As it is known to us that “mum” is the first word that a baby says, and with his growth, he can
speak more words and those words can form some phrases. Such as in the second picture, the boy
says “look at the sky”, when he becomes an adult, he can express himself through complicated
sentences, Just like in the third picture, the girl expresses her opinion by saying” For my part of
view….” From the progress of person to expressing himself, we can draw a conclusion that No
matter children or adults acquire the rules of the target language in the same order.
When we learn English, the second language, the order for us to acquire this language is word,
phrase, clause and sentence.
From the two examples, the first example that people acquire language through daily
communication , and the second one that people acquire target language through class
learning ,we can know that no matter where , when , and how people are learning the target
language, the order of acquiring is the same. And this is the natural order hypothesis claims.
However, Krashen can not explain with evidence what this order is.
Krashen uses the input hypothesis to answer the question of how people acquire languages and to
explain the relationship between language input and language acquisition. Does any body know
How people acquire language? I will give you an example to show the answer.
As you see, the teacher is teaching her students how to do multiplication. First, the teacher will tell
her students that 1 multiply 1 is 1. This is first level, we call it level I. And then the teacher will write down 1multiply 2, and tell students that 1 multiply 2 equals 1multiply 1plause 1, and students according to their former knowledge, their can deduce that 1muliply 2 is 2. This is level I+1. Then teacher let her students to make out the result of 1multply 3, this is level i+2. According to the accumulation of the knowledge, students can draw the conclusion that 1 multiply n is n. and this can be regarded as level I +n
Let’s come back the question that how people acquire language? Can anybody know the
answer? Yes, from the example we can know that Language is acquired by people’s
comprehension of input that is slightly beyond their current level.
According to Krashen, the only way for people to acquire language is by
understanding messages or receiving comprehensible input.
Now, according to our experience, please think about the question What can provide
clues for people’s comprehension?
Yes, Situation, context, facial expressions, gestures, Etc.
Krashen explains the input hypothesis from four aspects:
1. The input hypothesis and acquisition are concerned, and has nothing to do with
2. Learners through understanding the in hand language structure to acquaint new
3. Only enough input language is understood, can effective communication be realized,
and can "i+ 1" process be realized spontaneously. filter" 4. Speaking ability is produced naturally, rather than being taught. So in Krashen’s opinion,
it is not necessary for the language teachers to teach the next structure deliberately along means
the natural order.
OK, Let’s turn to the next hypothesis, the affective filter hypothesis.
Krashen uses this concept to illustrate the relationship between emotional factors and the of
speed of second language acquisition
What is the emotional mean? "Emotional" refers to learners' motivation, attitude and psycho
other related factors. These factors are the main elements that cause the individual
differences for learners in language acquisition. logical
“Affective filter" means a kind of psychological barriers to stop learners from making full
use of acceptable comprehensible input to acquire language. The positive psychology can barrier
help learners to accept more input; negative psychology will hinder the learner’s
absorption of input. s
I think most of you have heard the story of three pigs. That story tells us how three lovely
pigs built their houses. Today, I will tell you a story about three construction workers, and to stop
after the story, please tell me what factor do you think it is to make these three
workers different in their life? learner
That is the motivation, self-confidence and anxiety are the three affective factors
which determine the degree of success in second language acquisition. Genreally s from
speaking, learners with high motivation, self-confidence, and low anxiety will get
more input, makin
On the basis of the model of monitoring, krashen puts forward the six criteria of the evaluation of
teaching materials and teaching method use of
1. The comprehensible input is ideal input.
2. Comprehensible input should be able to cause students interested in or with the accept
student's requirements related.
3. Do not follow the grammar order. able
4. The Input should be adequate.
5. Teachers should not make students in a against state. compr
6. Teach students some practical methods of communication. ehensi