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Ancient Greece

By Ramon Hart,2014-12-02 16:27
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Ancient Greece

    Ancient Greece

    Part one : The history of Greece

    I. Predecessors of the Greeks:

    ?Cretan(克里特) and Mycenaean(迈锡尼) Culture(2600-1200 BC , Bronze Age culture/Aegean

    civilization)

    Cretan Culture The empire of King Minos

    Knossos :also known as Labyrinth(迷宫), or Knossos Palace

    ?Greek Legend on Crete

     Minotaur: symbol of brutality and danger

     Labyrinth: a common metaphor in western literatureconfusion and entrapment

     Daedalus: James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

    Mycenaean(迈锡尼) Culture

    Mycenaean culture lasts from 16BC to 12 BC,the Achaeans brought their language, their gods, and a

    monarchial form of government to Greece.

    Features of Mycenaean civilization

    ---Fortress

    --domed tombs (royal):Tomb of Clytemnestra

    The dynasty of domed tomb reaches its prosperity in Mycenaean culture.

    ---warlike (Frescoes壁画)

    ---rich in gold? Agamemnons mask

    ---the decline of Mycenaean civilization

    ?.The Greek Arrives

    --Hellenes invasion collapsed Mycenaean civilization

    ?Population growth and the establishment of colonies throughout the Mediterranean. Warship, heavy infantry , hoplites, a phalanx

    The Greco-Persian Wars , or Persian Wars

     The 5th century BC opened with events that shaped the future of Greek civilization and Western culture.

     The Persian invasions: Darius and Xerxes are defeated in Greece “I shall fight to the death. I shall put freedom before life. I shall not desert colonel or captain dead or alive, I shall

    carry out the generals commands, and I shall bury my comrades-in-arms where they fall and leave none

    unburied.

?.The Hellenistic Age(希腊化时代) (33830 BC)

    ----the battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC

    ?the empire of Alexander the Great

    --Alexander founded over seventy new cities

    ---Intermarriage; one currency; literature and arts further developed ?the empire after Alexander

    Antigonid, Ptolemies, Seleucid

    Part two: Greek religion and politics ?. Greek Religion

    Polytheism ?Mycenaen Origin ?

    Religious athletic festivals

other deities

    ---Dionysus (Bacchus), a god of wine and spiritual ectasy, who was a son of Zeus.

    --- Pan, a horned god of shepherds and folk music.

    ---Hekate, a goddess of witchcraft and crossroads..

    worship

     Olympic Games

     Pythian Games ,at Delphi

     Isthmian Games, at Corinth

    ?Worship also reflected individual independence Berlin Pergamon Altar at Pergamon Museum

    ?.Politics

    ?the city-states: small, self-governing. ?democracy: tyrannies often gave way to democracy ?constitution: over 150 different independent ones.

    The constitution of Sparta The constitution of Athens

    Loyalty& bravery& Freedom & equality Totalitarian

    Military state first Personal self-regulation

    Council and Assembly Polis

    Democracy for man Democracy for all

    Aristotles idea on politics

    Politics: Cities---quite small ~Power---soliders~Citizens--slaves

?. Society and Education

    ?War and Slavery

    ? Greek education :a healthy, moderate and sensible man. an important part of the education of a young male was his sexual relationship with an older

    man.(homosexuality)

Part three: Literature and Arts

    ?.the beginning of Greek literature. (800-700 BC) ?Epic :Homers (荷马) Iliad (伊利亚特)and Odyssey(奥德赛)

    Lyric poetry: Sapphoc.612-580 BC(萨福) I could not hope to touch the sky with my two arms. Pindar(品达) (c. 518-438 BC), was an Ancient Greek lyric poet --14 Olympian odes

    ?Drama: comedy or tragedy

    tragedy?--human suffuring ---pleasure for audience --- three unities(Aristotle):catharsis Comedy satirized issues of the day.

    Famous Tragedies :three tragedians:

    Aeschylus(埃斯库罗斯), c. 525 /524 456 /455 BC Prometheus Bound Agamemnon

    Sophocles(斯福克勒斯) c.496-406 B.C

    Euripedes(欧里庇得斯) c.484-406 B.C The Trojan Women Medea

Sophocles(斯福克勒斯) c.496-406 B.C Oedipus ,the King Antigone

    Oedipus complex Electra complex

    --his plays are more psychologically and dramatically advanced than those of Aeschylus

    One comedy writer: Aristophanes. c. 450-c.338 BC(阿里斯托芬尼斯)

    Frogs, Clouds, Wasps, and Birds

    ?Historical writing

    Herodotus(希罗多德)(484-420 BC) "Father of History" in Western culture. The Histories

    Thucydides (455-400BC)(修昔底德) father of scientific history

    ? History of the Peloponnesian War

    his strict standards of evidence-gathering and analysis in terms of cause and effect

    ?. The Arts

    ? Architecture?Temples and the golden ratio.---harmony and proportion

    Parthenon?golden ratio Pediments (三角墙)

    Columns Ionian order Doric order Corinthian order ?Sculpture Venus Discus Thrower Laocoon Group

    ?Pottery ?music

Part Four: Philosophy and Science ---reason and inquiry

    ?Socrates(469-399 B.C.)----dialectic method of inquiry,

     known as the Socratic Method

    ?Plato(428-c.347) 柏拉图---idealist philosopher Dialogues: Republic The Apology Symposium

    Theory of Forms, the definition of reality, the theory of knowledge, the definition of what is good, and

    theory of government

    ? Aristotle (384-322 BC)---Empiricist--- direct observation Ethics, Politics, Poetics, Rhetoric ---Deductive logic

    --- Tragedy: Three Unities (三一律)Catharsis ( 宣泄)

     All Athenians are Greeks.

     I am an Athenian,

     Therefore I am Greek.

     It will not work if you say:

     All Greeks have black hair.

     I have black hair

     Therefore I am a Greek.

    Contending Schools of Thought

     ---Cynics(犬儒派)

     ---the Sceptics(怀疑派)

     ---the Epicureans(伊壁鸠鲁派)

     ---the Stoics(斯多葛派)

     pp.29

    Early Greek scientists and their discoveries

     Thales of Miletus (624 BC 548 BC) predicted eclipses, measured the sun's diameter.

    excluded gods from his explanation of the world.

     Anaximander of Miletus (610 BC 547 BC) produced a sundial, a map of the known

    world and had a theory of evolution.

     Anaximenes of Miletus (c. 544 BC c. 525 BC) suggested there was condensation, and

    thought solids came about in this way.

     Pythagoras (c. 570 BC c. 490 BC) proposed that heavenly bodies were spherical

    objects.

     ---- all things were numbers.

     --- the founder of scientific mathematics .

     Heraclitus (c. 535 BC c. 475 BC) was a philosopher of importance who believed in the

    connection of opposites and constant change.

     --fire was the primary element of the universe.

     Democritus ( about 460-370 B.C.)

     --- the earliest philosophical materialist. (Atomic theory)

     Parmenides of Elea (c. 510 BC 450 BC) suggested that

     the earth was a sphere.

     Anaxagoras (c. 500 BC) suggested that the moon was like the earth, and shines with

    reflected light.

     Hippocrates of Cos (460 BC 377 BC) is considered the father of medicine

TASK:

    ?What do you think of polytheism in ancient Greek culture?

    Freedom / equality /positive/ emotional /rationalism

    ?What influence do you think the Greek political tradition have on western modern political system?

    ? Try to make a comparison of tragedies between ancient Greek culture and Chinese culture. ? Try to find out the similar period in ancient China when the contending schools of thought appeared, and make a brief introduction.

    ? What impress you most in ancient Greek culture?

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