monitor theory

By Josephine Bradley,2014-12-02 16:27
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monitor theory

    As it is known to us that mum is the first word that a baby says, and with his growth, he can

    speak more words and those words can form some phrases. Such as in the second picture, the boy

    says look at the sky, when he becomes an adult, he can express himself through complicated

    sentences, Just like in the third picture, the girl expresses her opinion by saying For my part of

    view. From the progress of person to expressing himself, we can draw a conclusion that No

    matter children or adults acquire the rules of the target language in the same order.

    When we learn English, the second language, the order for us to acquire this language is word,

    phrase, clause and sentence.

    From the two examples, the first example that people acquire language through daily

    communication , and the second one that people acquire target language through class

    learning ,we can know that no matter where , when , and how people are learning the target

    language, the order of acquiring is the same. And this is the natural order hypothesis claims.

    However, Krashen can not explain with evidence what this order is.

    Input Hypothesis(语言输入假说)

    Krashen uses the input hypothesis to answer the question of how people acquire languages and to

    explain the relationship between language input and language acquisition. Does any body know

    How people acquire language? I will give you an example to show the answer.

    As you see, the teacher is teaching her students how to do multiplication. First, the teacher will tell

    her students that 1 multiply 1 is 1. This is first level, we call it level I. And then the teacher will write down 1multiply 2, and tell students that 1 multiply 2 equals 1multiply 1plause 1, and students according to their former knowledge, their can deduce that 1muliply 2 is 2. This is level I+1. Then teacher let her students to make out the result of 1multply 3, this is level i+2. According to the accumulation of the knowledge, students can draw the conclusion that 1 multiply n is n. and this can be regarded as level I +n

    Lets come back the question that how people acquire language? Can anybody know the

    answer? Yes, from the example we can know that Language is acquired by peoples

    comprehension of input that is slightly beyond their current level.

    According to Krashen, the only way for people to acquire language is by

    understanding messages or receiving comprehensible input.

    Now, according to our experience, please think about the question What can provide

    clues for people’s comprehension?

    Yes, Situation, context, facial expressions, gestures, Etc.

    Krashen explains the input hypothesis from four aspects:

    1. The input hypothesis and acquisition are concerned, and has nothing to do with


    2. Learners through understanding the in hand language structure to acquaint new

    language structure.

    3. Only enough input language is understood, can effective communication be realized,



    and can "i+ 1" process be realized spontaneously. filter" 4. Speaking ability is produced naturally, rather than being taught. So in Krashens opinion,

    it is not necessary for the language teachers to teach the next structure deliberately along means

    the natural order.

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    OK, Lets turn to the next hypothesis, the affective filter hypothesis.

    Krashen uses this concept to illustrate the relationship between emotional factors and the of

    speed of second language acquisition

    What is the emotional mean? "Emotional" refers to learners' motivation, attitude and psycho

    other related factors. These factors are the main elements that cause the individual

    differences for learners in language acquisition. logical

    “Affective filter" means a kind of psychological barriers to stop learners from making full

    use of acceptable comprehensible input to acquire language. The positive psychology can barrier

    help learners to accept more input; negative psychology will hinder the learner’s

    absorption of input. s

    I think most of you have heard the story of three pigs. That story tells us how three lovely

    pigs built their houses. Today, I will tell you a story about three construction workers, and to stop

    after the story, please tell me what factor do you think it is to make these three

    workers different in their life? learner

    That is the motivation, self-confidence and anxiety are the three affective factors

    which determine the degree of success in second language acquisition. Genreally s from

    speaking, learners with high motivation, self-confidence, and low anxiety will get

    more input, makin

     g full

     On the basis of the model of monitoring, krashen puts forward the six criteria of the evaluation of

    teaching materials and teaching method use of

    1. The comprehensible input is ideal input.

    2. Comprehensible input should be able to cause students interested in or with the accept

    student's requirements related.

    3. Do not follow the grammar order. able

    4. The Input should be adequate.

    5. Teachers should not make students in a against state. compr

     6. Teach students some practical methods of communication. ehensi








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