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    American History Lecture Notes 2005-2006

    I. Who inhabited the Americas before us?

    a. Asians

    i. Used the land bridge about 13,000 year ago ii. Slowly migrated south and east

    iii. Formed clans and tribesmost likely traveled in family groups

    b. Great tribes of history

    i. Inuit people and Aleut

    ii. Iroquois Confederacy

    1. Mohawk

    2. Seneca

    3. Onondaga

    4. Oneida

    5. Cayuga

    iii. Lenni-Lenape

    iv. Hopi

    v. Sioux

    vi. Massasoit

    vii. Huron

    viii. Mandan

    ix. Mayans, Incas, Aztec‘s

    c. Nomadic peoples-

    i. Did not believe in land ownership

    ii. Traded greatly among tribes throughout the nation or area

    1. Inuits trading with Hopi or other WA tribes

    2. Mohave trade with the Pueblo and iii. Varied in what they survived on:

    1. Cropsbased on climate

    2. Animals---based on climate

    a. Buffalo?

    b. Elk

    c. Fish

    3. Farmers/Gatherers

    4. True Nomads?

    II. What were people in Europe doing?

    a. Religious dissent

    i. Reformation

    1. October 31, 1517 Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on the door of the

    Vatican

    2. Begins a schism in the Church (only Catholic at the time)

    3. tired of corrupt leaders

    4. called themselves Protestants (reject church authority bible is the

    authority

    5. Sick of indulgences

    ii. Papacy losing power

    iii. King of England no longer Divine after the Magna Carta in 1215

    1. Citizens have rights

    2. People seeking own freedoms and protection

    b. After the Dark Ages

    i. Feudal lords begin pushing the Muslims out ii. Trading increases and spreads throughout the known world

    iii. New farming techniques

    iv. Serfs (peasants) running to cities for jobs v. Rise of the Middle Class artisans and traders vi. Monarchs promise safety for support vii. Renaissance Begins 1300-1500‘s in south

    1. Rebirth of society

    2. Arts and science now important viii. Renaissance hits the north in the late 1500‘s

    1. new inventions

    a. printing press

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    b. Improved farming techniques

    ix. Larger nations rise upsmall city states declining

    x. Trade opens with Asia

    1. Race to find fastest route

    2. begin schools for Mariners (Spain)

    3. Open route around Africa (Cape of Good Hope) in 1488 xi. Want to spread religion also

    1. Believe non-believers are lower peoples

    2. Believe they are the divine race

    3. Send Missionaries with traders

    xii. Powers:

    1. France,

    2. Portugal

    3. Spain

    4. Netherlands

    5. England

    xiii. Africa

    1. formed groups or clans like the Native Americans

    2. Groups based on lineage are very important to the family

    3. Helped ward of being taken into slavery

    4. Helped form new groups if taken

    5. 1500‘s slave trade really begins to boom with the Kingdom of Benin

    xiv. Explorers

    c. Explorers

    i. Columbusgiven credit for discovering the US, but never got further North than Cuba

    1492

    1. Never said publicly that he discovered a new world Believed he was in

    India

    a. Even took home Indians to present to the king

    b. Most ―Indians‖ welcoming to his group

    2. Some accounts say he may have known, but refused to admit it

    3. Died in depression as he lost standing in eyes of his people ii. Amerigo Vespucciname given to the Americas

    1. one of the first to realize it was a New World not India

    2. Visits along the coasts of South AmericaGets to the Bahamas

    3. 1507 first map of the new world printed in response to his accounts iii. Leif Ericson-Viking that explored the North did not bring settlements iv. Brought back food goods, gold, crafts

    v. Gave Disease, Drugs (alcohol), and domestic animals vi. These gifts decimated Indian populations

    d. Settlements for further exploration

    i. Spain and Portugal begin labor plantations to grow high money crops and get other goods

    ii. Try to use Native peoples, but disease and change of custom forced Europeans to try

    African slavesThis changed the scope of many lives and changed societal beliefs iii. 9-11 million people captured and enslaved

    III. What‘s next? The move to colonization

    a. Aug 28, 1565Spanish establish a colony in Northeastern FloridaColony of St. Augustine

    b. Expanding knowledge of the area--Spanish

    i. Ponce de Leon names Florida in 1513

    ii. Balboa gets to the Pacific in 1513

    iii. 1519 Magellan‘s crew makes it around the world

    iv. 1519 Hernan Cortez sent to conquer Cuba-known as a Conquistador

    1. Completed this by 1521

    2. Took Tenochtitlan

    3. Aztecs

    v. Pizzarro conquers the Incasknown as a Conquistador

    vi. Spanish beginning pillaging the Mexico, Central and South America

    1. mine silver and gold

    2. established farms and ranches

    3. introduce horses to the new world

    4. Used Native and African Slave labor

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5. did not force Natives to leave forced them to work in the encomienda

    systemNatives forced to work for the gain of a Spaniard 6. Race that rises is the Mestizo

    7. Move north in search of the 7 golden cities a. De Vaca, Coronado, de Soto

    b. Moved as far North as Kansas

    8. Spanish Immigrants:

    a. Why did they not settle in the present day US b. Not rich in fast money turn over resources

    vii. Who came after explorers and Conquistadors?

    1. Missionaries

    2. Spanish Catholic missionaries moved in droves to spread Catholicism to

    the new world

    3. Native Americans easily convert to Catholicism

    viii. Resistance to Spanish

    1. Peoples like the Pueblo revolted

    2. Led by Pope‘ the people overcame the decimation of disease to push the

    Spanish out of Sante Fe.

    c. English

    i. Settle further north

    ii. Led my John Cabotlanded in Newfoundland--probably

    iii. Searching for the Northwest passage

    iv. Sir Francis Drakemakes it around the world including San Francisco Bay

    v. Expand into colonies

    1. Want new markets

    2. Want to depopulate

    3. First settlement returned home

    4. Roanoke--

    a. People disappeared

    b. Second failure for Sir Walter Raleigh

    5. 1606 Finally Establish a colony at Jamestown a. Really a stock company approved by the King b. Named for James I

    c. Also almost failed

    i. Unused to hard labor

    ii. Arrived in the fall

    iii. Swampy area

    iv. Suffered slowly for 10 years

    v. Survived probably because of Indian assistance

    vi. Realize the success Tobacco can bring

    1. English going crazy over it

    2. plant along the waterways for quick path to

    market

    vii. Becomes a Royal Colony

    viii. Establish own governmentbecomes part of the House of

    Burgesses

    ix. Need laborers so they begin offering land or indentured

    servitude

    1. Whose land is it to give?

    x. 100,000-150,000 servants come to the US in the 1600s

    1. Black

    2. White

    3. Poor

    4. Single

    5. Young adults

    6. African groups smaller than in the south Why d. Begin pushing Natives Westclashes occurring as settlers expand

    i. English seek support from government

    ii. Upset that they are governed by England, but not protected

    iii. Bacon‘s rebellion—1676 (coincidence

    1. citizens revolt

    2. Begin a battle with Natives

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    3. Attacked and burned Jamestown

    e. Religious schisms force people west

    i. Plymouth Colony-wanted to get away from Catholicism

    ii. Form the Puritans group

    iii. Sign the Mayflower Compact while aboard ship to

    guarantee everyone would abide by the laws

    d. French in NA

    i. Begin searching in the North

    ii. Search for the Northwest passage

    iii. Claim the land as New Francesome overlapped

    iv. Tap into the fur trade

    v. Established along the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence vi. 1523-late 1600‘s

    IV. Who settled where for the English? Why?

    a. New England Colonies:

    i. No religious tolerance

    ii. Wanted the same beliefs

    iii. John Winthrop City on the Hill speech

    1. ―We must together in this work, as one man. We must make others‘

    condition our own. For we must consider that we shall be as a city on the

    hill. The eyes of all people are on us.‖

    2. Wanted to be a Beacon for righteousness in the world iv. Very successful Colonies

    1. Longer life expectancies

    v. Did have religious issues

    1. Salem Witch trials

    a. Feared change

    b. Plymouth and MA colonies combining

    2. excommunication of many for not being pure

    3. Women of educational background thought of as bad

    4. 1635 Roger Williams (Separatist) forced out establishes settlement in

    Providence Rhode Islandestablish own colony

    vi. After Massachusetts began filling up people moved to the areas of Maine (part of MA),

    New Hampshire, Connecticut

    vii. Problems

    1. King Philip‘s War 1675

    a. Metacom (Indian leader) unites his people in Rhode Island to Maine

    b. Try to push out the English

    c. Indians fail lose 4000 to 600 settlers

    d. Takes a while to recover 1700

    e. Indians suffering from a Small Pox epidemic

    b. Middle Colonies

    i. NY, NJ, PA DE

    ii. Settlers from varying nations

    iii. Based upon trade

    1. fur

    2. crops

    iv. Heterogeneous

    v. Sought religious freedoms

    1. home to first synagogue

    2. spoke 18 languages

    vi. Very prosperous

    1. English took it from the Dutch because of this

    2. Renamed New Amsterdam to New York after the Duke of York, King

    Charles II‘s cousin

    vii. Proprietary colonies

    1. Colonies granted by ruler to an individual or group whereby they could

    rule as they wished.

    viii. Pennsylvania was the ‗Holy Experiment‘

    1. many were Quakers

    2. Peace seeking people

    3. fled English persecution

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    c. Southern Colonies

    i. MD, NC, SC, GA

    ii. Began as Proprietary colonies

    iii. MDsettled first by Catholics later taken over by Puritans so passed religious toleration

    acts

    iv. Did not tolerate non-Christians

    v. Carolinas-- given as a gift by the king to nobleman in 1663

    1. divided in 1691

    2. became Royal colonies in the 1721 (SC), 1729(NC)

    3. grew large amounts of tobacco

    vi. Georgia:

    1. Originally let by trustees

    2. Haven for

    a. Criminals

    b. Debtors

    3. led by James Oglethorpe

    4. No Catholics

    5. No Slavery

    6. No Liquor

    7. 1752 Royal Colony

    V. What‘s brewing in the colonies?

    a. Birth of our famous forefathers:

    i. Ben Franklin

    ii. Sam Addams

    iii. George Washington

    iv. Thomas Jefferson

    v. Alexander Hamilton

    vi. John Adams

    vii. James Madison

    b. Economic system of Mercantilism

    i. Countries should have as much gold and silver as possible to be wealthy

    ii. If bullion is not available a strong balance of trade is sought iii. Mercantilists should have numerous colonies and let them trade only with the Motherland.

    iv. Thus: Colonists would make the cotton ship it to Britain to have it sewn then buy the

    cloth again

    v. Series of Navigation Acts

    1. Forced colonists to trade only with England with products like sugar,

    tobacco and cotton

    2. To trade to others must pay a duty

    3. Colonists forced to use English ships for trade vi. Realizing the colonists were acquiring too much freedom

    1. King James II tried to tighten constraints by abolishing colonial

    legislaturesCalled it the Dominion of NE (king sole control)

    2. Colonists upset at end to government

    3. Governor of the Dominion Edmund Andros collects tax (without

    approval) and insists on religious tolerance

    4. Puritans very upset

    vii. 1688-89 English Monarchy changesGlorious Revolution

    1. No Bloodshed

    2. William and Mary take the crown

    3. immediately dissolve the Dominion

    viii. Governing of the Colonies

    1. Most now Royal colonies

    2. Governor appointed by King

    3. Legislatures served under the Governor

    4. formed colonial assemblies

    a. advisory council or upper house (prominent people)

    b. lower house (elected officials)

    c. Only male landowners vote

    d. People getting more and more power

    e. Setting salaries

    f. Dealt with defense

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    5. Why so much freedom for Colonists? a. Traditionally strong local gov‘t

    b. Too far away

    i. No money

    ii. At war

    iii. Too much territory

    c. Salutary Neglect

    i. Britton‘s realized that they were doing fine independently

    ii. It was beneficial to sit back and reap rewards 6. Varied colonies:

    a. South

    i. Agriculture

    1. tobacco, rice

    2. lots of farms few towns

    3. Lots of laborSlaves

    ii. By 1750Africans make up 40% of population b. Middle

    i. Farming and Commerce

    ii. Grew wheat, barley, and rye

    iii. NYC and Philly top cities

    1. had merchants, traders, and craftsman

    iv. Increasingly diverse population

    1. UK, Netherlands, Scotland, French, Ireland,

    Germany, Sweden, Portugal, Wales, Africa,

    Native Indians

    c. NE

    i. Very Commercial

    ii. Developed Triangular trade

    1. Trade goods from England with the West Indies

    bring back others

    iii. Small self-sufficient farms

    ix. Life in the Colonies

    1. Opportunities abound for White men a. Land available

    b. Jobs available

    i. Printers

    ii. Artisans

    iii. Builders

    2. Rarely educated

    3. Women maintained the home and taught their children 4. Colleges for the religious

    5. Africans

    a. Here by force

    b. Counted as property

    6. Slavery-

    a. Slaves farmed, served as dock workers, were skilled artisans

    b. Early on not that prominent in the colonies until the invention of One

    machine

    c. Cotton Gin

    d. As numbers grow slave laws increased e. Result

    i. Stono Rebellion

    1. killed 20 whites

    2. Caught and killed

    ii. Best Resistancefeigned dumbness

    1. broken machinery

    2. illness

    3. language barriers

    4. hiding

    7. Colonies growing greatly- begin moving West a. Tensions with Native Americans and French b. French and colonist clash in 1752

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    i. French attack English trading post

    ii. Escalation leading to something

    c. Religious tensions

    i. 1730‘s-1740‘s Religious Revival GREAT AWAKENING

    ii. Led by Jonathan Edwards

    1. preached a return to God‘s teaching and reminder

    of his power

    2. Sinners in

    3. the Hands of an Angry God

    iii. Colonial Evangelists

    iv. Primarily traveling ministers

    v. Mostly women attending

    vi. Preaching individual faithIndividual powers (democracy)

    VI. The Road to Independence

    a. Encroachment west

    i. French and Natives very upset with colonial expansion

    ii. Overlapping claims

    1. French moved inland far earlier than the English 2. English just move it

    iii. English attack French forts along the Ohio River Valley1754

    1. English thrown back

    2. Starts French and Indian War (Seven Years War)Fight in Europe 1755

    a. Simply title as that is who they were fighting 3. June 1754 Colonists meet unite against French and Indians a. Albany Plan of the Union

    b. Rejected the plan, but serves as a great lesson for later

    iv. War going poorly for British until 1858

    1. Battle of Ticonderoga tha. July 8 1958Battle around Lake Champlain

    b. Outmaneuver the French trap them on the edge of the bank 2. British begin pushing French and Indians North to New France (Canada) 3. 1759 British invade New France

    4. capture Quebec

    a. 13 Sept 1759

    b. turning point in war

    5. Iroquois realize French are losing and join the English 6. Continue fighting off and on until Treaty of Paris 1763 a. Signed by 10 February 1763

    b. France gives up claims to New France and claims east of the

    Mississippi

    c. Spain gives up Florida for Cuba

    d. Spain gets Louisiana West except France retains New Orleans and

    coast of Newfoundland

    e. Spain gets Philippines ??????

    7. Though a Win for England, this hurt relations with the colonists a. Colonists begin having to pay for the war

    b. England clamping down on freedoms

    i. Believed needed more respect and effort from colonists as

    they fought to protect them

    ii. Colonists wanted Colonial officers (British say this is

    treason)

    iii. Colonists not treated as equals, but forced to pay for war

    iv. Colonists want to expand without UK influence

    v. Problems with Natives

    1. War fought between Europe, but land taken from them 2. Colonists want to expand as France is gone

    3. Natives rebel

    a. Pontiacs Rebellion

    b. King George III‘s proclamation 1763

    i. Laid the western Appalachians as the farthest point

    colonists were allowed

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    ii. Did not last long as treaties negotiated with Cherokee and

    Iroquois to give up Ohio Region

    vi. Pay for War:

    1. Huge debt forces Britain to make colonists pay 2. Sugar Act of 1764

    a. Needed incomeproposed as a balance of trade

    b. Smugglers now tried in British courts

    c. Judges receive commission for all illegal cargoes and fines

    i. Find smugglers guilty

    3. Quartering Act of 1765

    a. Must provide housing and supplies to British troops in America b. Most colonists annoyed, but ok with this

    4. Stamp Act of 1765March

    a. Tax instilled on newspapers, legal documents, other printed materials

    b. Colonists enraged as this was the first time colonist were paying just

    to raise money

    c. No chance to negotiate this

    d. Oct 1765 Stamp Act Congress meets

    i. Led by James Otis

    ii. PleaNo taxation without representationNo delegates to

    Parliament

    iii. Organize a boycott of British Goods

    iv. Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty

    1. enforce boycott by traveling around e. Stamp enforcers tarred and featheredmost flee or resign

    f. Act repealed in March of 1766

    5. Declaratory Act

    a. Parliament can do what they want

    6. Townshend Acts--1767

    a. Suspended the NY assembly who were angry with the quartering act

    b. Reorganized the customs service

    i. Established a Board of Customs Commissioners--Boston

    ii. Increased assistance to search aboard ships

    iii. Added new Admiralty courtsBoston, Philadelphia,

    Charleston

    c. Duties on glass, tea, paper, lead and paint d. Trade duties like taxescolonists upset

    e. Tax without consent to pay leaders not of their choice f. March 5 1770Mob storms Bostonand British troops station

    Boston Massacre

    i. 5 people dead

    ii. Revolutionaries use this to bring colonies together g. Repealed in 1770except for Tea

    7. Colonists uniting-

    a. Sam Adams, James Otis, John Hancock,

    b. Form the Committee of Correspondence

    c. Begin writing negatively about the crown and Britain 8. May 1773Tea Act-

    a. No new tax

    b. British East India floundering financially c. Gives them a tax break

    d. They Can sell tea cheaply

    e. Colonial marketers upset at unfair practiceeven though they are

    smuggling in goods

    f. This will lead to the Boston Tea Party

    i. December 13, 1773

    ii. Throw cargo hold into the sea

    iii. $10,000 lbs of tea

    9. British pass the Coercive Acts 1774

    a. Known as the Intolerable acts

    b. Boston Port Act

    i. Boston harbor closed until compensation was made to the

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    ii. British East India Comp,

    iii. Customs agents and

    iv. George III was convinced they would behave

    c. Massachusetts Quartering act

    i. Massachusetts assembly disbanded and selected by General

    Gage

    ii. Governor appoints all others

    iii. No town meetings without Royal consent

    iv. No elections of freeholder

    d. Administrative Justice Act

    i. Movement of trials

    ii. Colonists incensed as they could not get a fair trial in

    London

    e. Quartering Act

    i. All troops must have station

    ii. Room, Board, and everything else provided

    vii. Colonial Action

    1. Committees of Correspondence meetFirst Continental Congress

    2. Sept 5, 1774

    3. Every Colony present but GA

    4. Boycott English goods

    5. called people to arms

    6. plea to King for Representation

    7. His response:

    a. Colonies rebelling must be put down

    8. April 18, 1775

    a. 600 British troops march to Concord MA to take over Patriot

    weapons Cache

    b. Freedom Riders dispensed to alert the militia

    i. Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott

    c. 70 Militia meet the Red Coats in Lexington (east of Concord)

    d. Known as the Minutemen

    e. 8 Americans lie dead 10 wounded

    f. British get most of the cache

    g. Return to Boston in victory, but much cost

    h. 150 dead or wounded

    i. The Revolutionary War began

    9. What lead to this:

    a. Printings:

    i. Common Sense PapersThomas Paine February 14 1776

    Perhaps the sentiments contained in the following pages, are not yet sufficiently fashionable to procure them general favor; a long habit of not thinking a thing wrong, gives it a superficial appearance of being right, and raises at first a formidable outcry in defence of custom. But tumult soon subsides. Time makes more converts than reason. As a long and violent abuse of power is generally the means of calling the right of it in question, (and in matters too which might never have been thought of, had not the sufferers been aggravated into the inquiry,) and as the king of England hath undertaken in his own right, to support the parliament in what he calls theirs, and as the good people of this country are grievously oppressed by the combination, they have an undoubted privilege to inquire into the pretensions of both, and equally to reject the usurpations of either.

    In the following sheets, the author hath studiously avoided every thing which is personal among ourselves. Compliments as well as censure to individuals make no part thereof. The wise and the worthy need not the triumph of a pamphlet; and those whose sentiments are injudicious or unfriendly, will cease of themselves, unless too much pains is bestowed upon their conversion.

    The cause of America is, in a great measure, the cause of all mankind. Many circumstances have, and will arise, which are not local, but universal, and through which the principles of all lovers of mankind are affected, and in the event of which, their affections are interested. The laying a country desolate with fire and sword, declaring war against the natural rights of all mankind, and extirpating the defenders thereof from the face of the earth, is the concern of every man to whom nature hath given the power of feeling; of which class, regardless of party censure, is I know it is difficult to get over local or long standing prejudices, yet if we will suffer ourselves to examine the component parts of the English constitution, we shall find them to be the base remains of two ancient tyrannies, compounded with some new republican materials.

    First. The remains of monarchical tyranny in the person of the king.

    Secondly. The remains of aristocratical tyranny in the persons of the peers.

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Thirdly. The new republican materials, in the persons of the commons, on whose virtue depends the freedom of

    England.

    The two first, by being hereditary, are independent of the people; wherefore in a constitutional sense they contribute

    nothing towards the freedom of the state.

    To say that the constitution of England is a union of three powers reciprocally checking each other, is farcical, either

    the words have no meaning, or they are flat contradictions. To say that the commons is a check upon the king, presupposes two things.

    First. That the king is not to be trusted without being looked after, or in other words, that a thirst for absolute power

    is the natural disease of monarchy.

    Secondly. That the commons, by being appointed for that purpose, are either wiser or more worthy of confidence

    than the crown.

    VII. Point of no return

    a. May 1775March 1789Second Continental Congress meets.

    b. They establish:

    i. Continental Army

    ii. Elect George Washington to command

    c. Declaration of Independence

    i. Meet To cut ties with Britain June 1776

    ii. Chose Thomas Jefferson to pen their thoughts

    iii. read from text pages 50-51

    iv. Passed on July 2 and signed on July 4

    d. Fighting:

    i. 1775

    1. Battle of Concord and Lexington

    2. Siege of Boston

    3. Patriots refuse to allow British to close of Boston like the Harbor

    4. Seize Fort Ticonderoga weapons cache

    5. Battle of Bunker Hill

    a. Patriots bombing troop holdings in Boston

    b. British slowly seize the Hills at great cost

    ii. 1776

    1. British give up Boston

    2. British push Patriots out of NYC and PA

    3. Winter of 1776 troops on verge of collapse

    4. Patriots Begin change in tactics-surprise

    a. Battle of Trenton-defeat HessiansChristmas night action

    b. Battle of Princeton

    c. Great boost in Morale

    iii. 1777

    1. British try to cut colonist off in the North divide the groups

    2. Fight Battle of Saratoga

    a. Patriots win

    b. Turning point in the war

    c. General Burgoyne surrenders his army

    3. French decide to help Patriots after this

    a. February 6, 1778-French/US alliance

    i. Provide:

    1. money,

    2. troops

    3. Navy

    4. Supplies

    iv. 1778

    1. Patriots winning in the North

    2. Switch to the South

    v. 1779

    1. British seize Savannah, GA

    vi. May 1980

    1. Charleston, SC

    vii. 1781

    1. Cornwallis sets up at Yorktown

    2. Waiting for reinforcements by sea

    3. Hamilton‘s Newburgh military actions

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