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Spycraft

By Bernice Sanders,2014-11-04 21:45
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Secret instructons written in invisible ink. Cigarettes that fire bullets. Covert communications slipped inside dead rats. Subminature cameras hidden in ballpoint pens. If these sound like the stuff of James Bond's gadget-master Q's trade, think again. They are all real-life devices created by the CIA's Office of Technical Services. Now, in the first book ever written about this ultrasecretive department, the former director of the OTS gives us an unprecedented look at the devices and operations from the history of the CIA - including many deemed 'inappropriate for public disclosure' by the CIA just two years ago. Spycraft tells amazing life and death stories about this little-known group, much of which has never before been revealed. Against the backdrop of some of the most critical inter Published by Bantam on 2009/01/02

    ? Table of Contents ? Title Page Copyright Page Dedication Foreword Preface

    SECTION I - AT THE BEGINNING ? CHAPTER 1 - My Hair Stood on End CHAPTER 2 - We Must Be Ruthless

    SECTION II - PLAYING CATCH-UP ? CHAPTER 3 - The Penkovsky Era CHAPTER 4 - Beyond Penkovsky CHAPTER 5 - Bring in the Engineers CHAPTER 6 - Building Better Gadgets

    SECTION III - IN THE PASSING LANE ? CHAPTER 7 - Moving Through the Gap CHAPTER 8 - The Pen Is Mightier Than the Sword (and Shield) CHAPTER 9 - Fire in the Arctic CHAPTER 10 - A Dissident at Heart CHAPTER 11 - An Operation Called CKTAW

    SECTION IV - LET THE WALLS HAVE EARS ? CHAPTER 12 - Cold Beer, Cheap Hotels, and a Voltmeter CHAPTER 13 - Progress in a New Era CHAPTER 14 - The Age of Bond Arrives CHAPTER 15 - Genius Is Where You Find It

    SECTION V - PRISON, BULLET, PASSPORT, BOMB ? CHAPTER 16 - Conspicuous Fortitude, Exemplary Courage in a Cuban Jail CHAPTER 17 - War by Any Other Name CHAPTER 18 - Con Men, Fabricators, and Forgers CHAPTER 19 - Tracking Terrorist Snakes

    SECTION VI - FUNDAMENTALS OF TRADECRAFT ? CHAPTER 20 - Assessment CHAPTER 21 - Cover and Disguise CHAPTER 22 - Concealments CHAPTER 23 - Clandestine Surveillance CHAPTER 24 - Covert Communications CHAPTER 25 - Spies and the Age of Information

EPILOGUE

    Appendix A - U.S. Clandestine Services and OTS Organizational Genealogy, 1941-2008

    Appendix B - Selected Chronology of OTS

    Appendix C - Directors of OTS

    Appendix D - CIA Trailblazers from OTS

    Appendix E - Pseudonyms of CIA Officers Used

    Appendix F - Instructions to Decipher the Official Message from the CIA on page xxv

    Glossary

    Notes

    Selected Bibliography

    Acknowledgements

    Index

    About the Author

    Praise for Spycraft

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    “Stuffed with stories about chemical taggants, forged documents, physical and psychologicaldisguises, software beacons that reveal the location of a cell phone or a laptop, about long-range surveillance cameras and ivory letter-opening knives, this extraordinary, detailed,accurate book tells more about what spies really do, the risks they run, and their schemes toavoid them, than all the James Bond stories put together. Essential for any serious student ofspycraft.”

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    —David Kahn, author of The Codebreakers

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    Spycraft is the inside story of how ‘the wizards of Langley’ exploited science andtechnology to level and then dominate the battlefield in CIA’s spy wars with the KGB. As a CIAhistorian, I wrote the classified history of OTS at the request of Robert Wallace. Spycraft

    omits very few details of the classified history while adding many more fascinating accountsbased on interviews with the men and woman who helped win the Cold War.”

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    —Benjamin B. Fischer, former CIA chief historian

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    “A comprehensive and historic work that is both captivating and enlightening. Impeccablyresearched and written with authority by these masters of intelligence, Spycraft offers the

    greatest of spy stories—true tales of espionage that are often more compelling than ourfavorite movie spy thrillers.”

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    —Danny Biederman, author of The Incredible World of SPY-Fi

    ; writer/director, Hollywood SpyTek; executive director, SPY-Fi Archives

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    “Reliable, readable, indeed often fascinating account of the CIA’s use of high-tech gadgetsand machines to acquire secrets overseas. A must for the intelligence library, as well as foranyone interested in the security of the United States.”

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    —Loch K. Johnson, Regents Professor, University of Georgia, and senior editor of the

    Intelligence and National Securityinternational journal

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    “A classic and no one who pretends to know anything about intelligence operations can affordnot to read it.”

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—James F. Morris, Major U.S. Army (Ret.), author of War Story and The Devil’s Secret Name

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    “Aptly describes the history of OTS and the many exciting, important, and at times dangerouswork of OTS officers who work hand-in-hand with Agency operations officers in the clandestineworld of espionage. This is an excellent book that often reads like a spy novel. All the betterbecause it is true!”

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—Mike Howard, general manager, Microsoft Global Security, twenty-three-year CIA veteran

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    “Will long stand as the definitive reference on CIA spycraft. Names, dates, and details ofadvanced technical gadgetry, collection operations, covert action, and even organizationalinfighting—it’s all here. Forget James Bond’s famous ‘Q’ and Hollywood; this is the mostremarkable and revealing book ever published about the history and technology of spying in theCold War through today’s War on Terrorism.”

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    —Peter Earnest, executive director, International Spy Museum

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    “A fascinating study of CIA espionage operations.”

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    —Jeffrey T. Richelson, author of The Wizards of Langley:

    Inside the CIA’s Directorate of Science and Technology

    ? ? “A significant and heretofore neglected slice of the CIA’s sixty-year ‘story.’” ? ? —David M. Barrett, author of The CIA and Congress:

    The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy ? ALSO BY (OR CO-AUTHORED WITH) H. KEITH MELTON ? Ultimate Spy ? ? U.S. Government Guide to Surviving Terrorism: Compiled from Official U.S. Government Documents ? ? Spy’s Guide: Office Espionage ? ? The Ultimate Spy Book ? ? CIA Special Weapons and Equipment: Spy Devices of the Cold War ? ? OSS Special Weapons and Equipment: Spy Devices of World War II ? ? Clandestine Warfare: Weapons and Equipment of the SOE and OSS ? ? ALSO BY ROBERT WALLACE ? ? Nine from the Ninth ?

DUTTON

    Published by Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A.

    Penguin Group (Canada), 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700, Toronto, Ontario M4P 2Y3, Canada (adivision of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.); Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL,England; Penguin Ireland, 25 St Stephen’s Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of PenguinBooks Ltd); Penguin Group (Australia), 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124,Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd); Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi—110 017, India; Penguin Group (NZ), 67 ApolloDrive, Rosedale, North Shore 0632, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd); PenguinBooks (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa

    Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England

    Published by Dutton, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

First printing, June 2008

    Copyright ? 2008 by Robert Wallace, H. Keith Melton, and Henry R. Schlesinger

    All rights reserved

    Photos on page 449; first insert, page 2 (bottom): courtesy of the CIA Museum. First insert,

    Studies in Intelligence. All otherpage 10 (top): courtesy of the Central Intelligence Agency,

    images provided by the Melton Archive.

REGISTERED TRADEMARK — MARCA REGISTRADA

    LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA

Wallace, Robert.

    Spycraft: the secret history of the CIA’s spytechs from communism to Al-Qaeda / Robert Wallace and H. Keith Melton with Henry R. Schlesinger.

    p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index.

    Directorate of Science and Technology—History. 2. Intelligence service—United States. I. Melton, H. Keith (Harold Keith), 1944- II. Schlesinger, Henry R. III. Title. JK468.I6W35 2008 327.1273—dc22 2007046734

    Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or byany means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the priorwritten permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.

    The scanning, uploading, and distribution of this book via the Internet or via any other meanswithout the permission of the publisher is illegal and punishable by law. Please purchase onlyauthorized electronic editions, and do not participate in or encourage electronic piracy ofcopyrighted materials. Your support of the author’s rights is appreciated.

    While the author has made every effort to provide accurate telephone numbers and Internetaddresses at the time of publication, neither the publisher nor the author assumes anyresponsibility for errors, or for changes that occur after publication. Further, the publisherdoes not have any control over and does not assume any responsibility for author or third-partyWeb sites or their content.

http://us.penguingroup.com

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     For the families of TSS, TSD, and OTS

     who served their country with patience,courage, and honor through quiet,unheralded support of the Spytechs

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    Office of Technical Service crest, 2001

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Foreword

     GEORGE J. TENETby

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    Director, Central Intelligence

    1997-2004

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    Minutes before I was to deliver the keynote speech at CIA Headquarters recognizing the fiftiethanniversary of the Office of Technical Service (OTS) on September 7, 2001, I was unavoidablycalled away to a meeting downtown. What I had prepared to say to the several hundred OTSofficers gathered that morning would seem prescient ninety-six hours later when al-Qaeda struckthe American homeland. Those words remain appropriate today as our nation confronts terrorismon every continent. For five decades, OTS officers and their wondrous devices had played avital role in virtually every major CIA clandestine operation. In the words of Jim Pavitt, ourDeputy Director for Operations during my tenure, OTS was the “technical problem solver forwhat appears impossible.”

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    CIA’s Office of Technical Service was established in 1951 at the beginning of the Cold War tomeet a threat very different from the one America faces today. Throughout the next fifty years,OTS fashioned a history of adapting brilliantly to the challenge of applying new technology tothe intelligence needs of each era. Whether CIA operations required an ultraminiature camera, abattery the size of a fingernail, or travel documents with unique inks and printing, OTS becamethe organization that did not just make magic, it made magic on demand.

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    In 1951, the future of the United States and Western democracy was confronted by an ideology ofadvancing communism sponsored by a nuclear-armed Soviet Union. In those uncertain times,leaders of the four-year-old CIA, DCI Walter Bedell Smith, his deputy Allen Dulles, and apromising operations officer, Richard Helms, envisioned technology as the means to secure adecisive intelligence advantage over the Soviet Union and its client states. Drawing on theircollective World War II experiences in the Office of Strategic Services, they concluded thatthe best operations were a partnership between technical specialists and operations officers.The concept they enacted was simple and brilliant—CIA would apply the full force of America’stechnological ingenuity, whether sponsored by government or industry, to solve the problems ofclandestine operations. From that idea, the Technical Services Staff emerged and its successesbecame legendary.

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    Now some of the previously untold stories of the impact on our intelligence history by thisremarkable collection of people and technology can be told. Every CIA director confronts thetension between secrecy and the American public’s right to know what its government is doing.Secrets are the necessary currency of the intelligence profession and protection ofconfidential sources and special methods is a solemn duty of every CIA officer. Regrettably,there have been instances when secrecy was invoked to deny knowledge of information that haslong since lost sensitivity but is vital for public understanding and consideration. Suchmisuse of secrecy can result in flawed policy decisions, wild speculation about the CIA’sactivities, and a misleading historical record. For the CIA to maintain the public trust,responsible and accurate presentation of information on intelligence subjects is both wise andnecessary.

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