授课 授课 课 题 2 Lecture Chapter 13 English Dictionaries 时数 类型 教 学 To introduce and expound four types of dictionaries, their contents, scope and
目 的 characteristics, and discuss how to choose and use dictionaries.
1. Types of Dictionaries: mono-lingual & bilingual dictionaries; linguistic &
encyclopedic dictionaries, unabridged, desk and pocket dictionaries, 教 学 specialized dictionaries 重 点 2. Use of Dictionaries: choice of dictionaries, content of the dictionary, use of
教 学 Choice of appropriate dictionaries 难 点
主1. Development of English Dictionaries 要2. Types of Dictionaries: mono-lingual & bilingual dictionaries; linguistic & ；
encyclopedic dictionaries, unabridged, desk and pocket dictionaries, specialized 知
识dictionaries ？3. Use of Dictionaries: choice of dictionaries, content of the dictionary, use of the 语
Teaching Materials: Chapter 13 附 记
Teaching Steps: 或
Step 1 Warming-up activities 教学说明
Step 2 Presentation
I. Definition of Dictionary 教 It is a book which represents in alphabetic order the words of the English
language, with information as to its spelling, pronunciation, meaning and its 学 etymology.
过 II. The development of dictionaries
1. Origin: began in Anglo-Saxon times, printed in Latin
2. First English dictionaries: appeared in the 17th century; 程
defined “hard words” in terms of other English words; (Why?)
trying to convert English into a hybrid language mainly of Latin, with some ；
Greek and French words 学
Robert Cawdrey: Table Alphabetical of Hard Words (1604) 时
Henry Cockeram: The English Dictionary (1623) 分
Three parts: 配
hard words with definition in simple language ？
ordinary, vulgar words with elegant equivalents
names of mythological heroes, various flora and fauna
3. Modern English Dictionary
第2页 1) Nathaniel Bailey’s dictionary (1721):
A Universal Etymological English Dictionary
A new emphasis on the origins of words; attempt to include all the words in the
language (40,000 words); incorporated into his book many features of
modern dictionary: current usage, etymology, syllabification, correct 教
pronunciation; served as a model
2) Samuel Johnson: A Dictionary of the English Language (1755) 学
The 18th century was an age of dictionaries and the encyclopedic and
lexicographical tendencies of the time received their fullest expression in this 过
book; Identified as a matter of national pride and defense, a symbol of British
individualism and strength 程
his method not substantially changed; a paradigm for all lexicographers since ；Wheatley’s summary: 学a. the first to be considered as a standard; 时b. the meaning of words fully illustrated by well- selected authorities; 分c. full and clear definitions, with illustration of the meanings 配 3) Noah Webster: An American Dictionary of the English Language ？ Reason? the American language was changing from that of the British: new words, new meanings for old words, different pronunciations, and new usages
70,000 entries; many words of American origin; illustrative quotations of Americans; Changed American spelling
A great success: Webster is synonymous for dictionary
4) The Oxford English Dictionary
Early name: A New English Dictionary On Historical Principles By James A. H. Murray, etc
The Oxford English Dictionary, often just called the OED, is a unique source of
scholarly information on meaning, history, and pronunciation of words both past and present. It is the accepted authority on the evolution of the English
language over the last millennium.
What is the coverage of the OED?
The OED includes:
; The meaning, history, and pronunciation of over half a million words; ; The usage of words through 2.5 million quotations from a wide range of
international English language sources, from classic literature and
specialist periodicals to film scripts and cookery books;
; Etymological analysis, lists of variant spellings, and pronunciation using
the International Phonetic Alphabet;
; Words from across the English-speaking world, from North America to
South Africa, from Australia and New Zealand to the Caribbean.
one of the greatest achievements of the human intellect;
a historical dictionary, informed by the Science of historical linguistics
re-established England as the center for the language and its role in the world.
III. Types of dictionaries
1. Monolingual dictionaries vs. bilingual dictionaries
Monolingual dictionaries are written in one language, while bilingual dictionaries are written in two languages.
Bilingual dictionaries are of the two types. One is that the entries are defined and explained in the same language with translations. The other is that the
entries are defined in one language and given their foreign equivalents.
2. Linguistic and encyclopedic dictionaries
Linguistic dictionaries aim at providing linguistic information about the head
words, such as pronunciation, spelling, meaning, part of speech,…
Encyclopedic dictionaries are of the two kinds: one is encyclopedia, which aims at providing encyclopedic information about the headwords. The other is
encyclopedic dictionary, which shares the characteristics of both a linguistic
dictionary and an encyclopedia.
3. General-purpose dictionaries
Unabridged: An unabridged dictionary is compiled for general use---to look for
spelling, meaning, pronunciation, usage, etc. It is, theoretically, a complete
record of all the words in use, though in fact, it is not.
Desk: A desk dictionary is a medium-sized dictionary which usually has a vocabulary of about 50,000 to 150,000.
Pocket Dictionaries: A pocket dictionary usually contains a vocabulary of less than 50,000 words. A pocket dictionary usually provides only the information related to pronunciation and spelling.
4. Specialized dictionaries
Specialized dictionaries usually focus on one area of knowledge. They provide
detailed information in a particular subject.
IV. Use of dictionaries
1. Choice of dictionaries
The following factors should be considered:
(1) the dictionary users' level of English;
Generally speaking, a monolingual dictionary is appropriate for those
learners well above the intermediate level. For one who is below that level, a
bilingual dictionary is the proper choice.
第4页 (2) the kind of information that dictionary users want to consult a dictionary for
If a learner wants to know more background information about an event, or a
person, etc. encyclopedia is appropriate choice. If he wants to know the
language uses, a linguistic dictionary is recommended.
If the learner wants to know the detailed information in a particular discipline,
then a specialized dictionary is advisable.
If a learner simply wants to check the spelling or pronunciation of a word
occasionally, then a pocket dictionary is enough.
If the learner wants to know the meaning of technical term, or the word
indicating a plant, etc., a bilingual dictionary is preferred.
(3) the varieties of English
What is regarded as correct in one variety of English may be regarded as
wrong in another variety of English. If a learner wants to know the meaning
or the use of a word of, say, American English, he might as well consult an
(4) the date of publication
Language is in constant change, so the publication date of a dictionary is
important. When reading late modern English, you can not consult a
dictionary which was published well before late modern English period. If you
want to know the present use of a word, it is advisable you use a dictionary of
the latest publication.
2. the use of dictionary
c. parts of speech and inflected forms
e. the definition
Step 3 Exercises
备课时间; 2012 年 12月 22日