374) 28.9 (57) 30. (87) 31.0 (11) ETS exposure at workplace (%) 12.5 (197) 12.6 (174) 11.7 (23) 13.5 (39) 11.9 (5) Occupational exposure, current (%) 12.7 (200) 12.5 (173) 13.7 (27) 11.1 (32) 16.7 (7) Never smoker (%) 57.2 (905) 57.6 (797) 54.8 (108) 63.9 (184) 71.4 (30) Current smoker (%) 22.6 (357) 22.3 (308) 24.9 (49) 17.7 (51) 11.9 (5) Former smoker (%) 20.2 (319) 20.2 (279) 20.3 (40) 18.4 (53) 16.7 (7) Smoked cigarettes (packyears), mean 6.6 6.6 6.7 4.3 6.0 Wheezing with breathing problems (%) 4.7 (74) 4.5 (62) 6.1 (12) 9.7 (28) 11.9 (5) Wheezing without colds (%) 4.9 (77) 4.6 (63) 7.1 (14) 7.3 (21) 11.9 (5) Regular phlegm (%) 10.5 (166) 10.3 (143) 11.7 (23) 13.2 (38) 16.7 (7) Regular cough (%) 15.0 (236) 14.9 (206) 15.2 (30) 18.9 (54) 21.4 (9) Chronic cough (%) 5.8 (91) 5.4 (75) 8.1 (16) 6.6 (19) 16.7 (7) Chronic cough or chronic phlegm (%) 6.7 (106) 6.5 (90) 8.1 (16) 9.4 (27) 16.7 (7) Doctor diagnosed asthma (%) 8.9 (140) 9.1 (126) 7.1 (14) 20.8 (60) 14.3 (6) Allergic rhinitis or hay fever (%) 20.9 (330) 20.8 (288) 21.3 (42)

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     Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Additional File 3, Table S2.

    reported respiratory symptoms associated with "living within 200 m of a highway" as

    traffic exposure proxy. Participants with and without doctor diagnosed asthma.

     Participants with or without doctor diagnosed asthma n = 1566-1568

    with without Symptoms p-value for doctor diagnosed doctor diagnosed interaction asthma asthma

    Wheezing with breathing problems 5.50 (0.95-31.7) 2.24 (0.85-5.95) 0.34 Wheezing without colds 4.80 (0.92-25.2) 2.84 (1.11-7.27) 0.54 Regular cough 2.96 (0.78-11.2) 1.25 (0.65-2.40) 0.20 Regular phlegm 1.25 (0.27-5.80) 1.19 (0.59-2.40) 0.94 Chronic cough 7.79 (1.03-22.2) 2.62 (1.03 -6.67) 0.43 Chronic cough or phlegm 3.37 (0.75-15.3) 2.26 (0.92 -5.54) 0.59

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     Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Additional File 3, Table S3.

    reported respiratory symptoms associated with "living within 200 m of a highway" as

    traffic exposure proxy, from a model including only community but no individual

    factors.

    Adjusted for Adjusted only for Symptoms individual factors community and community n = 1566-1568 n = 1566-1568

    Wheezing with breathing problems 1.54 (0.69-3.43) 2.64 (1.07-6.48)*

    Wheezing without cold 2.07 (0.93-4.61) 3.10 (1.27-7.55)*

    Regular cough 1.30 (0.72-2.35) 1.36 (0.72-2.56)

    Regular phlegm 1.14 (0.60-2.19) 1.19 (0.60-2.38)

    Chronic cough 2.29 (1.00-5.23)* 2.88 (1.17-7.05)*

    Chronic cough or phlegm 1.85 (0.84-4.07) 2.40 (1.01-5.70)*

    *p-value <0.05

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     Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Additional File 3, Table S4.

    reported respiratory symptoms associated with "living within 200 m of a highway" as

    traffic exposure proxy. Adjusted for all covariates other than doctor’s diagnosed asthma.

    Total group Participants with or without hay

    n = 1566-1568 fever or allergic rhinitis

    n = 1561-1563 Symptoms

    with hay fever or without hay fever

    allergic rhinitis or allergic rhinitis Wheezing with breathing problems 1.82 (0.78-4.21) 1.76 (0.50-6.14) 1.75 (0.65-4.72)

    Wheezing without colds 2.13 (0.92-4.92) 2.74 (0.79-9.51) 1.88 (0.73-4.83)

    Regular cough 1.24 (0.67-2.32) 1.65 (0.63-4.30) 1.18 (0.60-2.33)

    Regular phlegm 1.11 (0.56-2.20) 1.26 (0.44-3.60) 1.03 (0.49-2.18)

    Chronic cough 2.34 (0.98-5.59) 5.18 (1.57-17.10) 1.64 (0.61-4.39)

    Chronic cough or phlegm 1.90 (0.82-4.37) 3.32 (1.06-10.40) 1.45 (0.56-3.74)

    *p-value <0.05

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     Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Additional File 3, Table S5.

    reported respiratory symptoms associated with "living within 200 m of a highway" as

    traffic exposure proxy, among Swiss citizens only.

    Symptoms Subsample of Swiss citizens n

    Wheezing with breathing problems 2.44 (0.94-6.34) 1381 Wheezing without colds 2.61 (1.01-6.72)* 1381 Regular cough 1.60 (0.83-3.07) 1379 Regular phlegm 1.36 (0.66-2.77) 1381 Chronic cough 3.34 (1.31-8.51)* 1380 Chronic cough or phlegm 2.73 (1.12-6.66)* 1380 *p-value <0.05

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     Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Additional File 3, Table S6.

    reported respiratory symptoms associated with "living within 200 m of a highway" as

    traffic exposure proxy, after exclusion of persons living within 50m of a major road.

    Participants living more n Symptoms than 50m of a main road

    Wheezing with breathing problems 1.88 (0.73-4.89) 1127

    Wheezing without colds 2.39 (0.92-6.24) 1127

    Regular cough 1.58 (0.80-3.12) 1125

    Regular phlegm 1.41 (0.67-2.98) 1127

    Chronic cough 2.99 (1.14-7.88)* 1126

    Chronic cough or phlegm 2.41 (0.95-6.11) 1126

    *p-value <0.05

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     Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Additional File 3, Table S7.

    reported respiratory symptoms associated with "living within 200 m of a highway" as traffic exposure proxy, from a model taking into account satisfaction with air quality.

    Core model Core model 2n = 797 + Symptoms satisfaction with 1 air quality 2 n=797

Wheezing with breathing problems 2.28 (0.54-9.66) 2.11 (0.51-8.73)

    Wheezing without cold 2.32 (0.51-10.5) 2.51 (0.61-10.4)

    Regular cough 0.99 (0.41-2.41) 1.07 (0.45-2.53)

    Regular phlegm 1.05 (0.37-2.95) 1.17 (0.43-3.22)

    Chronic cough 2.22 (0.56-8.78) 2.43 (0.66-8.98)

    Chronic cough or phlegm 2.16 (0.58-7.98) 2.34 (0.66-8.28)

    1Satisfaction with air quality was assessed on an integer scale from -5 to 5. To account for non-linearities in the relationship, a third order polynomial of this variable was used in the model. 2Satisfaction with air quality was provided by about 50% of our study participants in a previous survey.

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