By Randy Russell,2014-07-04 08:11
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Topic One: What is Culture?

    Learning Objectives

    Knowledge/Content Skills/Processes Values/Attitudes

    ; Define culture as a learned ; Participate appropriately ; Recognize that there are way of living that is shared by and effectively in group similarities among cultural a group of people. (COM) discussions to extend oral groups.

    communication skills. ; Recognize that differences ; Know that an individual's

    (COM, CCT) among cultural groups do not culture is reflected in his or

    imply superiority or inferiority her behaviours and actions. ; Draw conclusions based

    (COM, CCT) on given data (video, visuals

    . (PSVS) or stories). (CCT)

    ; Record relevant data using

    a graphic organizer.


    Teacher Notes Assessment Suggestions

    See sample assessment templates on ? Have students use a self-evaluation checklist to pages 413, 414 and 417 of the curriculum determine their contributions to their small group guide. Note: It is important to tailor discussions.

    templates for individual student activities

    and needs. ? Use an observation checklist to determine students'

    willingness and abilities to contribute to large group

    discussion. What is Culture?

    To some students, the word "culture" ? Assess students' abilities to draw relevant refers to an ethnic group in another part conclusions.

    of the world. It is

    important that students develop the Instruction Suggestions

    understanding that they too live within a

    culture or cultures. They should also Video:

    understand that, although the term

    culture often refers to an ethnic grouping, ; Show students a short video about any it can refer to other groupings as well cultural group. Some videos to choose from (e.g., a regional grouping of people with include:

    mixed ethnic backgrounds). o Same Differences (Jewish and

    Catholic Religions/Cultures)

    Defining Culture: o Island of the Blue Dolphins

    (Aboriginal Culture)

    There are many definitions for the o Race to Freedom: The Underground

    concept of culture but they are generally Railway (Black Canadian Culture)

    the same in meaning: o The Tarahumara (Remote Northern

    Mexican Culture)

? Culture is a group's beliefs, norms, ; Before viewing the video, give students five

    institutions and communication patterns. minutes to list everything that they know

    about the particular culture described in the

    video. ? Culture is a learned way of living shared

    by a group of people. ; After viewing, ask students, "Is there

    anything you would like to cross off your list

    that you thought you knew, but have changed Cultural Diversity:

    your mind about?"

    ; Give them a handout or several resources It is important to recognize that cultural

    about the particular culture that provide differences exist and help students

    information about that culture's celebrations, develop an acceptance of differing

    food, shelter, clothing, language, work, etc. cultural norms. Students should learn to

    Have them further revise their lists. value the local, national and global

    ; Have students work individually, or in pairs, contributions of all cultures to our

    to complete "Student Handout #1: Culture society.

    Data Disk."

    . Cultural Similarities:


    While cultures differ in many ways, there

    ; Have students meet in small groups of four or are certain things that all cultures have.

    five. These cultural "universals" include

    ; Give each group a collection of 5-8 pictures religion/spirituality, values, games,

    or photographs of different cultures. music, rites of passage, education,

    (Calendars and magazines such as National leadership, family units, traditions, etc.

    Geographic are useful resources from which One way to look at cultural similarities or

    to develop picture files.) universals is to use "patterns of culture."

    ; Give each group a copy of "Student Handout

    #1:Culture Data Disk," and have them Acculturalion:

    complete the handout from the information in

    the visuals. Draw students' attention to the fact that, when people from another culture enter a

    And/Or new country (e.g., Canada), they must

    adapt, or assimilate , to some degree. The

    Stories: immigrants' cultural patterns of

    economics, politics and education must

    ; Read aloud a picture book or short story that comply with the laws and citizenship

    describes life in a particular cultural group. expectations of their new country.

    ; Before reading, ask students to take five However, Canada has a multicultural

    minutes and record all that they know about policy that ensures that diverse cultures

    the particular culture in the story. can maintain their own cultural heritages

    ; Give students a copy of "Student Handout #1: within the laws of Canada.

    Culture Data Disk,and have them jot notes as

    they listen to the story. Ethnocentrism:

    ; After viewing, ask students, "Is there

    anything you would like to cross off your list This term describes the attitude that one

    that you thought you knew about the culture, culture is best and that all cultures should

be compared with it. but have changed your mind about?"

    ; Have students write their summary statements

    on the handouts and share these within their Assimilation:

    groups and/or with other groups.

    The process of making the minority

    Debrief: culture resemble the dominant culture-the

    culture in power.

     ? Explain to students that they have been exploring, Examples of Ethocentrism and through video, visuals or stories, the concept of Assimilation include: culture . Have them record a personal definition of

    culture in their notebooks, based on what they know ? In the late 1800s the Canadian at this point. Ask them to think of situations where a

    cultural grouping might include people of various government believed that the best way to

    ethnic backgrounds. deal with Aboriginal peoples was to make

    them "white". They believed that this

    could be achieved if the children were ? Conclude any or all of the activities above by removed from their families and sent to discussing students' discoveries about each culture, residential schools. At these boarding about the similarities and differences of cultures, and

    schools, which were run by the federal the reasons for those similarities and differences government and the churches, Indian (e.g., geography determines many things for a culture children were forced to speak English, including food, clothing, housing, work).

    practise Christianity, learn western trades

    and give up their Indian tradition. ? Use students' ideas to lead into a discussion about Residential schools were common into the questions such as: Why might cultures be similar?

    1950s and are cited as one of the main Why might cultures be different? Does it make sense reasons that many Indian languages and that the world has many diverse cultures? Why? How traditions are in jeopardy today. does a group of people "get" a culture?

    ? Establish the following: Cultures tend to have

    similarities because all humans have similar needs

    and wants to be fulfilled. We all have a need for

    food, housing, transportation, family love, creative

    expression, entertainment, etc. Cultures differ

    because of location, geography, beliefs,

    circumstances, etc. Diversity is normal and should be

    respected by all.

    ? Explain to students that social scientists use a

    classification system to study cultures, referred to as

    cultural patterns . Tell students that they will be

    learning about the patterns that are present in all

    cultures, including their own.

    ? Explain that countries like Canada, which consist of

    groups of people from many cultures and ethnic

    backgrounds (e.g., Ukrainian, Greek, Mennonite,

    Italian, Japanese, Aboriginal, Pakistani, German,

    Chinese, etc.) are referred to as multicultural nations.

    While these cultures in Canada live much the same

    as each other because of acculturation , they have

    some variation if looked at using the seven cultural

    patterns (e.g., religion, kinship). Explain that, in a

    later unit, students will explore the multicultural

    nature of Canada.

    ? Explain that, when diverse cultures are respected

    and their ways accepted, people of many cultures can

    live in harmony. However, at times in past history,

    and in some cases today, one culture believes that it

    is superior and that others should change. This type

    of thinking is called ethnocentric . The absorption of

    one culture into another is called assimilation .

    ? Share the example described in the Teacher Notes

    and ask students to relate it to the terms

    ethnocentrism and assimilation.

Topic Two: Patterns of Culture

    Learning Objectives

    Knowledge/Content Skills/Processes Values/Attitudes

    ; Know that social scientists ; Ask questions to clarify ; Accept that all cultures

    use a system of patterns to understandings and have similarities and

    study and describe cultures. instructions. (COM, CCT) differences, and that one

    (COM) culture is not superior to ; Participate effectively as

    others. (PSVS) ; Know that all cultures have group members to make

    similarities and differences. decisions and choices. (COM, ; Recognize that the purpose

    CCT) of exploring other cultures is ; Understand that cultural

    to better appreciate and ; Listen effectively to characteristics must be

    accept cultural diversity. understand instructions. looked at within the overall

    (PSVS) context of that culture rather ; View to develop a general

    than being comparedwith the understanding of how

    norms of another culture. cultures are studied. (COM)



    Teacher Notes Assessment Suggestions

    Address any negativity and bias in a positive ? Assess students' abilities in group interaction

    manner. Make every effort not to embarrass (e.g., whether they can discuss effectively, students or draw undue attention to their negotiate to make decisions).

    behaviours in ways that could damage self-

    esteem. At the same time, continue to stress the ? Use anecdotal notes to monitor students' value of cultural diversity and adapt instruction developing acceptance and appreciation of to diverse cultures.

    deal with negativity and bias. Instruction Suggestions

    ? Review and discuss the definition of culture Patterns of Culture:

    recorded last day. Ask for questions or

    comments and provide clarification if Social scientists use a system of classification

    necessary. to study cultures. This system identifies areas of

    similarity based on peoples' needs and wants.

    The patterns are: ? Have students' view the video How Cultures

    are Studied. Prepare them for viewing by

    ; Economic explaining that, while it is not possible to know

    everything about a culture, researchers can ; Political

    ; Kinship learn a great deal about any culture by

    examining it from the perspective of seven ; Artistic

    ; Religious patterns: economic, political, kinship, artistic,

    religious, educational, and recreation and play. ; Educational

    ; Recreation and Play (leisure activities)

    ? Provide students with focus questions or a

    viewing guide for use during viewing, and

    debrief after the viewing by discussing students'


    ? Give students each a copy of "Student

    Handout #2: Patterns of Culture," or have them

    construct a similar chart in their notebooks.

    ? Instruct students to make notes to complete

    the chart as each pattern is discussed during the

    next several lessons. (Examples of the types of

    responses students might make have been

    provided on "Teacher Information Sheet #1:

    Patterns of Culture."

    Encourage students to choose cultures from ? Explain to students that each group now will around the world by referring to all parts of a select a world culture to explore throughout the

    unit. They will explore their chosen world world map (e.g., Eastern

    culture according to the seven patterns of Europe, Northern Africa, Australia, Southern

    culture listed on their handouts. Asia, Middle East, Central America, West

    Indies, Western Africa, etc .)

    ? Have students list several world cultures that

    interest them. Record these on the chalkboard

    and indicate their geographic location, or have students locate them on a globe or wall map


    ? Discuss briefly each of the cultures listed to activate students ' prior knowledge and generate interest .

    ? Divide the class into groups of four or five students. Have each group select one of the cultures suggested for study and comparison throughout the next few lessons.

    ? Give each student a copy of "Student Handout

    #3: Exploring Cultures." Explain how the group

    is to use it during the next several lessons to document the information they gather about the patterns of their chosen world culture.

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